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TO THE^JlVKIVERSrrT 



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PRESENTED 

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LIBRARY 



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RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE, 



VOL. I. 



JOURNAL 




TYEBMAN AND BENNET. 



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1832. 

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JOURNAL 

OF 

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS 

BY THE 

Rev. DANIEL TYERMAN and GEORGE BENNET, Es<i. 
.'disputed from the 

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

TO VISIT THEIR VARIOUS STATIONS 

IN THE SOUTH SEA ISLANDS, CHINA, INDIA, &c.. 

BETWEEN THE TEARS 1821 AND 1829. 

COMPILED FROM ORIGINAL DOCUMI^NTS, 

BY JAMES MONTGOMERY, 

▲TJTHOR OF "THS WORU) BEFORE THE FLOOD," "THE CHRISTIAN 
PSALMIST," AND OTHER POflCS. 

IN THREE VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 



" GloriQr ye tbe name of tbe Lord God of Israel in the isles of the dea.— From tfie 
uttermoat part of th6 earth have we heard songs, even gloiy to the righteous." 

Isaiah xziv. 15, 16. 



i^rom t))e i^Crst 3iontron lEtrftfon, 

REVISED 

BT Ay AMERiaair editoil 



BOSTON :- 
Pl/BLISHED BY CROCKER AND BREWSTER, 

47 Washington Street. 

NEW YORK : JONATHAN LEAVITT, 

182 Broa<iway. 

1832. 

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PREFACE 



TO THE AMERICAN EDITION. 



Among the most signal of the moral changes characteriz- 
ing the present day, are those which have recently taken 
place in the islands of the Pacific. Ecclesiastical ^ history 
describes nothing more remarkable, since the apostolic age. 
The facts prolong the marvellous nature of these changes 
have come to us through so many channels, and from so 
many sources, that they can no longer be reasonably denied. 
From the most polluted and savage barbarism and the 
grossest paganism, whole communities have been elevated 
to an intelligent profession of Christianity, and to compara- 
tive civilization, purity, and comfort. And what renders 
the fact of this change more interesting and valuable is, that 
it affords conclusive proof of the efficacy of modem mis- 
idons, although they have not the miraculous powers with 
which the first ndds^onaries of the Christian church were 

endowed. The transformation is wholly the result of the 

A* 



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VI PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION. 

divme blessii^ upon modem missions. Until, ministers of 
the gospel visited the Pacific, th^ progress of society, in all 
the islands which have since been evangelized, was down- 
ward, and vrfth a rapidity which commerce did but accel- 
erate. Indeed, there is nothing in the history of Polynesian 
missions to countenance the maxim, so often quoted by 
theoretical men, that barbarians must be civilized before 
they can be Christianized. Such a process of melioration 
certainly was not practicable in those islands. The gospel 
was the only power that could reach the degradation of the 
inhabitants ; and the gospel did reach it, and created a taste 
and desire in the people, which nothing else could, for the 
arts and conveniences of civilized life. 

Authentic accounts of the progress of this work have 
been given to the world, firom time to time, during the fif- 
teen years past, in the journals and letters of missionaries, 
and in the official documents of missionary societies. The 
several histories of modem missions, also, which have been 
written withm this period, contain summary views, partic- 
ularly those of Lord, Winslow, and Jones. 

To satisfy the religious community, however, and exert 
the highest and best influence on public sentiment, there was 
needed a continuous and comprehensdve description of this 
whole field of triumphant missionary enterprise, frona eye- 
witnesses competent to judge and testify : and such we 



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PREFACE TO TflE AMEEICAir E9ITIQN. |U| 

now have, m the volumes of Mr. Stewart on the Sajnlwich 
Isknds, the Pdynesian Researches of Mr. Ellis, aod the 
Voyage and Travels of Messrs. Tyerman and Bonnet 

The work last named has been stereotyped by the pi^ 
lishors of the American edition — so great is their ocxifidepce 
that it will come into extensive demand. Never did trav^ 
ellers have such opportunities and facilities, as were eiyoyed 
by Me82a*s. Tyerman and Bennet, for mvestigating the state 
and prospects of missions in so maoy heathen countries. 
Never was there such a various mass of original testimony 
req^ectii^ missions, and fields for missionary enterprise, 
embodied in a single work, as there is in this. The 
whole seven years' travels of these excellent men were 
performed, also, as they were emomenced, in the exercise 
of a spirit truly benevolent ; and this trait of their characters 
appears to have continually increased in dismterestedness 
and ardor. And how conducive is such a spirit to candor 
and vimpardality, to faithfubess and truth ! The candid 
reader will perceive so much evidence of conscientious 
integrity running through these pages, that he will seldom 
be tempted to incredulity. 

The claims of science and taste were not forgotten. 
The journals of these intelligent travellers abound in 
notices of animals, birds, and fishes, in topographical delin- 



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VIU PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION. 

eations, and descriptioDS of natural scenery. But Man 
is the grand subject of their inquiries, as he ought to be — 
in his various habitations, pursuits, relations, and prospects ; 
and not a litde of what is related concerning him is in the 
attractive form of anecdote. 

This work is speciaUy commended to the attention of 
parents and guardians, as a valuable auxiliary m thair exer- 
tions to cultivate a taste for profitable reading in the yoi^th 
committed to their care. Nothing less than a circumnavi- 
gation of heaven-bom charity is described in these volumes ; 
and the accomplished Author has executed his task so well, 
that the most cultivated minds will find pleasure and advan- 
tage in their perusal. 

R. A. 

Boston, November y 1831. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The Missicmary Society,* founded on the Catholic prin- 
dple of unicMi among Christians of various denominatioQs, 
was established in the autumn of 1795. The first under- 
taking of its founders and patrons was to send the gospel 
to the islands of the Pacific Oceaaiv Accordingly, in the 
year fcdlowing, the ship DufiT, commanded by Captain 
WilscMi, sailed with twenty-nine missionaries (of whom 
several were married, and had their wives and children, with 
them) oa board, and arrived, m March 1797, at Tahiti, 
th^a, and still, by some reputribte writers, miscalled Ota- 
heite, where the greater part of the company took up their 
residence. Others were settled at St. Christina and Ton- 
gatabu. For nearly seventeen years, under many adverse 
and discouraging chx^umstances, the vrark (thus begun) 
was continued with apparently little success. It afterwards 
pleased God, in his own good time and way, to dbplay his 
power and glory among the people who there sat in dark- 
ness and the shadow ef death ; nor hath his word, since 

* Now known by the name of the Jjondan Blissionary Society! 
to distinguish it from similar institutions of later date, and which 
are confined principally to the particular bodies of Christians to 
which they are respectively attached. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



that time, ceased to grow and prevail : island after island 
has abandoned idolatry, and, while multitudes of the inhab- 
itants have professed obedience to the fai^hj many have 
given satisfactory evidence of genuine conversion. All the 
principal events contributmg towards this great change, or 
accompanying and following it, are- touched upon in the 
volumes here subiAitted to the public, with sufficient clear- 
ness, it is hoped, to render any explanations unnecessary 
in this place. 

In the year 1821, the Rev. Daniel Tyerman, of the Isle 
of Wight, and George Bennet, Esq. of Sheffield, were de- 
puted by the Parent Society to visit the various stations m 
those uttermost parts of the sea, both for the purpose of 
cheering the hea^rts and strengthening the hands of the 
missionaries, and, as representatives of the Christian com- 
munity at home, to witness «nd report what great things 
the Lord had done for the heathen there. The following 
quotations from a circular, issued by the directors, in 1820, 
will more particularly show their intentions in making the 
appointment which, at first, embraced the South Sea Islands 
only, though, in the sequel, it included the stations in the 
other quarters of the world : — " The great objects of the 
deputation will be, to make themselves thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the state of the missions, and of the islands; 
and to suggest, and, if possible, carry into efiect, such plans 
as shall appear to be requisite for the fiirtherance of the 
gospel, and for introducing among the natives the occupa- 
tions and habits of civilized life. In order to the attainment 
of these objects, it is proposed to form such arrangements 
as shall tend to the introduction of Christian churches ; the 
establishment and improvements of schools for the children 
of the missionaries and of the natives, and, eventually, of 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 

trades ; and a proper and constant attention to the cultiva- 
tion of the ground." 

These first objects of their appointment being fiilfilled, the 
deputation were subsequently instructed by *he directors to 
proceed to Java, the East Indies, &c., on a like embassy 
of good-will and fiiendly inquiry, to the numerous estab- 
lishments, insular and continental, in that quarter of the 
world, where the Society had agents, doing the work of evan- 
gelists. These additional duties having been likewise accom- 
plished, the deputation, under special circumstances, were 
authorized to survey another field of missionary labor in Mad- 
agascar, where important results might be expected fi-om 
their presence at that particular time. There, however, Mr. 
Tyerman was suddenly removed by death ; and Mr. Ben- 
net, in consequence of a political revolution in the island, 
was compelled to leave it. After visiting some of the sta- 
tions in South Afiica, he reached England in the summer 
of 1829; and, as early as arrangements could be made, 
the work now presented to the public was undertaken. 

The documents, official and private, fix)m which these 
voluipes have been composed, were of great bulk, and ex- 
ceedingly multifarious. They consisted chiefly of a journal 
kept by both members of the deputation, jointly, during 
the first two years of their travels, and a separate one by 
Mr. Tyerman, continued to nearly the day of his death. 
Mr* Bennet subsequently fiimished several interesting nar- 
ratives and other valuable contributions. These materials, 
however, were so extensive and miscellaneous, as well as so 
minute, that it became the duty of the compiler, instead of 
abridging or condensing the mass, to recompose the whole, 
in such a form as should enable him to bring forth, in 
succession, as they occurred to the travellers themselves, 



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Xn INTBOBUCTtON. 

the most striking and curious facts relative to their personal 
' sEdventures, or which came to their knowledge by the way. 
He has, therefore, trod step by step after them, confinmg 
himsdf^ as faithfiillyas pradkable, to the order of sulijects 
under the original dates, after exercising his best discretion 
in tiie use of his materials, chiefly consisting of memoranda, 
generally rou^ and unshapen-— the first thoughts, in the 
first words of the writers, s$ the time, and upcm the spot, 
recordii^ the actual impressions and feelings awakened or 
omfrmed by the things themselves. These he has en- 
deavored so to exhibit as todo ftill justice to the individuals 
whose joumak he was thus retracing, and on whose 
authority the statements derived ftom them must rest 

Throughout the whole of the first, and the early chapters 
of the second, Tolmne, great care has been taken lo priBserve 
as many personal, nalkmal, and moral traits of character, 
traditions, Aagments of history, and anecdotes, of the super-' 
stition, finrms of government, manners, customs, and prac- 
tices, of the mhaUtants of the South and N<xth Pacific 
Isdanders, as could be puMi^ied without oflfenee to decorum. 
But it must be plainly stated that the half of their abom- 
inaticms may not be told — ^however harmless, amiaMe, and 
happy they have been represented, in their former state, by 
occasbnal vkitcHrs, too many of whom bved them br their 
lio^otiousnesB, and knew little, and cared less, about the 
reddess tyranny of their chiefi, the diabolical firauds of 
their priestt^, their wars of massacre, and their unnatural 
cruelties one towards another, especially 4har nearest con* 
nectioDS. Nothing which has contributed to make a class 
(^ human beings either better or worse dian othemrise they 
would have been, and at tbe same time diffiarent from all 
others of their fellow-creatures, can be /insignificant or ub- 



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I INTRODUCTION. XUl 

-jbteresting ; and however puerile, absurd, horrible, or re- 
volting, many things here stated may be in themselves, it 
was from the apcumulation and pressure of these that soci- 
ety, through unregistered ages, took its form in the most 
fertile and beautiful regions of the Pacific. Hence the 
slightest memorial of the least iiifluential of such co-operat- 
ing causes must be of some value, and worthy of preserva- 
tion, if it add but an atom to our knowledge of human na- 
ture, essentially the* same every where, though varying in 
its aspect accordmg to external contingencies. A chapter 
would have been wanting in the liistory of our species, or 
at^ best the contents of it, collected from other sources, 
would be exceedingly deficieqt, if the authentic informa- 
tion fiimished by resident missionaries, and collected by 
the late deputation, were not now rescued from oblivion, 
and put upon record, m such publications as Mr. EUU^s 
Polynesian Researches and the following Journal. From 
the plan of the latter, it will b& found that the same topics 
are occasionally referred to again and agm ; but in each 
instance presented under new phas^, and with additional 
particulars, as the travellers obtained fiiUer and clearer 
intelligence on points which were continually the object of 
inquiry and examination. In a few years all traces of the 
former things which are now done away would have been for 
ever obliterated : the old who still remember them would be 
dead ; the rising generation, of course, are brought up in 
the knowledge of those better things which are regenerating 
society throughout all the Christianized islands. This, then, 
which would have been expedient under any circumstances, 
lias become necessary at the present time, when the gross- 
est fictions are invented, mdustriously circulated, and in 

B 



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Xir INTRODDCTION. i 

same instances eagerly received—- 4o bring the missionaries 
and their labors into contempt. 

In chapter xxxii. vol. ii. p. 217, of this work, will be 
found some mention of a visit paid by the Russian Captain 
Kotzebue to Tahiti, at a time when the deputation were 
there. There has lately been published in England what 
is called " A New Voyage Round the World," &cc. by this 
gentleman. In a section of more than a hundred pages, 
entitled " O Tahaiti,*' the writer has thought proper to as- 
sert as historical &cts things which never happened under 
the sun, and to express sentiments, concerning the mission- 
aries and their converts, which no man could entertain who 
was not under strong prejudice, if not actual delusion. 
This is not the place to expose his (errors in detail. That 
will, probably^ be done from another quarter, and by an 
abler hand ; but two or three of his misrepresentations must 
not be passed over, as they stand in direct contradiction to 
much that will be found in the following pages respecting 
the introduction of Christianity and its benign effects in the 
Society Islands. The captain says :— 

<' After many fruitless efforts, some Elnglish missicmaries 
succeeded at length, in the year 1797, in introducing what 
they called Christianity into Tahaiti, and even in gaining 
over to their doctrine king Tajo, who then governed the 
whole idand in peace and tranquiility. This conversion 
was a spark thrown into a powder magazine, and was fol- 
lowed by a fearfiil explosion. The marais were suddenly 
destroyed 4)y order of the king— « very memorial of the for- 
mer worship defaced — the new religion forcibly established^ 
and whoever would not adopt it put to death. With the 
zeal for making proselytes, the rage of tigers took possessioii 



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INTRODUCTION. XT 

of a people once so gende. Streams of blood flowed; 
whole races were exterminated; many resolutely met the 
death they preferred to the renunciation of their ancient 
faitii.'^ fac •****« KingTajo, not content with seeing, 
in the remains of his people, none but professors of the new 
faith, resolved on making conquests, that he might force it 
on the other Society Islands. He had already succeeded 
with most of them, when a young warrior, Pomareh, king 
of the little island of Tabua, took the field against him. 
What he wanted in numbers was supplied by his unexam- 
pled valor, and his superiority m the art of war. He sub- 
dued one island after another, and at last Tahaiti itself, and 
havif^ captured its fdng^ offered the zealous mm'derer of 
his svkjects as a sacrifice to their manes" — Vol. i. pp. 159 
—160. 

How much truth is diere in this strsught-forward state- 
ment } Let the reader ju(}ge. — ^There never existed such 
a personage as Kmg Tajo. Pomare the First was kmg of 
Tahiti during the early residence of the misandries in that 
island. He died in 1803, having never so much as pre- 
tended to embrace Christianity. He was succeeded in the 
sovereignty by his son, Otu ; who eventually assumed the 
name of Pomare 11. — Christianity was not received, " after 
many fruitless efforts," in 1797 ; nor till 1814 were a " pray- 
mg people " found among the inhabitants. After that time 
they ra][)idly multiplied. In the latter end of the followmg 
year, 1815, the only battle that ever took place between 
Christians and idolaters, in Tahiti, was fought, in which the 
latter were the aggressors, and, after being defeated in the 
field, were wholly subdued by the clemency of Pomare in 
sparing his vanquished enemies, a thing unheard of before 
in the exterminating wars of these islanders. Since then 



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XTl INTRODUCTION. 

neither war nor batde has been known throughout the 
whole windward group. [See Ellis's Polynesian Researches, 
vol. i. chap. X. pp. 246 to 280 ; and this Journal, vol. i. chap, 
vi. p. 1 16 to 1 18.] In the Leeward Islands, at Huahine, an 
idolatrous army of rebels yielded, without a blow, to Hautia, 
when that Christian chief offered thfem pardon and peace. 
[See this Journal, vol. i. chap. xiii. p. 203.] In Tahaa the 
idolaters, under King^Fenuapeho, were routed by Taraatoa, 
king of Raiatea, and after the conflict the lives of the prison- 
ers, including Fenuapeho himself, bemg spared, this chief 
and all his people submitted to the conqueror, who restored 
to the former his sovereignty, and to the latter their insular 
independence. [See this Journal, vol. ii. chap. xxvi. p. 
145.] The universal rejection of heathenism, and accept- 
ance of the gospel, in each of these cases, followed the mer- 
cifal use of victory by the champions of the truth. There 
are on record shocking instances of the murder of natives 
for embracing the " newi^^on," by the bigoted adherents 
of the old, but Captain Kotzll^^ may be safely challenged 
to produce one example of an indhddual being put to the 
alternative of preferring " death to the renunciation of his 
ancient faith." It rests with him also to show when^ how, 
where, and hy whmn, '^ whole races were exterminated ;" 
— certainly not in any island, whose inhabitants have been 
converted to Christianity, in the South Seas. What he 
means at page 169, by " the bloody persecution instigated 
by the missionaries, which performed the work of a deso- 
lating infection," he would find hard to explain before the 
bar of Grod or man. At each he is answerable for it. 

"The religion taught by the missionaries is not true 
Christiamty:' [Vol. i. p. 168.] If that which Captain 
Kotzebue practises be " true Christianity," assuredly that 



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INTRODUCTION. XVll 

which the missionaries teach is not. Try him by his own 
test. In an interview with the queen, he says, " She asked 
hie whether I was a Christian, and how often I prayed 
daily T^ "I merely replied, that we should be judged 
according to our actions, rather than the number of our 
prayers." [Vol. i. p. 183.] Every page of his fables and 
lucubrations, respecting the missionaries and their people, 
proves that he is not of that religion which says, " Thou 
shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor." One 
example may suffice. Vol. L p. 193, he observes, " Though 
the vice of theft has certsdnly greatly diminished among the 
Tahaitans^ they cannot always refrain from endeavormg to 
appropriate the articles they prize so highly. For instance^ 
/think, if any one of the Tahaitan ladies had found an 
opportunity of stealmg a bit of the mock-gold-lace, the 
temptation would he too great to withstand." Thus, as 
an instance of irresistible thieving propensity m " the Ta- 
haitan ladies," liethinTcs if something which did n>ot happen 
had happened, then a certain consequence would have fol- 
lowed ! What can any honest man think of " Ottd von 
Kotzebue, Post Captain m the Russian Imperial Navy, and 
Commander of the ship Predpriate ?" 

The rest of his slanders, sarcasms, and insinuations (espe- 
cially at pp. 196-7, which are fitter for a court of justice than 
of criticism), may be left, for the present, to the exposure 
which awaits them. It must be acknowledged that in these 
the renowned circumnavigator has afforded the public op- 
portunity enoiigh for jud^g of- his Christianity by his 
" actiims ;!'— one cannot help wishing, however, that he 
had left one solitary specimen of his "prayers." If he 
had, it is not uncharitable to suppose that it nught have 
begun thus : " God, I thank thee that I am not like," &c. 



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XnU . INTRODUCTION. 

The reader may fill up the form ; and^ to assist him in doing 
this, the following paragraph qaay be usefiil. It seems that, 
on a former voyage, Captain Kotzebue had introduced yams 
into Otdia, one of tjie Navigators' Islands, where, during 
his absence, they had been so success&lly cultivated that, on 
his visit there after leaving Tahiti, he was " shown a pretty 
large field very well stocked with them." He says, " The 
delightful fedings with whjch I surveyed the new planta- 
tion may be imagined, when it is recollected that these 
poor islanders, jfrom want of means of subsistence, are c<Mn- 
pelled, assuredly with heavy hearts, td murder their own 
ofispring, and that this yam alone is sufficient to remove so 
horrible a necessity. I might joyfully affirm, that, thrcvgh 
m'y imtrumentalitjify the distressed mother need no longer 
look forward to the birth of her third or fourth child with 
the dreadful c(»]sciousness that she has endured aU her 
pamsonly to deKver a sacrifice to the hand of the murderer. 
When she should clasp her child to her breast, and see her 
husband look on it with a father's tenderness, they might both 
remember Totabu,^ and the beneficent plants which he had, 
given di6m." — ^The man who had done this good deed, and 
could enjoy, by anticipation^ such a reward of it in his own 
bosom, might have been taught, by his better feelings, to 
'^ think" and speak otherwise than he has done of men, who 
have not only mtroduced firuit^ and rgots, but hea^ a^ 
flocks, mechanic arts, reading and writing, civilised mea« 
ners and domestic oomfiarts (to say nothii^ of f ^ tnie Clm»- 
tianity"), into not one but urumjf i^abds-^HPQea^ who, tMoold* 
ing to his own cOnfessibiis, hive almost banished dnadceiH 
ness, tMenii^, and profligacy, so far as their iafluanee luft 

* JtotuAiu^ in th»iri«ad-dukot. 



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readied ^'•'-Hnen; tbxm^ whose ^^ instrumaotality/' not io 
imaginalson, but in fact, thousands of modiers have been 
taught to spare all their children, instead of ^^ delivering'' 
—not the " third or the fourth " only, but three-fburths oi 
them, as soon as they were bom, as ^^ sacrifices to the hand 
of the murderer." 

To return to the main burthen of the present Journal of 
the first Missionary Voyage ever made round the world :-* 
an authority of a far higher standard in literature and morals 
than Captain Kotzebue, thus speaks of the humanizing 
efiects of the gospel : — " Even over the wild people, inhab- 
iting a country as savage as themselves, the Sun of Right- 
eousness arose with healing under his wings. Good men, 
on whom the name of saint (while not used in a supersti- 
tious sense) was justly bestowed, to whom life and thepleas^ 
ures of the world were as nothing, so they could call souls 
to Christianity, undertook, and succeeded in, the perilous 
task of enitghtening these savages. Religion, although it 
did not at first change the manners of naticms waxed old in 
baifoarism, fiuled not to introduce those institutions on which 
rest the dignity and -happiness of social life. The law of 
marriagie was established among them, and sdl the brutalizing 
evils of polygamy gave place to the consequences of a union 
which tends, most directty, to separate the human from the 
brute species. The abolition of idolatrous ceremonies took 
away many brutalizing practices ; and the gospel, like the 
grain of ihustard<«eed, grew and flourished, in noiseless 
increase, insinuating into men's hearts the blessii^ iittepa- 
raUe from its it^uence." — Sir JVaUer SaiOfs HisUmi of 
Scotland. 

All this has been literally realized in the islands of the 
South Seas, so &r as they have received Christianity. In- 



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XX INTBODUCnON. 

numerable proofe of it will appear m the foUowmg pages. 
The former and present circimistaiices of these minute por- 
tions of the inhabited globe are not less truly than poetically 
contrasted by a living writer: — 

^ Where, in the furthest deserts of the deep, 
The coral-worm its architecture vast 
Uprears, and new-made islands have their birth. 
The Paphian Venus, driven from the west, 
In Polynesian groves, long undisturb'd, 
Her shameful rites and orgies foul maintained. 
The wandering voyager, at Tahiti, found 
Another Daphne. 

On his startled ear. 
What unaccustomed sounds come from those shores, 
Charming the lone Pacific ? — ^Not the shouts 
Of war, nor maddening songs of Bacchanals ; 
But, from the rude Marae, the full-toned Psalm 
Of Christian praise. — ^A moral miracle ! 
Tahiti now enjoys the gladdening smile : 
Of Sabbaths. Savage dialects, unheard 
At Babel, or at Jewiish Pentecost, 
Now first articulate divinest sounds, 
And swell the universal Amen." 

Frcnn Tht SUtr in the East, by Josiah CoirDEE. 

May 2, 18^1. 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



CHAPTER I. 

Pais. 
The Tuscan saib, with the Missionaries on hoard. May 2, 1821 — 
Novelty of Nautical Arrangements — Whaler's Anecdote — Drop 
down the Channel — Bay of Biscay — Color of the Water — Cape 
Finisterre — Luminous Appearances in Ship's Track— Chamel 
House at Madeira — North-east Trade-wind — Sucking Fish— 
Cross the Tropic of Cancer— Flying Fishes— The Black Whale— 
The Southern Cross— Whit-Monday— A Shark caught— Exploit 
of a Tahitian — Crossing the Line — ^Booby-hirds — MaeeUan 
Clouds — ^Animals of the Deep — Spermaceti Whale — ^Marine 
Rainbows — ^The Albatross — ^Thunder, Li^tning, and Fiery Me- 
teor—A Hard Gale— Peo and Egmont Hen — Grampus — ^Falk- 
land Islands — Porpoises and Penguins — ^The Turpin — Staten 
Island — Mr. Tyerman relates a Singular Passage of his Early 
Life — " Lonff-rooted" Swells of the Ocean — jS^ubling Cape 
Hom^-Accident— Superstition of Sailors 1 

CHAPTER 11. 

Commemoration of the Sailing of the Ship Duff, with the first Mis- 
sionaries to the South Seas-^MoUymauks — ^Agitated Sea-scene — 
A Stopn — Imminent Peril and great Deliverance — ^Tropic of 
Capricorn— The " Prickly Heat "—The Gannet— War Hawk- 
Lunar Influence — Dangerous Archipelago— A Whale struck — 
The Tropic Bird — ^Planet Venus — ^Lunar Rainbow — Water- 

S touts — Sailors' Dreams — A Booby-bird taken^— RetrospectiTe 
eflections — Indications of Land — ^An unknown Island — ^Reso- 
lution, Doubtfol, Tuscan, Bimie, Chain, and other Islands — ^Ar- 
rival at Tahiti 24 

CHAPTER UI. 

Pomare's Residence— Account of a League of Pacification among 
the Natives — Strangers in Tahiti — Repararu's House— Cocoa- 
nut Water— Exotic Trees— Dress of Natives— St Luke's Gospel 
transcribed by Pomare— Visit to Fapeiti— Preparaticms for the 



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XXU CONTENTS. 

Sabbath — Singular Consequence of a Mistake in Captain Wil- 
son's Sea-reckoning — ^First Sabbath at Matavai — Prevalence <^ 
Infanticide in fonner Times — Canoe-making — Fishingr- Incident 
by which the Gospel was carried to Raiatea — Horrors of Idola- 
try — Pomare — Spirituous Liquors — Progress of Christianity at 
Raivavai— Tahitian Supper— Tabued Trees 46 

CHAPTER IV. 

Islands which have received Christianity — Language of the Na- 
tives of the Society Islands — Destruction of Idols — Domestic 
Manufactures — Presents from the King — ^Hiro, the God of 
Thieves — ^War-spear — Missionaries prepare a Code of Laws — 
Tatooing abandoned — Visit to Eimeo— Strolling Players — Public 
Service — Introduction to Pomare — Interview with Christian 
Church and Congregation — Social Meetings for Religious Im- 
provement 62 

CHAPTER V. 

Project of a Cotton Mill— Shells, &c.— Magnificent Natural Pan- 
orama — Night-scene — ^Bans of Marriage — Palma Christi, and 
other Plants — Native Martyrs — Great Marae— Arabu, Chief of 
Eimeo— Cowries, &c. — Roman Catholic Missionary — Trials of 
the first Prmichers of the Gospel here-^Roguery of the Island- 
ers formerly— :Th6ir present Character ccmtrasted — Idolatrous 
Priests — Second Interview with Pomare — ^Tatooing — Mosquitoes 
— Return to Tahiti — ^Housekeeping — Native Manners — ^Barter- 
trade ; 78 

CHAPTER VI. 

Fishing by Torch-light^Valley of Matavai— Sufierings of first 
Misdonaries— Rare Birds— Ora Tree^ &c.— BasalUc CUffi— Sim- 
ple Method of producing Fire— Traits of Tahitian Character- 
Mode of Living— Administration of the Sacrament — Diseases iji 
the Natives — Burial of a Child — Proper Names — Phosphoric 
Matches — ^Apprehensions of a Disturbance — Site for Cotton Fac- 
tory — ^American Ship in Matavai Bay — Account of a Plot once 
formed by Tahitians to seize a European Vessel— Providential 
Preservation of the Lives of Mr. Wilson and Mr. Bennet at 
Sea— The last Battle of the tost Native War , 99 

CHAPTER VII. 

Visit to Bunaauia— Maubuaa, or the Swine-owner— Man punished 
for Swearing — Return to Matavai — Coral-groves — ^King of Bora- 
bora^ Solicitude to have a Missionary — Eagerness of the People 
to obtain Boeks— Anecdote of Pomare— Vint of Captain Walker 
—-Simple Substitute for Bellows — Interview with Pomare — Sail 
to Hmeo— Examination of Candidates for Church Fellowship- 
Public Fast and Prayers for the King — Anecdote of Raiatean 
Affection towards a Missionary — Shaving Process — Singular 



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CONTENTS. XXUl 

Speeies of Crab— Native Generosity — ^Evils resulting from the 
Use of Stills— Taro-Plantation— The Hoop-Snake— A Court of 
Justice— First Burning of Idols 120 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Departure for the Leeward Islands — Huahine— Distinguished Na- 
tives — Speeches — Death of Pomare— Grounds on which the Ef- 
fects produced by Christian Missions in these Islands have been 
mikrepresented-^Last Injunctions and Dying Scene of Pomare. 184 

CHAPTER IX. 

Native Marriajre — ^IMQssionary Settlement — Gradations of Society— ^ 
Interesting visit apid Conversation — Shocking I*ractices of the 
old Idolaters — Strata — Coral-formations 146 

CHAPTER X. 

Engagements of a Week— Plan for an Insurrection — ^Native Car- 
pentry—The Bread-Fruit Tree— Aromatic Gras»— Mountain 
Prospect^The Cocoa-Nut Tree 169 

' CHAPTER XI. 

Coasting Tour round Huahine—Rockinff-stone— Hurricane by 
Night— Mahabu Harboi^-Matara — Sea-side Meal — ^Native Say- 
ings — ^Large Marae— Converted Priest of Oro— Picture of. a 
Party asleep— Converted Shark-worshipper— -A Shark Marae — 
^Accident-Bud^Yalue of a Nail 170 

CHAPTER XII. 

Lizard-god — Motley Dinner Company— Traditions— Dog Marae — 
Rock-Scenery— District of Hire, God of Thieves— Puerile Pre- 
rogative of Areois— Cascade— Fern-leaf Printinap— Memorial 
Trees planted— Columnar Rock— Comfortless Pfight of the 

^ Coasting Party— Curious Species of Lobster— Marae of Tani— 
Idol-Festival — Extensive Lagoon — Extraordinary Aoa Tree — 
Royal Bur3ring-place— Native Contributions to Missionary So- 
ciety—Gross Motions formeriy entertained concerning a Future 
State 188 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Tempestuous Weather— Case of Conscience— Rights of Fishery- 
Native Frankness— Tani's Bed— Destruction of Tani's Idol— 
Tani*s converted Priest— Ancient Forum— Fortified En^inence — 
Ludicrous Tradition— Meteoi»—Oflerinffs to Tani— End of the 
Cruise round Huahine— Astronomical Noticms of the Islanders — 
Divisions of the Day, &c.— Prompt Justice — Singular Moth- 
Terms for the Winds— Appointment of Deacons in the Church 
—Visit to Tiramano— Exotic and Naturalized Vegetables 901 



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XMJ CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

A Feeding — Wsutiing Discottrses against Apostasy — ^A Native 
Hog a rare Anima] now — ^A singular Fish — Handicrafts — Tahi- 
tian Language, and Figures of Speech-^Sugar-cane Cn^ — 
Dauntless, Ship or War — Uncommon Spider — ^Questions pro- 
posed for Consideration — Co-operation in House-buildinf — Pres- 
ents to Deputation — ^Tradition respecting the first Man and 
Woman — Noa^Mr. Tyerman and Mr. Ellis sail for Borabora — 
A Shark captured — Placid Beauty of the Sea — Arrival at Bora- 
bora — Missionary Station — Influence of Conjurers^-Visit to two 
English Vessels— Opening of a new Chapel ^ 21D 

CHAPTER XV. 

ArecMB, or Vagabonds — Custom of dispatching infirm Persons — 
Method of Negotiating respecting Peace or Wai^-Fantastic 

- Superstitipns — Marriages of Chiefs in former Times — Conversa- 
tion-meeting — Messrs. Ellis and Tyerman return to Huahin^— 
Candidates for Baptism^ — Native Numeration — Baptism adminis- 
tered — Indigenous Diseases — Animads, aboriginal and natural- 
ized r 288 

CHAPTORXVI. 

Two Yessels in the Offing— Taronarii—Projectsd Visit to the Mar^ 

?ue8as Inlands — ^Auna, Mattatore, and their Wives, set apart as 
fative Missionaries to the Marquesas — Birth of Taronarii's 
Daughter — Two Brigs — ^Embarkation for the Marquesas — ^Am- 
phibious Dexterity of the Islanders — Nocturnal Placidness of 
the Sea — Cockroaches — ^Towaihae Bay, Sandwich Inlands — ^Mot- 
ley Appearance of Natives 267 



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JOURNAL 



CHAPTER I. 

The Tuscan sails, with the Missionaries on Board, May 2, 1821 — ^Nov- 
elty of Nauticad Arrangements — Whaler's Anecdote — Drop down the 
Channel — Bay of Biscay — Color of the Water— Cape Finisterre— 
Luminous Appearances in Ship's Track — Charnel-house at Madeira 
— North-east Trade Wind — Sucking Fish — Cross the Tropic of Cancer 
—Flying Fishes— The Black Whale— The Southern Cross— Whit- 
Monday — ^A Shark caught — Exploit of a Tahitian — Crossing the Line 
— ^Booby-birds — Magellan Clouds — Animals of the Deep — Sperma- 
ceti Whale — Marine Rainbows — ^The Albatross — ^Thunder, Light- 
ning, and Fiery Meteor — ^A Hard Gale — Peo and Egmont Hen^- 
Grampus — Falkland Islands — Porpoises and Penguins — ^The Turpin 
/ — Staten Island — Mr. Tyerman relates a singular Passage of his early 
Life—" Long-footed " Swells of the Ocean — Doubling Cape Horn 
— ^Accident— Superstition of Sailors. 

The Tuscan, a South Sea whaler, of about 360 tons bur- 
then, commanded by captain Francis Stavers, was provided 
to convey us on our voyage to the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean. To Alexander Birnie, Esq. the Society which we 
represented was indebted for the grant of a free passage, not 
only to ourselves, but also to the Rev. Mr. Jones, a mission- 
ary to the Georgian Isles — his wife — Messrs. Armitage and 
Blossom, artisans — their wives — and two children belonging 
to Mr. Armitage. This act of noble liberality, on the part 
of the proprietor of the vessel, will ever be recollected by the 
directors and representatives of the London Missionary So- 
ciety with peculiar gratitude. The ship's crew consisted of 
thirty-five young and healthy men and boys, including a first, 
second, and third mate. Besides these, there was a surgeon 
on board, and a native of Tahiti, about twenty-five years of 
1 



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2 MISSIONARIES ON BOARD. 

age, who had been baptized by a missionary in that island, 
and received the name of Robert. 

All things having been prepared for our long and interest- 
ing voyage, the ship sailed firom London to Gravesend, on 
Wednesday, the 2d of May, 1821. On Saturday, the 5th, 
having parted with many friends and ministers, who accom- 
panied us to the latter place, we went on board ; the anchor 
was weighed, and, the weather being favorable, we dropped 
down the river, fiv6 Or six miles, when we cam^ to anchor 
again to wait for the next tide. On this evening, after social 
worship, in which we committed ourselves and each other to 
Him whose we are, and whom we wish to serve, we retired 
to rest for the first time on board, under circumstances 
which called for humble gratitude and heartiest praise; 
goodness and mercy surrounding us on every side. 

May 6. (Lord's day.) This forenoon we had divine ser- 
vice in the cabin. The forty-third chapter of Isaiah was 
read ; and Mr. Tyerman preached fi-om our Lord's last words : 
" Lo, I am with you alway, even to the end of the world.'* 
— Matt, xxviii. 20. In the afternoon, notwithstanding the 
hurry and uproar above from tacking, &c., we had the privi- 
lege, according to our Savior's appointment, to eat bread 
and drink wine together, in memory of his death; and we 
trust that we had fellowship in that hour with all our Chris- 
tian friends elsewhere, who were then observing the same 
blessed ordinance, or, like our female companions, (from 
sickness in their case,) providentially detained from the table 
of our common Master. 

May 7. We proceeded to the Downs, where we anchored. 
This evening, we enjoyed the pleasure of uniting in spirit, 
at a missionary prayer-meeting, with the thousands of our 
Israel, who, in different parts of the earth, at the same time 
(on the first Monday in the month) offer their fervent sup- 
plications for the universal prevalence of that glorious gospel 
which brings life and immortality to light. 

May 8. Yesterday and to-day we have been busily occu- 
pied in arranging our packages in our births and the cabin, 
so that those things which would oftenest be wanted might 
always be nearest at hand. Much and grievous inconveni- 
ence is frequently suffered by passengers from lack of a little 
foresight and good management in this respect. Being our- 
selves almost new to the sea, the effect of every thing on 
board was strange to us. The grunting of the swine, the 



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whaler's anecdote. 3 

bleating of the sheep and goats, the clamor of the ducks, the 
cackling and crowing of the fowls, but, above all, the appear- 
ance, activity and language of the sailors, could not fail to 
amuse us. The manner of heaving the lead to sound the 
depth of the water (a frequent process at this commence- 
ment of our navigation), particularly struck us. But the 
following incident may be more intelligible than a descrip- 
tion of a nautical ceremony. "Cook," says the steward, 
"milk the goat." The cook proceeds to the operation. 
Ordering one of the boys to hold the animal's horns, and 
resting the under part of his own thigh on the calf of his op- 
posite leg, he adroitly places a hind leg of the goat between 
these, and proceeds to discharge his duty with inflexible 
composure, while the poor kid stands by, with piteous looks, 
beholding the beverage provided for its silStenance thus 
recklessly taken away. 

May 10. The wind being strong, but contrary, we have 
hitherto made slow progress. To-day we had fine views of 
Hastings and Seaford, and other places near shore. Con- 
versing with the captain, who has been for many years en- 
gaged in the whale fishery, he relate the following circum- 
stance. Being once pursued by a whale, which he had 
wounded, he parried the assault for some time with a lance ; 
but the furious monster at length rushed on the boat, and 
with one crash of its jaws bit it in two ; himself tind his com- 
rades only being preserved by leaping into the water when 
they saw the onset was inevitable. They were rescued from 
their peril by other boats at hand. He observed, that the 
black whale of the North Seas discovers such affection for 
her young one, that when she perceives danger, she takes it 
under one of her fins, and swims off with it. If the latter be 
struck, the dam never leaves it, but risks her own life to save 
that of her calf On the contrary, the sperm whale of the 
South Seas will suffer her offspring to be taken without man- 
ifesting any concern, and providing only for her own safety ; 
or occasionally, when escape is difficult, turning, as in the 
instance above mentioned, with the most savage ferocity on 
her pursuers. Our captain's father lost his life in attacking 
one of these formidable monsters. 

May 12. This day we reached Portsmouth, when, the 
wind being contrary, we went on shore, and thence passed 
over to Newport, Isle of Wight, where we were cordially 
welcomed and entertained by Mr. Tyerman's friends, to 



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4 BAT OF BISCAY CAPE FINISTERRE. 

whom his sudden re-aj^arance was equally unexpected and 
delightful. 

May 19. The wind having become fair^ we went on board 
again this morning, and proceeded with great rapidity down 
the English Channel, presenting a great press of sail to a 
powerful and prosperous breeze. 

May 20. (Lord's day.) This morning we had public wor- 
ship, for the first time, on deck ; the captain, officers, and 
crew, being all in attendance. Mr. Tyerman preached from 
Psalm cvii. 28, 24 : '* They that go down to the sea in ships, 
and do business in great waters, these see the works of the 
Lord, and his jvonders in the deep." Mr. Jones preached 
on deck in the afternoon. 

May 22. We have this day passed into the Atlantic, cross- 
ing tlus mouth of the Bay of Biscay. Early in the mcmiing 
we had a strong gale, and proceeded, amidst prodigious 
waves, at the rate of eleven knots an hour, with scarcely any 
sail spread. Towards noon the wind died away, and left 
us for several hours at the mercy of a troubled sea that could 
not rest, but rolled and rocked with awful agitation. In the 
evening the gale revived, and hurried us on in our desired 
course. A linnet and two swallows, taking refuge in oXir 
shrouds, were caught by the sailors ; but the poor birds were 
so exhausted, by the vidence of the wind and the length of 
their flight, that they soon expired. 

May 23. To-day we first perceived the change of the color 
of the water from green to dark blue ; the former indicating 
comparative shallowness, the latter, unfathomable depth. 

May 24. We are off Cape Finisterre, having experienced 
favorable weather since the 22d. The night is beautiful 
with stars, amidst a pure unclouded sky. The ship sails 
majestically over an invisible expanse of water, marked only 
by silver-topt breakers, accompanying and following in its 
wake. The only persons on deck are the man at the helm — 
with his eye on the compass, and his hand on the wheel — 
and the mate, who silently paces the deck^ listening and 
looking through the gloom. 

May 25. Multitudes of porpoises playing round the vessel ; 
two were harpooned, and brought on board. The blubber 
yielded three gallons of good lamp-oil. The liver and some 
of the fleshy parts were dressed and eaten by the sailors. In 
the evening, the foam round the vessel was spangled with 
luminous but evanescent points; the flakes occasionally 



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CHARNEL-HOUSE AT MADEIRA. 5 

emittiDg their brilliant rays for several seconds. This phe- 
nomenon, not yet satisfactorily explained by philosophers, 
though common every night, is very striking ; the track of a 
ship is sometimes so highlv irradiated as to present the ap- 
pearance of a train of fire lor a considerable distance. 

May 27. (Lord's day.) We had public service twice in 
the cabin. The deck had been cleared last night, and no 
work that could be avoided was xlone on the Sabbath. It 
was pleasing to see the crew, clean and in their best clothes, 
engaged in reading the Bibles and tracts which we had given 
them. 

May 28. This morning we had the satisfaction to see 
Porto Santo, one of the Madeira Islands. Our party have 
been fully occupied to-day in writing to friends in Old Eng- 
land. This is a peculiarly interesting ship-board scene, 'i^ 
whenever an immediate opportunity of communicating with 
home is presented in the course of a long voyage. 

May 29. We reached Madeira, and went on shore at Fun- 
9hal ; the captain purposing to take in a supply of various 
provisions. No description of this lovely, magnificent, and 
well-known island, by transient visitors, can be necessary 
here. One of the most remarkable objects of curiosity which 
we visited was a room in the •church of St. Francis, about 
fifteen feet square, and the same in height, completely lined, 
or rather embossed, both on the side walls and the ceiling, 
with human skulls, set in squares composed of arms and 
thigh bones, which form a separate frame for each skull. 
These hideous relics are said to be those of saints and emi- 
nent personages, of which the sepulcbtes have been defrauded 
to decorate this Golgotha of superstition. The whole has a 
horrible and ghastly appearance, which is aggravated by the 
filthiness of the place, and the dilapidations continually oc- 
curring""— the skulls and bones from time to time falling from 
their fixtures, and strewing the floor with mouldering frag- 
ments. On inquiring the cause of the neglect of a sanctua- 
ry so peculiarly precious to devotees as this must have been, 
we were told that the funds bequeathed for the maintenance 
of its melancholy state had been lost ; and there was not 
charity in the present day found to keep this charnel-house 
in repair— .One word may be added concerning the vines. 
These were planted at the fronts of the houses, in gardens; 
lattice-works, about seven feet high, are raised and extended 
over the whole ground-plot. The vines^ being conducted 
1* 



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6 8UCKIN0-FI8H— CROSS THE TllOPIC OF CANCER. 

over these frames, not only repay the owners by their deli- 
cious fruits, but afford a most refreshing shade, under which 
the whole family may be sheltered from those fierce rays of 
the sun which give excellent flavor to their grapes, and make 
the wine of Madeira one of the choicest beverages '* to glad- 
den man's heart," not here only, but at the uttermost ends 
of the earth. 

May 31. Having re-embarked last evening, we this day 
lost sight of Madeira in our progress. 

June 1. We have been amused by observing luminous 
objects floating in the sea, at the sides* and in the wake of 
the vessel ; they were generally of a beautiful blue or green 
color, sometimes appearing at the depth of several feet, and 
occasionally rising to the surface, when their brilliancy forth- 
ilirith vanished. These, we conjectured, might be the same 
substances (of whatever nature) which, in the dark nights, 
have heretofore exhibited such splendor in the water. 

June 2. This morning we got into the N. E. trade wind, 
which continued to freshen for several hours. A sun-fish, 
(the tetrodon mola of Linnaeus) was harpooned from one of 
our boats, and brought on board. It measured five feet and 
a half in length, and four and a half in width. While it 
was towed alongside of our ship, several sucking-fish {echi- 
neis remora of Linnaeus) accompanied it, adhering to different 
parts of the body. One of these singular animals was taken 
by a spear. It was eleven inches in length, in form resem- 
bling a trout, of a brown color, without scales, slimy and 
loathsome to the sight. When put into a vessel of water, it 
immediately attached itself to the side by its suckers, which 
are twelve in number, placed in the throat, within a flat oval 
surface, two inches in length, and barely an inch and a half 
in breadth. By these the creature sticks with surprising 
firmness to whatever it assails. Fishes of the same kind, 
though much larger, are a grievous annoyance to the whales, 
and oflen cause them to bound out of the water, to shake off 
their tormentors by the fall. 

June 5. This evening we have crossed the tropic of Can 
cer. A flying-fish (exoecUus voUtans) having lighted on 
"board, we had an opportunity of examining its curious 
formation. This specimen was in size and shape much like 
a herring ; the sides and belly were bright as burnished sil- 
ver, with a tinge of blue along the back — ^the eye large; the 
two pectoral fins, rising from the gills, had each twelve rays. 



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' FLYING FISHES — THK BLACK WHALK. 7 

six and a half inches long, connected by a delicate transpai- 
rent membrane ; with these it can readily direct itself finr- 
ward or backward, swim in the water or dart through the air. 
These fish abound in the Atlantic, and are sometimes seen 
singly, sometimes in shoals ; often in their brief flight falling 
upon the d^cks of vessels. They sometimes continue on the 
wing for two or three hundred feet, then suddenly, if in 
flocks, disappear altogether ; nor do they seem to feel any 
difficulty in flying against the wind. Their course, when 
we have observed them in our vicinity, was always from the 
ship, their motion apparently undulating with die billows, 
and nearly parallel with the surface. They have many ene- 
mies in both elements ; rapacious fishes and birds of prey. 
Our mate told us that he once saw a man-of-war eagle — an 
albatross (Diomedea exukms), pounce downward upon a fly* 
ing-fish, while, at the same instant, a thunny, or albacore, 
sprang from below to seize it. Neither seemed to see the 
other, and so eagerly did they aim at their comm^ V^^Yf 
that the thunny's head bolted into the open beak of tne alba- 
tross. The latter struggled hard to carry off its unexpected 
prize, which, however, proved too weighty, and fell back 
into the water. Meanwhile, the flying-fish escaped with life 
from both the deaths that threatened it. 

June 6. At noon we were under a vertical sun ; our lati- 
tude being 22° 46' N. The thermometer in the shade stood 
at 72°, but in the sun the mercury rose to 106°. 

June 7. The cry of" A whale ! — a black fish!"— occasion- 
ed much commotion, in lowering down the boats, and for a 
while pursuing it; but the prey escaped. At dinner, the 
second mate related the following incident, confirmed by the 
testimony of the captain. On a late voyage, when near to 
the coast of South America, an immense whale suddenly 
rose at the side of the ship to such an height outH>f the water, 
and flung himself (unconscious of its presence, having come 
up with great impetuosity from the deep) with such force 
athwart ihe bow of the vessel as to cut it sheer off. Being 
but a small whaler, she filled and sunk so speedily, that the 
crew had barely time to take to their boats. They were soon 
after received on board of a companicm-ship which was 
fishing hard by. 

June 9. We have been much gratified by seeing what the 
sailors call a Portuguese man-of-war, and a galley-fish. 
These beautiful creatures are of various sizes; this was 



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8 PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR — THE BLACK FISH. 

about as large as a hen's egg. The animal resembles a 
bladder, transparent rose-colored, with a kind of keel formed 
in festoons, plaited like a rufT, on the upper part. This ap-. 
pendage, being raised above the water, serves for a sail, 
while numerous tentacula, proceeding from the under side, 
enable it to steer its course, seize its prey^ or to cast anchor, 
as it were, and fix itself on the moving surface of the waves. 
It is said to be exceedingly venomous, and one of the mates 
told us that he had frequently been stung by it While bathing. 
Though we handled that which was brought on board very 
freely, none of us felt any annoyance from it. Linnaeus de- 
nominates this kind of moUusca holocuria phy salts. 

Towards evening there was again a sudden and loud cry, 
" There she goes ! — she spouts ! — a sperm ! — ^I see her fluke P' 
and in an instant both starboard and larboard boats were 
lowered, manned, and out in pursuit of a whale. They re- 
turned disappointed of their object. The captain and his 
party, Imwever, had themselves, a very narrow, providential 
escape ; for while their boai was lowering, the davits (posts 
to which the tacklings for that purpose are attached) gave 
way, when boat and men in it were precipitated upon the 
sea, but immediately rescued, with some slight personal in- 
juries only, though the captain had no expectation but that 
the boat must have been stove to pieces by the fall, and 
some lives lost, if not all. 

June 10. (Lord's day.) Mr. Tyerman preached in the 
morning, from Matt. xvi. 26 : " What is a man profited, if 
he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul 1" and 
Mr. Jones, in the afternoon, from Psalm 1. 15 : ** Call on me 
in the day of trouble ; I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glo- 
rify me." The latter service was somewhat interrupted by 
the appearance of a vast shoal of what the sailors call black 
fish. Judging by the space which they occupied, there must 
hsive been several hundreds. Two boats were sent afler 
them, and soon returned, each with a prize. These were of 
that species of whale called delphinus delphis, or the bottle- 
nosed dolphin. The length of the larger was twenty feet, 
and its girth at the shoulder eleven. The color of the whole 
body was black, except a small white spot mid- way between 
the shoulders and the tail ; the latter was divided into two 
lobes, forked, lying in the plane of the horizon, and thirty 
inches from tip to tip. The form sloped both ways, from the 
shoulders to the head, and also to the tail. The nose was 



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THE SOUTHERN CROSS. 9 

truncated and remarkably blunt and angular. Two thirds 
up the face was the blaw-hole, through which the animal 
breathes. When the skia was removed, this orifice would . 
admit the open hand. The mouth was wide, provided with 
lips ; and the jaws were armed with teeth, sharp, bent rather 
inward, projecting an inch and a half from the gums, an inch 
in diameter at the root, and two inches asunder. The 
tongue was the size of that of a full-grown ox ; the roof of 
the mouth hard, rough, and of a dark green. The eyes 
were larger than those of an ox. Two pectoral fins, hard 
and strong, about two feet and a half in length, and pointed, 
bent inward ; these were articulated with the shoulder-blades 
by the ball and socket joint, as the upper part of the arm in 
the human subject. On the back was a protuberance of 
sdid fat, like a fin, two feet high, diminishing towards the 
tail. The flesh was black-red ; the heart about the bulk of 
an ox's; the lungs and liver large in proportion. In the 
stomach were found the remains of various fishes, as the John- 
dory, (zeus auratus), a conger-eel (murana conger )^ and the 
squid (sepia octopodia), or cuttle-fish, with severai of their 
fine transparent eyes. The weight of the greater of these 
creatures must have been nearly a ton and a half The fat 
was from one to two and a half inches thick, under the fore- 
head seven inches. The blubber of both yielded ninety gal- 
lons of oil, of which the larger furnished two thirds. The 
stomachs were preserved and dried to make drum-tops, for 
which it is said their texture is admirably adapted. 

At night, (the sky being clear after much cloudy weather,) 
for the first time, we descried the constellation crux or the 
cross. The four stars composing this glory of the southern 
hemisphere, are of large but varying magnitudes, and so 
placed as readily to associate with the image of the true cross, 
the lowest being the brightest. Another beautiful constella- 
tion attracted our notice, nearly in the zenith. This was the 
northern croum, in which. seven stars brilliantly encircle two 
thirds of an oval figure. We were reminded — and though 
the idea may seem fanciful, yet it was pleasing to ourselves 
amidst the still night, and on the far sea — that while we kept 
in constant view the cross, that cross on which our Savior 
died for our redemption, we might venture to hope that the 
crown, the crown of life, which " the Lord, the righteous 
Judge," hath promised to " give unto all them that love his 
appearing/' might be bestowed upon " us in that day." 



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10 WHIT-MONDAT. 

June 11. This being Whit-Monday, we rememoered many 
of our dear friends and connections, who were celebrating, in 
the land that we love, their Sunday school anniversaries ; and 
with these, in spirit, we held delightful communion. This 
day has been chiefly occupied by the crew in cutting up the 
black-fish caught yesterday, boiling the blubber, and other 
necessary but disgusting operations. Several holes in the 
sides and heads of these animals were found crowded with 
crab-like lice. The same insects are such tormentors of the 
sperm-whales, that a small fish which feeds on them is said 
never to be disturbed at his meals by the grateful creatures 
to whom he renders such welcome service. 

June 14. The weather being calm, we have lately made 
little progress. The sailors amused themselves with bathing 
and swimming about the ship ; occasionally throwing them- 
selves into the water from different parts of the vessel at con- 
siderable elevations. Robert, the Tahitian, however, ex- 
celled them all in this daring exercise. He climbed the fore- 
yard, and from the end of it precipitated himself without fear 
or injury into the sea. The height could not have been less 
than forty feet. 

June 16. Two ships were seen this morning, at consider- 
able distances on either side of ours. Perceiving that one of 
them was standing towards us, our captain manned a boat 
and went on board, thinking that the crew might be in want 
of some assistance. It was a Portuguese brig, laden with 
salt, and bound to one of the South American ports. On 
the captain's return, we paid a visit to the stranger, to vary 
the scene, which had become somewhat dull on our own ves- 
sd, from the long-continued calm. We were politely receiv- 
ed, but could not help pitying the misery and discomfort of 
those on board ; for though the sea was quite still, the water 
with them was running over the deck. On contrasting our 
tight, trim ship, and all its internal conveniences, with this 
crazy hulk, we felt truly thankful for our superior lot. 

This evening, while several of the crew were bathing, the 
captain and others from the deck observed a shark preparing 
to attack the boatswain, who was not aware of his peril till 
alarmed by their cries, warning him instantly to make for the 
ship. Happily he escaped when the monster was within 
three yards of him, in the very attitude and act. to seize his 
prey. A boat was immediately sent out to return the assault 
upon the enemy. The boatswain, whose choler had been 



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A SHARK CAUGHT. 11 

most Tehemently moved by his danger, finding himself left 
behind, immediately baited a large hook with about half a 
pound of pork, and suspended the line over the stern of the 
vessel, hoping to allure his late voracious pursuer to its own 
destruction. In less than five minutes his hope was realized ; 
and his transport then was equal to his former rage, when he 
saw the shark fast upon his snare. It was quickly hauled on 
deck, by means of a rope dexterously noosed round its tail. 
The captive made a desperate floundering, but was overpow- 
ered/ and despatched as easily as an animal so horribly tena- 
cious of life could be. The motion of the heart actually con- 
tinued for some minutes after it was taken out of liie body. 
It may be observed, that for the bulk of the fish the heart 
was remarkably small, not being larger than a pullet's egg. 
The sailors called this the brown shark (squahis cctrckarias). 
It measured six feet in length. Not contented with what 
had been already taken, the hook was again baited, and 
presently another shark (squaJus gJaucus) was hoisted on 
board : this was eight feet long, and differed in various par- 
ticulars from the former. It proved to be a female, which, 
on being opened, was found to include thirty-four young 
ones, each about a foot in length. 

June 17. (Lord's day.) Mr. Tyerman preached on deck 
in the forenoon to the whole company ; but in the afternoon, 
the weather having changed fi'om almost a dead calm to very 
heavy wind and rain, Mr. Jones was obliged to perform his 
duty in the cabin ta our own small party. 

Talking, during dinner, of the character of those island- 
ers whom we hope soon to see, the captain said that, on his 
last voyage, when he had gone out as mate only, they had 
on board two New Zealanders, and a native of Tahiti. The 
latter, on many occasions, displayed fearless courage and 
prompt intelligence ; of which he gave us a strange example. 

Late one evening, he {our captain, then mate) had struck 
a very large sperm whale, not far from the ship. The fish, 
after some convulsions, remained motionless for a considera- 
ble while, apparently about three yards below the surface of 
the water. The crew having waited in vain to see her rise, 
the captain of the vessel was afraid that he should lose her. 
On looking down earnestly, however, he thought she must be 
dead, the mouth being open. Hereupon he observed, that 
he should like to have a noose-rope thrown round the lower 
jaw ; and told the Tahitian youth that he would give him a 



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12 EXPLOIT OF A TAHITIAN NIGHT-SCENE. 

bottle of rum, if he would venture to dive down and perform 
that office. The chief mate (our captain), whose hiurpoon 
was in the whale, protested against such an attempt as too 
hazardous ; -but the captain urged the necessity of making 
sure of so valuable a booty. The Tahitian, meanwhile, sur- 
veying the body as it lay, and tempted by the proffered re- 
ward, exclaimed, " Ay, ay, she dead — ^I go." According- 
ly, taking the rope, ready for application, between his two 
hands, he lowered himself directly over the monster's mouth, 
put the noose over the lower jaw, placed his foot against the^ 
jaw to tighten the rope, and then buoyed himself up, sprang 
into the boat, and claimed his reward. The carcass was 
thus secured (for happily the whale was dead,) and towed to 
the ship. We shall not inquire whether this story most dis- 
plays the extraordinary boldness of the South Sea islander, 
or the inhuman cupidity of the European captain of that 
vessel. 

June 20. Last night and this morning we have had squalls 
and heavy rains. A fresh breeze followed, and is carrying 
us delightfully along. The captain doubts not but this is the 
commencement of the south-east trade wind, which we have 
been desiring through several days of weary calm. The 
brilliancy of the sea this evening far surpassed what we had 
hitherto seen of the kind. The ship was going rapidly along, 
throwing up a furrow of foam about the bow. In this, the 
luminous appearances before mentioned glittered with pecu- 
liar delicacy ; but it was afler the foam had subsided in the 
frothless water (itself of a deep-black hue), that they dis- 
played their full splendor, gliding, like millions of diamonds, 
in giddy succession by the side of the vesael, or flashing in 
her wake. Lifting our eyes above, we beheld the stars, in 
the absence of the moon, sparkling with unmitigated lustre, 
amidst a sky of such intense purity, that the heavenly bodies 
far excelled in glory their appearance through our native 
atmosphere. 

June 2L As the sun now enters Cancer, and is at his 
greatest northern distance from the line, this may be called 
one of the two mid-winter days of the equator. To us the 
temperature is very agreeable. It has ceased to be a novelty 
to see our very brief shadows falling towards the south at 
noon, and at night to observe the moon pursuing her course 
to the north of the zenith ; but these circumstances have not 
ceased, from time to time, to engage our attention and affect 



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CROSSING THE -LINE BOOBT-BIRDS. 13 

our feelings, since all the phenomena peculiar to these lati- 
tudes remind us, by contrast, of the land of our birth, and 
the friends of our hearts abiding there. 

June 23. This day we passed the equatCN*; when cer- 
tain preposterous ceremonies, as usual, were observed on 
board, during which we did not escape a little sprinkling of 
salt water. 

June 24. (Lord's day.) Mr. Tyerman preached this morn- 
ing upon deck, from Isaiah xxxiv. 17: ''His hand hath 
divided it to them by line.'' His object being to improve 
the event of yesterday, he made the Allowing observations : 
I. There is a line of being, which we all crossed when we 
were born ; then we were endowed with a rational and intel- 
ligent nature ; uid then we entered upon our state of proba- 
tion. II. There is a line o^ regeneration^ dividing the moral 
world into two hemispheres, in one of which dwell the righ- 
teous, and in the other the wicked. This line must be 
crossed by all, before they can become Christians indeed, 
and enjoy the privileges of the gospel. III. There i§ a line 
of deatk, which we must each cross when we have finished 
our probationary course, and go before the tribunal of God 
to render an account of the deeds done in the body ; but 
tirAen, where and how we shall cross this line, we know not. 
IV. There is a line which divides between heaven and hell : 
this, none shall ever cross who have once taken up their 
abode in either of those regions. In application it was re- 
marked, that if we would not lament having crossed the Une 
of being, nor fear crossing the Un^ of deaths we should be 
concerned to cross the line of regeneration; that when 
we fail on earth we may be received into everlasting habita- 
tions, on the right side of the line that divides between heav^ 
en and hell, 

Jane 25. We have been agreeably interrupted in our 
usual occupations, by the sight of many booby-birds (peUca- 
nus stda) wheeling round the vessel, and pouncing upon such 
flying-fish as happened to be on the wing. Two were shot ; 
one of which was brought on board. It was about two and 
a half feet in length, and measured five between the extremi- 
ties of the wings. The inside was nearly all stomach, and 
contained five flying-fishes, three of them recently swallowed. 
This, and some other species, have been called boobies, firom 
their excessive stupidity, and the marked silliness of their 
aspect. When they alight on the yards or rigging of vessels, 
2 



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14 STORM-BIRDS-^WHAIiES. 

tiiey shiver, and shake tiieir heads m a peculiar manner, and 
often suffer themselves to be taken with the hand. They 
have a remorseless enemy of their own tribe, the man-of-war 
bird (pelicanus a^hts), which rushes upon them, and by 
severe blows with its pinions and bill forces the booby to sur- 
render the prey from between its beak, which the spoiler 
instantly swallows. 

June 27. We have made little progress, the inconstancy 
of the weather, with frequent squalls, funiishing constant 
work for all hands,. in reefing, unreefing, and shifting sails, 
&c. It seems that the trade winds, notwithstanding their 
ordinary steadiness, are liable to consideraMe irregularities, 
and often perplex the most experienced and skillftd navigators. 
We have lost sight of ursa minor y and the polar star, of 
course ; the pointers are withdrawing, and ursa nugor^ we 
suppose, will soon disappear. 

Jime 28. The flying-fish which we have seen for some 
days past are much larger than those that appeared in higher 
latitudes. Several storm-birds (procdlaria jpelagica), or 
Mother CHry's chickens, have been observed. The specta- 
cle of the nocturnal heavens (under their new aspect, adium- 
ed with constellations never seen in the north) has been 
occasionally enlivened of late by meteors of great splendor, 
emergfaig from immensity, and as suddenly absorbed, leaving 
darkness more sensibly dark from the effect of the momenta- , 
ry lucid interval. 

June 30. We descried two whales this morning. They 
were of the Greenland species (halcBna mysticetus)^ or right 
whale, as the sailors significantly call them. These are dis- 
tinguished from the sperm whale by the manner in which 
they spout — the former having the spiracle, or breathing 
hole, at the top of the head; consequently, when they 
breathe, the column of water which they eject rises perpen- 
dicularly. On the contrary, the sperm whales having the 
corresponding aperture in the nose, the water is thrown hori** 
zontally. 

The two which we now saw not being of the sperm kind, 
our captain did not order chase of them. We observed one 
of these " hugest of things that swim the ocean-stream," 
twice come up to breathe, and each time it cast forth a large 
vdiume of water to the height of from twenty to thirty fe«t, 
not in a fountain form, but in a cloud of spray that some- 
thing resembled a small shq^^ in full sail, at a distance. 



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MAGELLAN CLOUBS — ANIMALS OF THE &EEP. 15 

July 2. This evening one of the Magellan clouds ^[^are'd 
in the south, about ten o'clock. Of Uiese there are three, 
called after the Portuguese navigator^ whose name is thus 
recorded at once in heaven and on earth, by being associated 
wbh these -beautiful phenomena in the southern hemisphere, 
and also with tiie straits at the extremity of the South Amer- 
ican peninsula, both of which he discovered on the first voy- 
age made by man round the world, though he unfcnrtunately 
perished before he had personally accomplished it — cleaving 
that honor to his companion Cano, who brought the vessel 
home. The ndmlcB before mentioned are of the color of the 
galaxy, and probably, like it, composed of a multitude of 
stars, indiscemibly small. The galaxy itself, from these 
Austral regions, is much more clearly defined to* the eye 
than in England. It seems a vast attenuated cloud, most 
delicately white, and apparently nearer to the earth than the 
starry concave that swells into infinity above, and shines out 
in the lustre of the brightest constellations of both hemi- 
spheres. 

July 3. We are now in the latitude of Tahiti, though 
scarcely half way on our voyage thither ; the continent of 
South America, and many a weary league of ocean, lying 
between us ancl the objects of our hopes and our prayers. 
We havcf been peculiarly excited, by this slight coincidence, 
to implore the divine blessing upon ourselves, as the messen- 
gers of the churches to the inhabitants of that and the neigh- 
boring islands, where the Redeemer hath '' much people ;'' 
and we humbly trust that our visit to those Gentile converts 
may be one of peace, and love, and joy, to build them up in 
their most holy faith ; as well as to comfort the hearts, and 
strengthen the hands, of the faithful missionaries who are 
labwing among them, and are over them in the Lord. 

July 5. The monstrous figures, and unwieldy floundering, 
of the fin-backed whales (bakma physalusjy which often 
reach the length of eighty or ninety feet, but are of no value 
to the fishe^^yielding little oil, greatly amused us this morn- 
ing, till our attention was diverted — for we are always on 
the look out for new objects — ^by the swift and gra^cefiil mo- 
tions of the noddy (sterna stolida), a bird which skims, like 
a swallow, along the smooth surface of the ocean, clamoring 
and snapping up the flying-fishes that cross its flight. 

July 7. The animals which we have noticed, for the first 
time^ to-day and yesterday, we^ the toad-fish (hphius Ats- 



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16 SPEBBfACETI WBALE — ^MARINE RAINBOWS. 

trio), which was wounded by a lance but escaped; small 
water-spiders, wonderfully nimble in running on the surface, 
and diving below it when alarmed ; and Gape pigeons (prO' 
ceUaria capensis). The latter eagerly pick up bits of lard 
thrown upon the wares, or are easily caught by a hook and 
line, baited with the same. 

July 8. We find ourselves in the midst of " the great and 
wide sea, wherein are things innumerable, both great and 
small," according to the language of the psalmist. The 
deep was full of animation, and the surface turbulent with 
the pastime of leviathan and his attendants. Birds of diJQTecr 
ent kinds followed the whales, and perched on their backs 
when they emerged^ to pick oJQT the small insects, like lice, 
which prey on these enormous creatures, and often make 
large holes in their well-lined flanks. 

July 10. A shoal of ^rm whales (physeter macrosepha^ 
lus) passed us, within a quarter of a mUe from the ship. 
They were known by their brown color, and their peculiar 
manner of spouting ; but the wind blew too hard to allow 
our crew to venture after them. This species of whale, as 
well as the Greenland and fin-backed, grows sometimes to 
the length qf from eighty to ninety feet. The head is im» 
mense in proportion to the body ; and it is in the cavities of 
the skull that the valuable matter, called spermaeeti^ is found, 
in a liquid form. To obtain this, a hole is made in the crap 
nium, whence it is taken out with buckets, in very great 
quantities. Our captain, who has long been employ^ in 
this fishery, tells us that he has sometimes laded as much as 
four and even five hundred gallons of spermaceti, out of the 
head of a single whale. 

July 11. The wind having been boisterous last night, as 
we were contemplating the agitation of the waters this morn- 
ing, on the lee quarter, the sun at the same time shining 
brightly, we were pleased on beholding, for the first time, 
many marine rainbows, which were formed on the spray, 
from the tops of some of the higher waves. 1^ prismatic 
colors were vivid and distinct, though the bows wer^evane»- 
cent. The albatross begins to show itself on this stage of 
our course. It is ,a majestic fowl, especially when seen 
among the pintado-petrels, great numbers of which are con- 
tinually on the wing in our wake. The albatrosses that we 
have met with are of the diomedea exukms species. The 
wandering albatross, or man-of-war bird| is larger than a 



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THUNDER, LIGHTNING^ AND FIERY METEOR. 17 

Bwan, weighing from twenty to twenty-eight pounds, with 
wings extending from ten to thirteen feet. The prevailing 
color is white, diversified with black and gray. It is very 
voracious, devouring its fishy prey whole, in such quantities 
as sometimes to prevent its rising on the wing, though in 
general it soars very high. 

July 12. The thermometer stood this morning at 55. 
The anchors were removed fi'om the bow to the deck. We 
are daily making every necessary preparation for doubling 
Cape Horn. A pintado was shot, and fell into the water, 
when immediately the large flock of its companions alighted 
around it, but for what purpose we did not discover. A 
small bird, about the size of a thrush, called by mariners the 
quarter-moon bird, because its wings, when expanded, bear 
some resemblance to the crescent moon, joined the feathered 
tribes which, day and night, follow in the wake 'of our vessel. 
It is of a light gray color, and glides with great swiftness 
close to the water, precisely directing its curvilinear flight 
according to the undulation of the sea. 

July 13. The gale having been strong all day, the waves 
indeed ran mountains high. The captain remarked that he 
had generally encountered ^s tremendous weather in this 
quarter, ofi" Rio de la Plata, as in any part of the world 
where he had been. There was a double halo round the 
moon this evening, which, we are told, portends more blow- 
ing weather. 

July 14. We had much thunder and lightning last night. 
During the storm, a fiery meteor, apparently the size of a 
man's head, shot through the atmosphere, and fell into the 
sea near our ship. The light which it diffused was so sud- 
den and intense that night became as noon-day. Had it 
struck our vessel, we might have all perished on the spot, 
and no record of our end been discovered till the day 
of judgment. We are in the hands of God, and on 
Him, whom all the elements obey, is our sole dependence. 
To-day, the boats which had hitherto been suspended over 
the quarters, and kept ready for whale-fishing, have been 
taken upon deck and lashed down. 

July 15. (Lord's day.) The weather very tempestuous. 
Mr. Tyerman preached &om Psalm Ixxxix. 9 : " Thou rulest 
the raging of the sea : when the waves thereof arise, Thou 
stillest them." 

July 18. The storm has abated. We daily experience 
2* 



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18 A HARD 6ALI!. 

increasing cold, which requires thicker clothing and other 
comforts, which those who have been at sea, and have want- 
ed, can well appreciate. 

A magnificent albatross, snowy white, except the tips of 
the wings, which were dark brown, came suddenly near our 
ship this forenoon ; then passed away, like an apparition of 
beauty. This might be deemed a bird which had attained 
full maturity, or rather great age, not only by its size, but by 
the pure color of its plumage, which, in the younger ones, 
is much more dusky. 

Towards night the gale again came on with such fury that 
there was no rest for us in our beds ; but, '' in the multitude 
of our thoughts within us,'' the remembrance of friends afar 
off, and of God ever present with us as with them, " refreshed 
our souls." 

. July 19. Having requested the captain to inform us 
whenever any thing novel or striking was to be seen from 
deck, by day or by night, he sent for us early this morning 
to witness the approach of a tremendous squall. Sky and 
ocean, indeed, wore an^aspect so wild and menacing that we 
landsmen might well have been excused if we had felt great- 
ly appalled. From overwhelming fear, however, we were 
graciously preserved by Him whose strength is made perfect 
in weakness. To us it was intensely interesting to observe 
the vigilant care which marked the countenance of our ccm^ 
mahder, whose rapid glances seemed to take in, at once, 
every part of the ship, and the whole surrounding hemisphere 
of horrors and perils ; especially eyeing, with instinctive jeal- 
ousy, the quarter from which ^e instant storm was coming 
down in its friry, and prepared in a moment to meet it with 
all the resources of his skill, and the capabilities of his vessel ; 
to see also that half of the crew whose watch it was, standing, 
each at his post (alongside of brace, tack, sheet, or lift), 
waiting with an air of prompt yet patient attention for the 
sudden and urgent commands that might be given ; but par- 
ticularly to behold the timaneer (the man at the helm), whose 
hands firmly grasped the wheel, and whose eye alternately, 
anxiously, intelligently, glanced from the compass-box to the 
sails, from the ^s to the eye of the captain, and thence 
again to the compaM. The picture, the reality, which this 
scene presented, was sublimely affecting, and produced an 
exaltation rather than a depression of mind, amidst all the 
terrors of conflicting elements around us. A fall of snow 



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no AitD B6MONT HEN — THE QRMHFVB — TVEHN8 19 

that followed corered the deck four inches deep. The squall, 
however, passed away without having harmed us. 

July 21. South lat. 47'' 23'. West long. 47*^53'. The 
thermometer stood at 45, in the companion. The newly- 
seen birds which have joined our train are principally the 
peo^ or stinkpot (named from its abominable smell), and 
whi^ Cook calls the Egmont hen. Great quantities of sea- 
weed float by us, indicating the vicinity ot land. — ^Weather 
cafaner. 

July 24. Several grampuses (delphinus^ orca) passed the 
stern of our ship this morning. This species is called by 
seamen the TdUeVy from its successfully attacking and de- 
stroying whales. When the latter, even in a shoal, find a 
grampus among them, they are said to be so terrified 
that those which have young ones take them upon their 
backs, and heave them ccnnpletely out of the water, to pre- 
serve them from the ravenous enemy. The tongue of the 
whale is the delicacy which the grampus seizes in his assault, 
and he tears it out with surprising dispatch. 

July 26. In the afternoon we were near the Falkland 
Islands, which lie off the Straits of Magellan. Whale-por- 
poises and penguins were the principal novelties discovered 
within the last few days. Our captain and crew have ofi;en 
spoken of an animal which they call Turpin, found on the 
Galipagos Islands, on the west coast of South America, near 
the equator, about ninety degrees west longitude ; to-day we 
have taicen down a description of it. They represent this 
creature as- a species of tortoise, the shell of which is black, 
carinated and reflected at the neck. The scutilla is oval 
and composed^ of irregular plates ; the head and eyes are 
small ; the neck slender and much longer than in other spe- 
cies of the tortoise, being about twenty-eight inches in one of 
middle size. The legs are twelve inches in length ; the foot 
consisting of five toes, the claws of which are hooked and 
strong. Turpins, at diflerent ages, are found from three 
inches long to six foet ; some being a load for four or five 
men. 'They live entirely on shore, feeding upon plants, and 
resort much to ^rings and rivulets of fre^ water, where they 
are generally taken. Though so strong, in some instances, 
as to carry four or five men standing upon their backs, they 
are so slow of motion as to be easily caught ; when turned 
upon their backs, they are unable to recover their legs, and 
are thus secured. Their flesh is such excellent and nourish- 



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20 SINGULAR PASSAGE OF M&. TTERMAN's EARLY LIFB. 

ing food that we are informed a ship's crew is never weary 
of it; and they are, therefore, eagerly sought by sailors at 
the landing-places. As these animals are exceedingly ab- 
stemious, and can live for months without eating (in a state 
of torpor), they are particularly useful on long voyages in the 
South Pacific. When taken, these live lumps of stock are 
stowed away, like dead lumber, in the hold between decks, 
and constitute a valuable store of fresh provisions. The fe- 
knale lays a considerable number of eggs, which are spheri- 
cal and about three inches in diameter ; these she buries in 
the sand, where they are hatched by the heat of the sun. 
South lat. 54° 25'. West long. 57° 20^ Therm. 43. 

July 27. We are off Staten Island, east of Terra del Fue- 
go; the Straits of Le Maire lying between them. Vessels 
sometimes venture through these into the South Pacific, but 
the passage is perilous. We have lately sailed at great 
speed; the weather, thougli blustering, being favorable to 
our progress. 

July 29. (Lord's day.) The sun rose bright from the sea, 
which was lightly in motion, the wind being moderate. We 
have found this indeed a Sabbath, a day of rest and holy 
pleasure, amidst the loneliness of savage lands in view, and 
meeting oceans, on which we are sailing, round Cape Horn. 
This celebrated point, " placed far amidst the melancholy 
main," presents none of those tremendous horrors (though 
still in the depth of winter) with which the captain and crew 
tell us it is almost always invested. Mr. Tyerman preached 
in the morning from Psalm cxxi. 4 : ** Behold, He that keep- 
eth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep." At the close of 
his discourse he mentioned the following circumstance. 
" Yesterday was the anniversary of a great and very Temark-^ 
able deliverance which I experienced in the year 1793. At 
that time I was intimate with several young men as gay and 
trifling as myself; and we frequently spent our Sabbaths in 
pleasure on the Thames. Early in the week, on the occa'* 
. sion referred to, I and four others had planned a Sunday 
party down the river ; to make the most oi it, we agreed to 
embark on Saturday afternoon, and proceed to Gravesend, 
On Friday night, when I lay down to rest, a transient mis^ 
giving, whether it was right so to profane the Sabbath of the 
Lord, gave me a little uneasiness ; but I overcame the moni- 
tory feeling, and fell asleep. On Saturday morning, when I 
awoke, the thought again came upon me, but again I resisted 



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SINGULAB PASSAGE 64? MK. TlTERMAN^fl EARLY UFE. 21 

it, and resolved to meet my companions in the afternoon. I 
was about to rise, but while I mused I fell asleep again, and 
dreamed. I thought myself in a certain place, whither di- 
vine Providence often led me at that season of my life. 
Here a gentleman called me to him, saying, that he had a 
letter for me, which I went to receive from his hand. When 
I reached him, he had opened the enclosure and appeared to 
be reading the contents. I imagined then that I looked over 
his shoulder, and perceived that the letter was closely writ^ 
ten, but a pen had been drawn through every line, and had 
obliterated all the words. Wondering what this could mean, 
I was going to take hold of the letter, when a large black 
seal presented itself to my sight, and so startled me that forth- 
with I awoke, with this sentence upon my mind, 'You shall 
not go P Though I had never been in any way superstitious 
regarding dreams, this so affected me, and the words, 
*You shaU not go,' seemed so perpetuallf sounding in my 
ears, and haunting my imagination, that I determined to be 
obedient and not go ; persuaded that some evil would befall 
me if I did. I spent that day and the two following in great 
anguish and anxiety, expecting hourly to bear something that 
would explain this singular presentiment. No tidings, how- 
ever, arrived till Tuesday morning, when I read in a news- 
paper the following paragraph. ' Last Snnday, in the after- 
noon, as a boat, with four young gentlemen, a waterman, and a 

boy, belonging to Mr. , of Wapping, was coming up 

the river, in Bngsby's hole, a little below Blackwall, a gust of 
wind upset the boat, and all on board perished.' That was 
the identical boat on which I was U> have embarked. I 
could scarcely believe my eyes ; I read the paragraph again 
and again. There it was,||nd there it remained, speaking 
the same words. I cannot express the horror and conster- 
nation of my mind. I was constrained to exclaim, < This is 
the finger of God ! Who am I, that God should in so won- 
derful a manner interpose for my deliverance? What a 
warning against Sabbath-breaking I What a call to devote 
myself to the Lord and his service I'— A warning which I 
took, and a call which I humUy hope I was thenceforward 
enabled to obey : * Yot God speaketh once, yea twice ; yet 
man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, 
when deep sleep falleth upon man, in slumber ings upon the 
bed ; then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their in- 
struction, that he may withdraw man from his puroose, and 



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22 LONG-FOOTED SWELLS OF THE OCEAN. 

hide pride from man. He keepeth back his soul from the 
pit, and his life from perishing.*^ " Job xxxiii. 14, 18. 

July 31. Our course has been W. S. W. with little inter- 
ruption. At noon we were about 105 miles short of the 
meridian of Cape Horn. The captain prognosticated that 
we should soon have some genuine Cape Horn weather. 
This he inferred from the aspect of the sky, and the heaving 
of the ocean, continually on the increase, though the breeze 
was inconsiderable. Every swell of the waves seeme4 ^ niile 
in extent, having what the sailors call a long foot ; that is, 
the sea rose and fell gradually and majesticaUy, not shortly 
and abruptly, as we have generally observed to be the case, 
especially in the Bay of Biscay. These hng'footed swells 
^e almost peculiar here, and would seem to have been ap- 
pointed by Providence (in that merciful economy which for- 
gets not to care for man, even where he most seldom ven- 
tures), to render these seas navigable, which, accordhig to 
our captain, they would not be in fresh weather, were the 
waves as precipitous^ and liable to break suddenly, as they 
are in most parts. To-day we have had the first heavy faU 
of snow. 

Aug. 1. Having reached a southern latitude, 69^ 3(K, 
sufficiently high for doubling Cape Horn, and being in the 
longitude of the latter, we wore ship, and took a northern 
course to avoid meeting icebergs in the night, which are not 
unfrequent here. We escaped ; indeed, we saw none, 
though the snow-birds, which roost upon them, were our 
visitors. By doubling Cape Horn is meant, not merely pass- 
ing that point of land, but sailing quite round the other side 
of the extremb peninsular projection of South America, into 
the Pacific Ocean. m^ 

Aug. 4. At noon we reached W. long. 75°, five degrees 
further on our way since this time yesterday. 

Aug. 5. We began to shl^)e our course in a W. N. W. 
direction, to obtain the advantage of the trade winds, when 
we reach their region. . The captain and crew daily express 
their surprise at the unwonted continuance of that propitious 
weather which has hitherto brought us safely through the 
very realm of tempests, where Anson, Byron, and other navi- 
gators, suffered so much. We had public worship in the 
cabin to-day, when Mr. Tyerman preached from the pecu- 
liarly appropriate text, Isa. xxxii, 2 : ''A man shall be as an 
hiding-place from the wind> and a covert from the tempest/* 



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ACCIDENT — SUPERSTITION OF SAILORS. 23 

The sacraih^ of the Iiord's supper was afterwards adminis* 
tered to our little church, and we can say, of a truth, God 
was with us. 

Aug. 7* A sailor being aloft, eight or nine feet above the 
leeward shrouds, his foot slipped, and he fell over the rail 
into the clue, or lower comer of the mainsail, which was 
stretched a little above the leeward bulwark. The captain, 
having seen his first slip, ran to help him, and providentially 
caught the poor fellow, just as he was sliding off from the 
sail into the water. Had he not been rescued that moment, 
he must have -been drowned, for the ship was going at great 
speed, and the boats were lashed upon the deck. Happily 
he received no serious harm. The same man had fidlen 
from the deck into the hold of the vessel, in the London 
Dock, before she sailed ; and then had as narrow an escape 
from death, though with a severe contusion on the head. 

Sailors are proverbially superstitious. This escape of 
their comrade occasioned much conversation among the 
crew, and sundry stories were told, which, though awful 
enough at sea, may appear puerile on land. Two of these 
(for the sake of exemplifying the only fears that seamen feel, 
and the groundlessness of them) we shall record. Our 
chief mate said, that on board of a ship where he had served, 
the mate on duty ordered some of the youths to reef the 
main-top-sail. When the first got up, he heard a strange 
voice saying, "It blows hard." The lad waited for no 
more ; he was down in a trice, and telling his adventure. A 
second immediately ascended, laughing at the folly of his 
companion, but returned even more quickly, declaring that 
he was quite sure that a voice, not of this world, had cried 
in his ear, " It blows hard." Another went, and another, 
but each came back with the same tale. At length the 
mate, having sent up the whole watch, ran up the shrouds 
himself, and, when he reached the haunted spot, heard the 
dreadful words distinctly uttered in his ears, "It blows 
hard." — "Ay, ay, old one; but, blow it ever so hard, we 
must ease the earings for all that," replied the mate undaunt- 
edly ; and looking round, he spied a fine parrot perched on 
one of the clues^ the thoughtless author of all the false alarms, 
which had probably escaped from some other vessel, but had 
not previously been discovered to have taken refuge on this. 
Anotheir of our officers mentioned, that, on one of his voy 
ages, he remembered a boy having been sent up to clear a rope 



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34 SUPERSTITION OF SAILORS. 

which had got foul above the mizzen-top. Presently, how- 
ever, he came back, trembling, and almost tumbling to the 
bottom, declaring that he had seen " Old Uavy," aft the 
cross-tree ; moreover, that the Evil One had a huge head 
and face, with prick-ears, and eyes as bright as fire. Two 
or three others were sent up in succession ; to all ' of whom 
the apparition glared forth, and was identified by each to 
be " Old ,Davy, sure enough." The mate, in a rage, at 
length mounted himself; when resolutely, as in the former 
case, searching for the bugbear, he soon ascertained the 
innocent cause of so much terror to be a large horned owl, 
so lodged as to be out of sight to those who ascended on the 
other side of the vessel, but which, when any one approach- 
ed the cross-trees, popped up his portentous visage to see 
what was coming. The mate brought him down in tri- 
umph, and " Old Davy," the owl, became a very peaceable 
ship-mate among the crew, who were no longer scared by 
his horns and eyes ; for sailors turn their backs on nothing 
when they know what it- is.* Had the birds, in these two 
instances, departed as secretly as they came, of course they 
would have been deemed supernatural visitants to the 
respective ships, by all who had heard the one, or seen the 
other. 



CHAPTER II. 



Commemoration of the Sailing of the Ship Duff, with the first Mission- 
aries to the South Seas — Mollymauks — Agitated Sea-scene — A Storm 
•^Imminent Peril and great Deliverance — Tropic of Capricorn — ^The 
« Prickly Heat"— The Gannet—War-Hawk— Lunar Influence-— 
Dangerous Archipelago— rA Whale struck — The Tropic Bird — Planet 
Venus — ^Lunar Rainbow — Water-spouts — Sailors' Dreams — A Booby- 
bird taken — Retrospective Reflections — Indications of Land — An 
unknown Island — Resolution, Doubtful, Tuscan, Bimie, Chain and 
other Islands— Arrival at Tahiti. 

Aug. 10. This day, twenty-five years ago, the -first 
Missionaries to the South Sea Islands embarked at Black- 
wall, with that distinguished servant of God, Captain James 
Wilson, in the ship Duff. The rememlvance of this great 
event (as it has proved) in the history of those remote re- 



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MOLLTMAUKS. 25 

gions of the globe, which but a few yehia before were not 
known to exist, and for centuries upon centuries, it may be 
presumed, had been inhabited by generations of idolaters — 
furnished us with much matter for interesting conversation, 
devout thanksgiving, and fervent prayer, in the course of 
the day. We were especially led to commemorate, with 
gratitude and joy, 1;he patient perseverance in well-doing of 
those good men by whom it pleased God eventually to com- 
meiiice one of the most signal gospel miracles, in the con- 
version of heathen tribes, recorded in the annals of the 
church of Christ. Nor did we -forget with what zeal, faith, 
and love, in this sacred cause, the Directors of the London 
Missionary Society had been enabled; during many fruitless 
years, to support their patient laborers in that untried 
field, sowing precious seed, watering it with tears, and 
waiting the Lord's own ** appointed we^s of harvest." 
Those "weeks" are c<Hne, and the harvest is great; the 
reapers, indeed, are comparatively few, but many among the 
natives are entering upon the work. 

Aug. 13. Two sea-fowls, called by the sailors, Molly- 
mauks (a variety of the Diomedea fiiliginosa), were taken. 
This bird is about the bulk of a goose in body, but the ex- 
pansion of the wings, though these are remarkably arched, 
reaches seven feet. Their flight ia very graceful, and per- 
fumed with little apparent exertion ; though long in the air, 
they are seldom seen to flap a pinion,. whether they rise or 
descend, go with the wind, or sail against it. The plumage 
on the back and upper parts is dark blue, and white be- 
neath. When they alight on the water to seize their prey, 
these large fowls buoy themselves over the surfiice, with 
their wings balancing above their bodies, either to preserve 
their steadiness, or to be ready to take flight. When placed 
upon deck they are unable to raise themselves from the 
level ; and when upon the sea it is curious to watch them 
taking advantage of the tops of the waves to mount aloft. 
When the water is smooth, they seem to run upon it with 
their feet for a great distance, and then rise very gradually 
before they can obtain full play for their wings. Having 
just killed the last of our live-stock, a sheep, we must here- 
after be content without fresh meat, with which we have 
been moderately indulged ever since we lefl home« Hith- 
erto our health has been ununpaired ; truly, goodness and 
mercy have followed us day by day; may our gratitude 
3 



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26 AGITATED SEA-SCENE. 

correspond with our obligations, and God be acknowledged 
in all our ways ! 

Aug. 15. Yesterday and to-day have been exceedingly 
tempestuous ; and the spectacle of the sea the most sublime 
and appalling that we ever beheld. The diversity of forms 
assumed by the stupendous billows was very striking ; they 
confounded the eye, and made giddy the brain, in attempt- 
ing to follow their motions and their changes. There 
they rolled along in a continuous range of vast height, and 
several miles in length ; while here they werd followed by 
huge masses of heaped-up water of lesser extent, with steep 
and rugged declivities ; others again rose like immense 
cones, or insulated mountains of fearful elevation, while 
the foam broke over their summits, and poured down their 
sides, glistening in the sunbeams with dazzling whiteness, 
a vivid green appearing beneath it, and the colors of both 
being rendered more brilliantly conspicuous by the black 
sides of the billows down which these streams of splendor 
were hurried into the abyss below. The whole horizon 
presented a^ tumultuous succession of similar images, per- 
petually intervolvibg on^ every hand. We were preserved, 
amidst all this uproar and confusion, by Him who holdeth 
the waters in the hollow of his hand, and tliere^ when the 
danger was most imminent, we were safe. It is worthy of 
note, that not at the shore only, but in the midst of the wide 
ocean. He sets bounds to the sea, saying to it, " Thus far 
shalt thou go, and no farther:" by the very element that 
raises the waves they are restrained from increasing in the 
ratio of the gale, or no vessels could live among them ; for 
when the wind exceeds a certain degree of strength, it 
actually blows down and keeps under the wild surges, which 
it had previously swollen to their limited height by a less 
impulse. The clue of our main-stay-sail broke loose while 
the storm was thus raging, and flapped with such violence, 
that no one dared to approach it, for a blow would have 
been death ; such was the force with which it struck, that, 
getting entangled with one of the largest of our anchors, it 
immediately heaved the shaft upon the bulwark. The sailors 
mastered it at length by hauling down the sail itself, and 
making it fast. 

Aug^ 16. Last night has been one of horrors and deliv- 
erances beyond all that we have yet experienced. We had 
retired to rest as usual, though few could sleep, on account 



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IMMINENT PERIL AND GREAT DELIVERANCE. 27 

of the creaking and rocking of the vessel, the yelling of the 
winds, and * the roaring of the waves. About one o'clock, 
Mr. Bennet heard a tremendous explosion or crash, as though 
the ship had been violently disrupted, or all her timbers 
compressed together by some inconceivable force ; a hideojas 
glare of light at the same time bursting through the bull's- 
eye above, upon the darlcness. Instantly afterwards, he 
heard the captain calling out of the cabin below, with ve- 
hemence, the two names of the Deputation : " Mr. Bennet ! 
Mr. Tyerman! did you hear? — did you hear that? Oh, 
pray to God for us ! All is over ! — all is over I Lord, have 
mercy upon us !" A second time, before Mr. Bennet could 
answer, the terrible light flashed like a momentary confla- 
gration of all around, and a louder peal of thunder than 
before accompanied the blaze, followed by what seemed to 
be the sea itself rushing in cataracts between decks. This, 
however, proved to be a storm of hail, the stones of which 
were as large as pigeons' eggs, and severely smote the faces 
and hands of those above, who were personally exposed to 
it. A^ain the captain cried out, " It is iww all over! — ^pray, 
pray for us! Lord, have mercy upon us!" Mr. Tyerman 
and Mr. Jones, who had been asleep, now came running 
from their berths, inquiring what was the nature of the 
occurrences, and what injury had been sustained. Just 
then a third flash of lightning, and a crack of thunder, the 
one more faint, the other less deafening than before, and with 
four distinct pulsations between them, gave token that the 
danger, though Still near upon us, might be passing away. 
The chief mate, whose watch it was upon deck, now in- 
formed us that the hurricane began about nine o'clock, but 
it had not reached its crisis till towards one, when we first 
distinguished the voice of the thunder from the wailing of 
the wind, and the booming of the waves ; and when that 
dreadful shock convulsed the vessel, which convinced the 
captain that it must have been fatally struck, as at the same 
time he heard the expression aloud, ** The pumps are of no 
use now .'" The mate said that this first great flash heated 
his face, and he felt as if stunned for a moment or two, the 
sulphurous flame appearing to run down his jacket-sleeve. 
The second peal was accompanied by a^ crimson blaze, 
which was instantaneously followed by the tempest of hail, 
pouring like shot upon himself and his terrified comrades, 
who (to use his own ei^pression) crowded about him like a 



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28 IBfMINENT PERIL AND GREAT DELIVERANCE. 

flock of sheep, and could scarcely be prevailed on to quit his 
side on the necessary duties of the ship. He observed, that 
the main-stay-sail had happily been taken in before the 
squall, or it must inevitably have been carried away, and 
perhaps involved the destruction of the vessel, with all on 
board. This he thought a very providential act, for he had 
only done it under an impression which urged him, as if he 
had heard a voice, saying, " Take it in — take it in ;— -take 
in the main-top-sail i" The Lord, however, so ordered it, 
that amidst all these perils not a mast was sprung or 
struck ; iiot a sail carried away o^ ripped ; not a timber 
suffered damage ; not a life was lost, nor limb injured, of 
passenger or crew. 

The captain, was most powerfully affected with the terrors 
and the mercies of the past night, and af^ars very serious 
this day. He says that, on the preceding evening, when he 
returned to the cabin from deck, he read « portion of Scrip- 
ture before lying down in his cot, when these words were 
deeply impressed upon his heart, "Jesus answered them, 
Do ye now believe ?" Oh, that both he and we, and our 
fellow-voyagers, may have grace to profit, as we ought, by 
this display of divine goodness towards us ; and more fiilly 
than ever before to consecrate ourselves, body and sou}, for 
time and eternity, to his service I May he give to each of 
us that spiritual discernment and understanding 

« Which hears the mighty voice of God, 

And ponders what he saith ; 
His word and works, his gifts and rod. 

Have each a voice of faith." ^ 

S. lat. 42** 19'. W. long. 88^ 30.' Therm. 48^ 

Aug. 17. This afternoon the gale had greatly abated 
fr(Mn its violence, the sea gradually subsided, and we set 
more sail. The evening was calm, and the night serene. 
The two Magellanic clouds were conspicuous objects in the 
southern sky, to the east of the galaxy, of which they seem- 
ed fleecy firagments, rent firom the beautiful zone with which 
the hand of Omnipotence has invested the heavens. 

Aug. 22. This day, and not before, the dead-lights (close 
shatters) have been removed, and we have again the pleas- 
ure of viewing the ocean from our cabin windows. The 
last week has been employed by the officers and crew in 
making preparations for their fishery, these being the chief 



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THE TROPIC OP CAPRICORN. 29 

regions for sperm whales in the Pacific. From the winter, 
which we experienced beyond Cape Horn, we are a second 
time enjoying the warmth and splendor of summer within 
less than two months, being now about as far to the west 
ais we were to the east of South America, when we were 
in the same latitude before. Our captain informs us that 
he was once becalmed for fourteen days in these seas, during 
which he made but 1° 40' of progress. In this deplorable 
situation, which might have been prolonged indefinitely, he 
was so short of water that not more than a piht and a half 
per day was allowed to each man, for every purpose. Provi- 
dence hath more bountifully dealt with us. We are career- 
ing in safety before a fair wind ; our bread has been given 
to us, and our water is sure. What blessings are bread and 
water, when these are literally the only food of voyagers on 
the great deep ! We all assent to the fact that they are so, 
but how much so they only can tell who have been ready to 
perish for want of the one, or the other, or both. In the 
aflernoon, the surface of the sea was almost covered with 
young Portuguese men-of-war (formerly described), all ex- 
ceedingly small, and resembling transparent bubbles — yet 
bubbles instinct with life. Many sheer-waters were flying 
around us at this time. These birds appear to be equally 
fitted to fly in both elements ; for when they dive after then- 
prey, they move in pursuit of it under water with a velocity 
and force hardly less than the speed and the power that 
carry them through the air. 

Aug. 25. The wind being north, we put the ship about 
at 8 o'clock A. M., shaping our course towards the islands 
which we were appointed to visit. We have hitherto been 
disappointed of the east trade winds. This evening we 
crossed the tropic of Cs^ricorn, and rejoice to find ourselves 
again in the torrid zone. Our captain, who is a man of 
shrewd observation, states that in passing from a cold into a 
hot climate (by the swift transitions made in voyaging) he 
has generdly remarked more than usual irritability and 
quarrelsomeness among sailors. This, if it be so, may arise 
from the samei physical cause which generates the complaint 
denominated prickly heat — a peculiar itching sensation over 
the whole skin, or tormenting one particular part only. 
This disease, if such it may be called, b often experienced 
by persons, whether accustomed to the sea or not, when 
they enter the tropical latitudes, and is probably the effect of 
3» 



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30 THE 6ANNET. 

heated blood, which may very naturally have a provoking 
inflaence over the temper. Our informant, the captain, 
assures ns that this fret&l and pugnacious disposition sub- 
sides in a few days after the crew have been inured to 
the high temperature of these regions ; while the prickly 
heat, in like manner, soon passes away, without the use of 
medicine. 

Considering that the islands of the Pacific may have been 
originally peopled from the continent of South America, we 
inquired of our captain, ivho is well acquainted with the 
persons and manners of many of the tribes of each, whether 
he could discern any resemblance between them. He says 
that there is a manifest similarity as to form, stature, and 
complexion, but none in language that he could ever per- 
ceive. Of the latter, however, we may doubt his compe- 
tency to judge. It is observable that the natives of the 
islands can learn to speak the languages of the South 
American Indians much more easily and perfectly than the 
English, or any other European tongue. 

Aug. 26. "A sperm whale," was several times an- 
nounced from the mast-head to-day, but in every instance 
proved to be of the physalis kind, of which un were glad, 
though the crew were disappointed. We had much feared 
diat the sanctity of the Sabbath would be broken by this, 
adventurous sort of fishing. Mr. Tyerman aptly chose for 
the text of his sermon in the forenoon : '' Hinder me not, 
seeing the Lord hath prospered my way." Gen. xxiv. 66. 

Aug. 27. Among other birds that we have lately seen 
for the first time, this day a solitary gannet {jpeUccmus haS" 
MMUs) approached us, but soon dbappeared. It is about 
three feet in length ; the body white, excepting the tips of 
the wings, which are dark brown ; the tail wedged ; the 
beak aiki quill-feathers black. While the female of this 
species of pelican is engaged with incubation, the male 
provides food, and brings it to her. This consists princi- 
pally of herrings and sprats. In th^ bag under his bill, he 
18 able to carry four or five herrings at once. In proof of 
the affection which some of the feathered tribes occasional- 
ly manifest towards one another, the following statement 
was made by one of our respectable officers on board, and 
he assured us that the circumstance came within his own 
knowledge. On the island of Natividad, in the South Seas, 
one of the pdioans frequenting there had received some in- 



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SPERM WHALE. 31 

jury, which maimed a wing, and disabled it from flying or 
diving. The unfortunate bird must have perished speedily, 
had not other pelicans, of the same species, regularly forag* 
ed for it, and day by day brought a supply of various kinds 
of small fishes fi'om the sea, which they disgorged before it, 
and left for their invalid companion to feast upon. When 
the sailors discovered this, they often watched the opportu- 
nity, and robbed the poor creature of its charitable subsistr 
ence— making many a good meal of what was compassion- 
ately intended for the cripple, that could not help itself, ' 
much less avenge its wrongs. 

We were much pleased this morning to be told by the 
captain that he was resolved to put down the practice of 
profane swearing on board the ship, and that he had just 
given notice of his determination to carry the law on this 
subject into effect in future, and fine every man a shilling 
f(N- each oath he should be known to utter. (N. B. Every 
master of a ship who does not enforce and execute this law 
among his t^rew, is himself liable to a fine of five pounds. — 
So says our authority.) 

Aug. 26. Last night the south-east trade winds, for 
which we have been daily looking, hoping, and praying, 
sprang up, and we are now steadily and pleasantly proceed- 
ing on our way. The heavens have assumed much the 
same appearances as they wore between the tropics, on the 
Atlantic; innumerable small white clouds flock the sky, 
and temper the sunbeams, which otherwise would be op- 
pressive. W^ saw a pilot-fish (scomber ductor) to-day, near 
the stern of our vessel ; it is of a silvery blue color, with 
four transverse bands of a deeper tinge ; four dorsal spines, 
and ibB tail marked with black ; the length is about eighteen 
inches, and the general shi^ like that of a tunny, but the 
head much shorter. It takes its name firom often swimming 
before or ne^r th$ shark, which it is suf^sed to pilot to its 
prey, 

Aug. 39. A sperm whale viras discovered within two or 
three hundred yards of our ship. In a few minutes four 
boats were equipped, manned, and in pursuit; but she 
escaped, disappearing in a moment when the first boat ap- 
proached her, by diving into unfathomable depths, fi-om 
which they in vain watched for her re-ascent. No whale 
can remain more than fix)m five-and-thirty minutes to an 
hour below the surface, when it must come up to discharge 



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32 WAR-HAWK. 

the water collected, and to inhale fresh air into its lungs. 
Whales frequently remain buoyant upon the surge for hdf 
an hour, during which they spout from sixty to seventy 
times, if nothing disturb them. Every distinct species of 
this genus is regular almost to a minute to the time peculiar 
to it, so that when the kind of whale is ascertained the in- 
terval may be calculated, after it has gone down, when it 
must of necessity rise to take breath again. 

Aug. 31. We are flying swiftly and delightfully on the 
wings of the trade wind, and though now within the tropics, 
and in so low a latitude as 19° S., yet tfie weather is by no 
means uncomfortably warm. No climate, indeed, can be 
conceived finer, or more congenial to our feelings and gen- 
eral health, though some allowances of course must be 
made for our being upon the water, and having the advan- 
tages of cooling sea breezes by night and by day. We never 
have had so few birds accompanying us as now, while we 
are proceeding towards the equator ; and they are considera- 
bly diminished in numbers as well as in variety. We have 
only a few pintados, or Cape pigeons, and these are daily 
forsaking us. The cause probably is that these latitudes are 
too warm for our late visitors, their plumage being remarka- 
bly thick and downy, and more adapted to colder climates. 
About this time, however, we first perceived the tropic bird, 
as it is called, from the zone to which its range is supposed 
to be confined. It preys upon flying-fish exclusively, as our 
sailors say, and not upon dolphins and albicores, as some 
naturalists aflirm. It is rarely seen on land, except during 
the breeding season ; there it perches on trees, but makes 
its nest on the ground in the bushes. 

Sept. 4; Another stranger visited us this morning — the 
war-hawk (pelicanus minor), or lesser frigate pelican. The 
bill and head of this bird are of a dingy white ; the body 
ferruginous, with a large, diamond-shaped, white patch on 
the belly, which gives it a singular appearance when flying, 
this spot forming a strong contrast with the rest of the 
plumage. The tail is forked. The male has a red gill 
hanging below the throat. The talons resemble those of an 
hawk, connected with a foot which is partially webbed. 
We are told that these creatures are so fierce and mis- 
chievous that they often perch on the masts of ships, and 
delight to tear i|i pieces the vanes. While engaged in this 
work they are so eager, and heedless of any thing else, that 



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LUNAR INFLUENCE. 33 

it is not difficult to approach and knock them down. In 
general they soar very high, watching for flying-fishes, on 
which they pounce with incredible velocity. 

According to our captain, who has had much experience 
in the favorite fishery of these seas, the whales are consid- 
erably under the influence of the moon, as to the course 
which they take, and their appearance above water ; the 
full and change of that luminary being the periods at which 
they may ^ sought with most probability of success. 
Indeed, lunar influence seems to occasion phenomena of 
a very curious nature. It is confidently aflirmed that it is 
not unusual for men on board a ship, while lying in the 
moonlight, with their faces exposed to the beams, to have 
their muscles spasmodically distorted, and their mouths 
drawn awry — aflections from which some have never recov- 
ered ; others have been so injured in their sight as to lose 
it for several months. Fish, when taken firom the sea-water, 
and hung up in the light of the moon during a night, 
have acquired such deleterious qualities, that when eaten 
the next day the infected food has produced violent sickness 
and excruciating pains. We have conversed with people 
who have been themselves disordered after having partaken 
of such fish. It is hazardous to touch on this subject ; we 
repeat what we have heard from those who ought to be 
believed, and who would not affirm that of which they 
themselves were not persuaded. The statements are left to 
be confirmed or disproved by others who have better qipor- 
tunity than we had of ascertaining their foundation in &ct.* 

Sept. 5. The captain has been very anxiously examining 
his charts of these seas, because we are now in a situation 
from which we must proceed firom the east to Tahiti, in 
which direction lie so many small islands, and coral-reefs, 
as to entitle the section which they occupy to the name of 
*' the dangerous Archipelago ;" and the peril of navigating 
it may be much inere^ised by our coming thither about the 
equinox. 

*^ In the Baptist Missionary Accounts, No. XV., we find the follow- 
ing passage : — ^* He who has slept in the moonlight is heavy when he 
awi^es, and as if deprived of his senses, and, as it were, oppressed by 
the weight of the dampness which is spread over Iris whole body.'* 
This is stated by the writer in proof of the fact which he asserts, that 
** the moonbeams have a pernicious influence in the east,*' if not gen- 
erally in tropical climates. 



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34 FIERY METEOR. 

Sept 7. A shoal of sperm whales being descried to lee- 
ward, at the distance of nearly two miles, three boats were 
dispatched to reconnoitre and attack them, if practicable, 
though it was within an hour and a half only of sunset 
The first mate struck and fastened to one ; but after being 
dragged for some time, and brought at length into the 
midst of the shoal, he was compelled to cut his line, and 
make the best of his way out of such formidable company. 
While the whale was rapidly drawing out of the line, the 
boat, following the same direction, struck against the bulk 
of another monster of the same kind, floating leisurely 
along, nearly on the surface of the water ; but though thrown 
on one side by the shock, the boat happily glided over the 
back of the unwieldy animal, without being either stoved 
or capsized. Our third mate was so keen to draw blood 
from a sperm whale that, though it was too late for him to 
fasten upon him with his harpoon, he pierced its flank with 
his lance, which he unexpectedly lost for his inconsiderate 
frolic, the fish swimming away with it. 

This evening, about seven o'clock, a fiery meteor was 
discerned from the deck, traversing the heavens due west, 
and seeming to siqk into the ocean at the horizon. It con- 
tinued visible nearly eight minutes, and had about twelve 
degrees of elevation when first discovered. Its course was 
steady and majestic ; in apparent magnitude greater than 
that of the planet Jupiter, and in color deeper than that 
of Mars. As it descended towards the sea, it had the glow- 
ing hue of intensely-heated iron. No train, nor any radia- 
tions, diverged from its clear and well-defined disk. The 
sky was remarkably serene at the time, with the exception 
of a few very light, thin clouds, behind one of which it was 
obscured for some moments. Without pretending to decide, 
we were of opinion that this beautiful but awful phenome- 
non, might be electrical, and that westward, where it van- 
ished from us, it probably exploded in lightning and thun- 
der. To ourselves, it was followed within an hour by 
thick dark clouds, and torrents of heavy rain fell during the 
night ; 

Sept. 8. Afler laying to some hours last night, to give 
the whales which we had recently seen an opportunity of 
getting ahead of us, in which direction some of them were 
going, we again set sail, in hopes of coming up with thepa 
by break of day ; but we were disappointed, and saw no 



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THE PLANET VENUS ^LUNAR RAINBOW. 35 

iQore of the shoal. This we, who were but passengers, 
regretted the more, because we feared that the sailors might 
be disheartened, after being so long from home without 
having made any capture. The officers and the whole 
crew, in these expeditions, are interested in the result of the 
voyage, depending upon the cargo which they can take back 
for the reward of their labors and perils. The owners of 
the vessels reserve a certain proportion of the oil, &c., ob- 
tained, as a remuneration for the expense of fitting-out, risk, 
wear and tear, &c. ; the remainder is then divided among 
the ship's company, each according to his rank, as previous- 
ly agreed upon. This reciprocity of interest in the success 
of a voyage — a voyage often lasting three years — ogives ener- 
gy and boldness in the prosecution of their common object 
which probably no other principle could effect. 

The captain shot a tropic bird ; it was of the red-billed 
species. When brought on board, being only wounded, it 
was exceedingly fierce, biting every thing that came near it. 
The long red feather in the tail of this bird is a remarkable 
appendage, and, small as it is, conjecture is puzzled to assign 
any use for it in the economy of its possessor. The planet 
Venus shone out this evening wfth a beauty and splendor 
incomparably excelling her loveliest appearance in our native 
land, of which we were so often reminded by those lumina- 
ries of the heaven which are common to every region of the 
earth, and familiar from infancy to every eye that owns the 
light. 

Sept. 9. (Lord's day.) The public services on deck have 
been well attended, and uninterrupted by temptations from 
the sea, in the forms of sperm whales. We observe, with 
pleasure, that those seamen and boys to whom Bibles or Tes- 
taments have been presented, have carefully covered the 
backs with canvas?, and are frequently employed in reading, 
not only this best of books, but religious tracts also, which 
firom time to time have been put into their hands. 

Sept. 11. There has been exhibited the rare spectacle of 
a lunar rainbow this night, off the starboard, and towards 
the north-west. It presented a complete semicircle for a 
few minutes, and for several moments was attended by a 
secondary arch above. The colors were more obvious' in 
this lunar iris than in- several which we had seen before, yet 
they were faint in comparison with the feeblest solar bow. 
The green and orange were the prevalent hiies. 



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96 WATER-SPOUTS. 

Sept 12. This morning we were gratified with the sight 
of several water-spouts, and as they were at sufficient dis- 
tances to forbid the apprehension of danger, we could view 
them without terror, and leisurely indulge our philosophical 
curiosity. The first two that we perceived were diffused and 
ill-defined, each having the appearance of a local shower of 
rain. The third, however, was perfect in form, and fiiUy 
realized the expectations which we had conceived of these 
singular phenomena. It appeared in the north-east, a-head 
of the ship, and, as we presumed, about six miles off. The 
atmosphere was rather sultry ; the thermometer stood at 77. 
Many white clouds were scattered abroad, with a few dark 
and lowering ones, which in England would have been re^ 
garded as signs of thunder. There was but little wind at 
the time, and we could observe that heavy showers were fall- 
ing at a. distance. The cloud with which the water-spout 
communicated was black, and highly charged with aqueous 
vapor, pretty widely stretched, and probably half a mile in 
elevation. From the bottom of this dense mass, which was 
jagged and uneven, the water-spout reached downward to 
the sea, not in a direct line, but at the upper part slojnng to- 
wards the north, making an angle of about sixty degrees 
with the liorizon, for neariy one third of its whole length; 
and thence striking perpendicularly to the surface of the 
water. At the pla^ where it communicated with the cloud 
the diameter was the largest, being, at the distance from 
which we viewed it, of the apparent size of the trunk of a 
great oak-tree, cut off immediately at the root, and inverted ; 
of course, its real dimensions must have been very tionsider- 
able. The coluinn tapered gradually to the botton^where 
its diameter might equal half that of the upper end. One 
third fix)m the top it was compact and well shapen to the 
eye, as traced on a back-ground of white clouds, which made 
the outline more conspicuous, the edges being comparatively 
dark, and the central part lighter by several shades. The 
lower end was less distinct, yet visible down to the water, 
notwithstanding the haziness near the horizon. We watched 
it for a quarter of an hour ; how long it had held together 
previously, we could not tell, but it was completely formed 
when discovered from our vessel. 

This curious phenomenon began to disperse from the bot« 
tom, gradudly disappearing upwards, till there remained onty 
the shape of an inverted cone attached to the cloud : and 



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WATER-SPOUTS. 37 

this <^ontinaed several minutes afler the pillar had vanished. 
The vapors, into wjiich it had been visibly drawn up, being 
then surcharged, broke asunder, and poured down a deluge 
of dark rain upon the spot where the apparition had stood. 
As we were going in the direction of thjs danger, the ship 
was put about to avoid coming nearer, for such a body of 
water falling upon it would probably have been destructive. 
These exhalations may be dissipated by firing a gun towards 
them. 

On the philosophy of these phenomena we presume not to 
decide, h appears to us that there are two descriptions of 
water-spouts; the one peculiar to the sea, the other not un- 
frequently seen on land, though not confined there, since the 
same circumstances may form this kind any where. In one 
case, namely, the first, we suppose that the water ascends 
from the surface of the waves to form clouds, which disperse 
over the upper regions of the atmosphere ; and of this cla^s 
we imagine that to have been which we passed this morning.* 
In the other instance, by whatever process the weight of 
water may have been accumulated in the air, in the sequel it 
descends from the* overcharged cloud upon the earth. Wa- 
ter-spouts of this kind have often burst with such violence, 
upon the places of their visitation, as to plough the eminences,' 
flood the valleys, tear up trees, excavate deep pits, and carry 
away cottages, harvests and cattle, in their track of devasta- 
tion. The breez^ increased after the water-spout had dis- 
appeared. The evening was very fine. In the trade winds, 
it is no uncommon thing to see two strata of clouds, one 
above .the other, sailing in contrary directions. This even- 
ing, however, we witnessed distinctly three strata, the upper 
and lower going rapidly northward, and the middle one 
southward. 

Sept. 13. A man-of-war hawk, many tropic birds, and in- 
numerable porpoises, gamboling before, behind, and on either 
side, have attracted our attention to-day, but no sperm-whales. 
The long delay is discouraging to our crew, who may ima- 
gine there fs some truth in the old saying among whale- 

* These^ according to the testimony of those who have most frequently seen 
them (so far as we have been able to collect J, always begin to be fcn'med at 
the bottom of the low impending cloud, ana are graduulv elongated down- 
ward. If so, neither the tneory of their being raised by electrical influence, 
or by whirlwinds, can be true, though these are the most generally received 
notions. 



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38 BOOBT-BIRD TAKEN. 

catchers, — " There is no luck while a woman is on board," 
Most probably, though they are too civil to say so, they heart- 
ily wish to be rid of iis, by a safe deliverance at our desired 
haven, in the Pacific Isles. The superstitious notions of 
mariners are inveterate, and some of them grotesque enough. 
They lay great stress upon their dreams (and every sailor 
dreams, from the captain down to the cabin-boy), often tell- 
ing them one to another, and to the passengers, at the same 
time most anxiously asking for the interpretation of them. 
We have been repeatedly entertained, at breakfast and din- 
ner-time, with narrations by our own intelligent officers of 
their dreams, some of which have been strange and fearfiil 
indeed, and calculated to quail the stoutest heart that believes 
such things realities — the actual experiences of the soul her- 
self in sleep, or prognostications of what must befall her 
awake and in the body. 

Sept. 14. A booby (a variety of the peHcanus stda) was 
caught, which differs considerably fi-om those of this species 
that we had seen, and have mentioned before. It measured, 
from the point of the bill to the end of the tail, two feet eight 
inches; across the wings, from tip to tip, five feet eight 
inches. The bill was four inches in length ,serrated half way, 
straight, but a little bent at the tip, and of a yellowish-gray 
color. The eyes, which are bright with a very light4inctur- 
ed iris, being placed at the npper part of the bill, where it is 
quite destitute of plumage, gives this singular fowl an aspect 
so vacant as at first sight to justify its name ; especially as the 
gape oif the beak extends backwards beyond the sockets of 
the eyes. We were much struck with the utter simplicity of 
this bird which we had obtained, having an oppc»rtunity of 
observing its manners. It had received no injury that we 
could discover, except the destruction of one eye, which the 
shot had entered ; it fell the instant it was struck, and was 
picked up by one of the boats without difficulty. As soon as 
it was placed on deck, the creature seemed perfectly at home, 
and without fear, among strangers. Though it had so re- 
cently suffered the loss of an eye, and must have been sufier- 
ing from the wound, it presently laid its head upon its back, 
between its wings, and went to sleep as if nothing had been 
amiss ; nay, its slumbers were so sound, that though a person 
put his mouth to its ear, and bawled with all his might, it did 
not awake. After remaining with us all night, without any 
attempt to escape, in the morning it was placed upon a boat 



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RETROSPEGTIYE REFLECTIONS. , d^f 

at the stern of the ship, whence it might have flown off at its 
pleasure ; it chose, however, to stay there, and began to dress 
and oil its feathers with the most unaffected composure, as if it 
had been bred and trained up among us. When we apprbach- 
ed too near, or touched it, though it would bite sharply in self- 
defence, it seemed to have no notion of retreating. After- 
wards, when it was thrown overboard, it coolly washed itself 
for a few minutes, then took wing without difficulty, and 
steered its course exactly, towards Dog Island, which lay not 
far distant, and where the booby family abound. 

Sept. 16. (Lord's day.) Mr. Tyerman, in the forenoon, - 
preached a sermon peculiarly addressed to young persons, of 
which class our crew is principally composed, from Matt. xix. 
16, &c. *' What good thing sha)l I do that I may inherit eternal 
life," d&c. Mr. Jones preached in the afternoon from Isa. xxvi. 
24 : " Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is 
stayed on Thee." We have reason to hope that our feeble 
instructions haye not been bestowed in vain upon our com- 
panions ; several who were very reprobate seem to be much 
reformed. 

Where we have held public worship to-day, it is probable 
that God was never acknowledged before since the creation. 
It is an affecting consideration, th«t whether we follow the 
same meridian round the globe, north and south, or the 
same parallel of latitude, east and west, it will not conduct ns 
across a single spot where the true God is known or served. 
If we traverse the meridian, and encircle the earth, north 
and south, we shall pass over the western parts of North 
America, where all is darkness ; if we follow the parallel of 
latitude, till the extremes of "east and west become the 
same," we shall intersect South America and Africa, Mada- 
gascar, New Holland, the New Hebrides, and the Friendly 
Iidands, (leaving Tahiti and its adjacencies a little to the 
right of our return), where all — all is darkness. In the little 
islands last mentioned, the true light has at length shined, 
and thousands of their Gentile inhabitants know the day of 
their visitation. When shall the Sun of Righteousness arise 
over all the nations with healing beams ? — ^Lord Grod, thou 
knowest ! 

It is now nearly four months since we saw land, or (with 
the exception of two) kny other ship than our own— any 
other human beings than ourselves. All this time we have 
been in the centre of a circle of ocean, whose circumference 



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40 INDICATIONS OF LAND. 

may be a hundred miles, under a canopy of sky, diversified 
by day with ever-varying clouds, and beautiful by night with 
those resplendent stars and planets which are seen no where 
to so much advantage as from the plane of the great deep. 
Every instant the centre of our floating circle has been chang- 
ing place, while the horizon-ring has moved with it in exact 
agreement, and at the same invariable distance. This idea, 
and the image connected with it, reminds us of Him, con- 
cerning whom the ancients said, " His centre is every where, 
his circumference no where." ' S. lat. 16^ 59'. • W. long. 
133^ Thermometer 77°. • , 

A magnificent meteor was 'seen this evening, about eleven 
o'clock. Its apparent diameter was equal to that of the 
moon, and during its appearance the whole horizon, sea, and 
sky, were lighted up like mid-day. It commenced its prog- 
ress from the zenith, eastward, descending with great velo- 
city, and being visible about fourteen seconds, when it ex- 
ploded into ten or twelve fragments, each of which for an 
instant was as bright as the planet Venus, and immediately 
afterwards the whole vanished. ' 

Sept. 18. Many small white birds having been fluttering 
about us this morning, we judged that we must be near some 
land; of which, indeed, there had been other usual indica^ 
tions yesterday. On account of the imperfections of all our 
charts, the captain deema.it necessary to send a boat a-head, 
with a light on board, in the night time, about two miles in 
advance, to make signals if any reefs or islands should be 
perceived, these seas being crowded, in some parts, with 
sunken rocks and coral prominences. Like a star on the 
face of the dark ocean, this leading torch glides on before, 
and prepares our way, as an assurance of safety, or a warn- 
ing of danger. 

Sept. 19. The first green island of the west saluted our 
view about sunrise ; and how welcome it was to our hearts, 
how lovely to our eyes, they only can know who have endur- 
ed the captivity of months on board a narrow ship, ever 
floating, yet never in appearance approximating the harbor, 
which thought can reach in a moment, and there linger and 
weary itself with looking, in imagination, from the shore, for 
the first glimpse of the expected vessel ; as though the spirit 
could spring to its destination at once, and wait, for days 
and weeks together, the sIqw arrival of the body. Such ro* 
mantic, yet perfectly natural, feelings, they must have expe- 



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AN UNKNOWi^ ISLAND. 41 

rienced, who, like us, have traversed thousands of leagues of 
watery waste, with their whole desires towards the haven 
whither they were bound, and yet only knowing by lapse of 
time that the space between them and their destination was 
diminishing in proportion. The sea->birds below, and the 
stars above, changing according to the latitudes which we 
crossed, had hitherto been the chief tokens and evidences to 
our sight of progress on our voyage over the monotonous 
abyss ; one horizon of water being as undistinguishable from 
another as two hemispheres of sky. We gazed, therefore, ' 
with unsatisfied delight on this first nameless spot of earth on 
the face of the Pacific, which we had discovered, and on 
which (so little explored as yet are these regions) probably 
no, eye of European had ever rested before, and perhaps no 
human eye 'which could see, in its existence and nroductions, 
the being and beneficence of the Creator and Upmolder of aJl 
things. This island was about five miles in length, well 
wooded, and indicating the climate under which it flourished 
by the cocoa-nut and palm^rees with which it was adorned. 
The land was fiat, and surrounded by a coral reef, on the 
south-east and north-west, on which the waves broke tre- 
mendously, forbidding all approach. We could perceive 
many of the natives running along the white shore. They 
were nearly naked, and seemed to loc^ very earnestly but 
hesitatingly towards us, whether they should put out in their 
canoes, of which there were several on the margin of the 
beach. One carried a long staff, probably a spear, which he 
often brandished in his hand. We find no distinct account 
of this island by former voyagers. It may, indeed, Be St. 
Narcisso ; but, if so, it is laid down very incorrectly in the 
charts, its true place being 17^ 24' S, lat., and 139° 33' W. 
long. This day four months we left Portsmouth ,' we have 
hitherto been safely, pleasantly, and expeditiously brought 
on our voyage by a -merciful Providence. 

Sept. W, Early this morning land was again announced 
fi-om the mast-head, as being under our larboard-bow. It 
proved to be Resection Island, discovered by Captain Cook> 
and named after his ship. It is small, and not ascertained 
to fie inhabited. Doubtfiil Island, first seen by M. de Bou- 
gainville, next presented itself; it is of considerable extent ; 
we observed smol^e rising in various places firom among the 
trees as we passed, at the distance of seven miles, in the 
evening. Our hearts yearned over the benigl^ted people of 
• 4* " . 



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42 TUSCAN ISLAND CHAIN ISLAND. 

these sequestered tracts, unvisited by the dayspring from <hi 
high, while in low accents — lost amidst the murmur of the 
waves, except to that ear with which the spirit listens to the 
still sofl wailings of humanity, wherever they are uttered — 
we seemed to hear the forlorn inhabitants saying, *' No man 
careth for our souls !" In the name of the Society that sent 
us, in the name of the Lord, whom we serve, our hearts re» 
sponded, *' God be merciful unto you, and bless you^ that his 
name may be known throughout your islands, and his saving 
health experienced by all the dwellers upon earth/' 

Sept. 21. Having lain to for the night (being now in the 
maze of the Dangerous Archipelago), at day-light land was 
again discovered; and as no name was found for it, nor its 
existence traced in the charts, we called it Tuscan Island,, 
from our vessel. It lies S. lat. 17° 22'. W. long. 143** 20'. 
In the afternoon, the captain sailed towards the shore in one 
of the boats, and hailed the natives, who were assembled to 
gaze at the strange spectacle of a European ship on their 
lone waters. Several of them came off in their little canoes, 
two of whom v^itured, though timidly, into his boat. He 
gav^ them« some triffing matters, and they presented him 
with two large pearl oysters in return. This is the twenty- 
sixth anniversary of tfie first general meeting of the London 
Missionary Society, and we joyfully commemorated it, in 
gratitude for the great things which the Lord hath already 
done for us, and jn hope of the yet greater which He is even 
now performing. Of the latter, we expect soon to be eye- 
witnesses, and to obtain an impression of their glory and 
reality beyond any thing that we could receive by the hear- 
ing of the ear. 

Sept. 22. To another undescribed island, which we 
passed to-day, we gave the name of Bimie, in honor of the 
worthy owner of 3iat ship, in which, by his generosity, we 
were enjoying a free passage to the scene of our appoints 
ment. 

Sept. 23. We passed the curious series of islets, linked 
together, on which Captain Cooke conferred the appropriate 
appellation of Chain Island. The young Tahitian, Robert, 
who came out with us, viewing this group with remarkable 
emotion, was asked the reason ; when he informed us that 
his father and mother resided there ; also that he himself 
was born there, though he had lived a long time in Tahiti. 

Sept. 24. Maiatia, or Osnaburgh Island, hove in sight, 



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ARRIVAL AT TAHITI. 43 

at a distance of five or six leagues. As we aj^roaclied within 
ten miles, the land rose in the form of a sugar-loaf, of vast 
dimensions, and seemed a mere naked rock, standing in the 
sea, and towering to the clouds. It is of a character very 
dissimilar to the low, verdant patches of earth which we have 
passed, and which seem to be altogether coral reefs, where- 
upon soil has been gradually formed, and plants and trees 
introduced by means easily conjectured ; while animals and 
men, from time to time, being brought thither, have settled 
and become naturalized on finding the means of subsistence. 
Maiatia, on the contrary, is of more ancient structure, and 
most majestic elevation. The crags and declivities are 
clothed, two-thirds of the way towards the truncated top, 
with rank vegetation, surmounted by cocoa-nut trees, single 
or in clumps. There is, however, no anchoring place on the 
coast, which is said to be four miles in compass ; not even a 
boat can land without imminent hazard. 

About one o'clock p. m., our captain discerned the loom of 
Tahiti, over the larboard-bow. This was a dark black shade 
indicating its site ; and, as we were advancing at the rate of 
nine knots an hour, we hoped to anchor in Matavai Bay by^ 
sunset. But the wind, which had blown hard all day, in- 
creased so much in violence towards evening, that we were 
reluctantly compelled ta stand off from the land, and lay to 
for the night ; the , atmosphere, moreover, being very hazy, 
and frequent heavy showers descending. Since we left 
England, we had encountered only one severe gale, and in 
these seas, surrounded as we were by multitudes of miniature 
islands, our situation was certainly so perilous that we might 
have perished on the reefs -of the very haven to which we 
had been so long steering ; but the good hand of our God 
was upon us, and we escaped. 

Sept. 25. Tahiti, " the desire of our eyes," came upon 
us at sunrise, in all its grandeur and loveliness ; — ^more grand 
in the height of its mountains, and more loyely in the luxu- 
riance of its valleys, than our imaginations had ever pictured 
it firom the descriptions of former visitors and missionaries. 
We had before tis, in exquisitely undulated outline, the two 
peninsulas of which Tahiti consists; the whole rendered 
more striking by the shadowy obscurity which clouds of di& 
ferent hues and density cast over it. In a few hours, as we 
drew nearer, the beautiful region unveiled itself in all its 
enchanting variety of hills and plains, woods and waters* 



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44 ASRITAL AT TAHITI. 

hills green up to their peaks, twice the height of &iowden ; 
plains spaciously opening firom hetween the highlands to- 
wards t^ shore, where the dwellings of the population were 
thickly sprinkled, under the shade of scattered trees ; woods 
of gigantic growth and tropical ramification, so different 
firom British iu'est scenery ; and water bursting in brilliant 
cascades from the rocky eminences, then winding in rivulets 
through the valleys to the sea. 

About eleven o'clock in the forenoon the first canoe came 
off towards us, for which the captain hove to. This small 
piece of excavated bread-fiiiit tree, balanced by an outrigger 
(that is, a piece of purau wood, lashed to the ends of two small- 
er pieces, which project fi^om the sides of the vessel), amused 
us by the simplicity of its construction, and the dexterity with 
which it was managed by the two natives who occiJ^ied it ; 
though, the sea being rather rough, we were inexperienced 
enough in their tactics to feel considerable apprehension for 
their safety. They proved to be a chief of a neighboring 
district and one of his followers, bringing bread-fi-uit, cocoa- 
nuts, plantains, and lemons, which they hoped would be 
acceptable to the strangers. Our visitors were neatly appar- 
elled in native cloth, and their modest and courteous de- 
meanor exceedingly engaged our attention. Great numbers 
of their countrymen followed, in canoes of various sizes, firom 
which they poured upon our deck ; others, with their little ves- 
sels, lined the passage by which we were to enter the port 
of Matavai, while mi^dtitudes of both sexes and all ages 
ranged themselves in groups on Point Venus (the place 
whence the transit of the planet of that name across the 
sun was observed on Captain Cook's first voyage), and ak>ng 
the adjacent reef that runs out into the sea — ^to witness and 
welcome our arrival. At length, by the Providence which 
had thus far helped us, we came to anchor in the bay, after 
narrowly escaping shipwreck, even at the last moment, by 
keeping too closely to the Dolphin Rock. Among the chie& 
who h»] come on board and crowded our cabin, one, ac- 
cording to the custom of the country, chose Mr. Tyerman, 
and another Mr. Bennet, for his tayp, or friend, and desired 
a return of similar acknowledgment on their part. As a 
characteristic signal of our arrival, we had hoisted the< Mis- 
sionary flag, which had been prepared on our voyage, having 
the insignia, on a white ground, of a dove flying, with nn 
olive branch in its bill, encbsed in a circle made by a 



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POMARE's ftESIDBNOB. 45 

serpent with the tail in its mouth, and this fenced with a 
triangle, on the sides of which was the motto, *^ Glory to God 
in the highest, on earth peace, good will to men." By this 
our brethren on the island had recognized the expected 
Deputation, and informed the natives of our character and 
object. Mr. Nott and Mr. Wilson, the missionaries at this 
station, came on board, and npost cordially received us as 
hoped-for partakers and helpers of their joy. After dinner 
we landed, and arrangements were made by these kind 
friends for our accommodation in their dwellings during our 
stay in this neighborhood. 



CHAPTER III 

Pomare's Reridence — ^Account of a League of Pacification among the 
Natives — Strangers in Tahiti — Repararu's House — Cocoa-nut Water 
— Exotic Trees — Dress of Natives — St. Luke's Gospel transcribed by 
Pomare — Visit to Papeiti — Preparations for the Sabbath — Singular 
Consequence of a Mistake in Captain Wilson's Sea-reckoning— ^irat 
Sabbath at Matavai — Prevalence of Infanticide in former Times — 
Canoe-making — Fishing — Incident by which the (jrospel was carried 
to Raiatea — Horrors of Idolatry — Pomare— Spirituous Liquors — Prog- 
ress of Chrisfianity at Raivavai — ^Tahitian Supper— Tabued Trees. 

Sept. 26^ After bringing some of our packages on 
shore, Captain Stavers, havmg learned that there was better 
anchorage in Wilks's harbor, seven miles to the south, pro- 
ceeded thither. 

King Pomare, we found, was residing on the adjacent 
island of Eimeo, when we arrived. One of his houses 
standing near Mr. Nott's, the latter accompanied us to see 
it. This structure, about a hundred feet in length by forty 
in breadth, is nothing more than a thatched roof, supported 
by wooden pillars tapering from the base to the top, leaning 
a little inward, and not more than eight feet high. There 
were umities (a kind of wooden dishes), baskets, bundles of 
cloth, and various articles of domestic fiirniture, hanging up 
under the roof. On the floor, which was covered with grass, 
several bedsteads were standing. -Near this large shed (for 
such it appeared to us) there was a smaller dwelling, the 
walls of which were framed of slight bamboos fixed perpen- 
dicularly in the ground ; and there was a door at each end. 
When the king is here, it is in this small place of retirement 



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46 STRANOEKS IN TAHITI. 

that Mr. Nott and he meet for the purpose of translating 
portions of the sacred Scriptures ; and here, from day to 
day, have they often been employed, in settling the text and 
copying out the completed portions, from morning till night. 
The king is remarkably fond of writing ; he was the ftrst 
who learned the art, and is, probably, the greatest proficient 
in it among all his countrymen: when he writes, he lies 
down on the floor, with a support for his chest, and a desk 
before him. Between this sequestered apartment and the 
larger dwelling, are courts belonging to each. Here a very 
interesting scene took place, about six weeks before our ar- 
rival. A number of the Ana people, or inhabitants of Chain 
Island, and Pomutaus (both subjects of Pomare) assembled 
here. These tribes had long indulged towards each other 
the most rancorous hatred, and, their islands being adjacent, 
they were continually at war, in conducting which, neither 
side gave quarter. The king determined, if possible, to 
subdue this enmity, and establish permanent peace between 
them. He ther^ore convened a meeting of the chiefe and 
principal personages, unarmed, on both sides. These were 
separately ranged in the two courts above mentioned, divided 
by a low fence. There stood Pomare, between the two 
parties, and in an impressive speech exhorted them to recon- 
ciliation. His arguments and his authority prevailed, and 
the representatives of both islands entered into an agreement 
upon the ^)ot, that there should be no more war between 
their respective people, but that friendly intercourse should 
take place of perpetual strife. It was laid down, upon mu- 
tual understanding, that if two or three canoes, in company, 
arrived from one island at the other, their visit should not be 
regarded as an indication of hostility, but if eight or ten 
came together, evil intentions should be suspected, and their 
landing resisted. Thus the treaty, simple in its object, and 
plain in its conditions, was ratified at once, and the issue 
promises to be happy ; there being little probability that the 
contracting parties will be otherwise excited by their neigh- 
bors than to love and good works, wars having ceased 
throughout the other dpminions of Pomare, ever since 
Christianity became paramount in Tahiti and Eimeo. 

Near the king's two residences, a number of persons 
were living in small hovels, natives of a distant island, who 
had been driven by a storm on this coast, and received with 
th^ hospitality which their pitiable circumstances needed. 



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REPAPARU'S HOUSE. 47 

Though of the same color as the Tahitians, these strangers 
differ considerably from the latter in language and manners. 
They are not tatooed, and in all respects seem an inferior 
cast of savages. We could not find that they either profess 
any form of idolatry, or have any ideft of a Supreme Being. 
' They are now learning the Tahitian dialect, both to speak 
and to read it ; they regularly attend public worship ; and 
should any of them be made rightly acquainted with the 
gospel, they may become teachers of it to their countrymen 
when they shall be returned to their homes. As, by the 
agency of storms,, population had been carried to remote 
islands of these seas, in ages past, so, in the wisdom of Divine 
Providence, storms have been occasionally made instrument- 
al in extending the knowledge of the gospel, by casting 
heathen barks upon coasts already evangelized, as well as 
by diverting European missionaries or Gentile converts firom 
their course on temporary voyages, and detaining them on 
barbarous shores, where, in the sequel, they have planted 
churches of Christ. 

In the progress of our walk along the beach we came to 
the house of Repaparu, the chief who had engaged Mr. 
Tyerman to be his tayo, or jQ-iend. He is related to the 
royal family, and is, moreover, secretary to the Tahitian 
Missionary Society. When we entered, he and his wife, a 
young woman about seventeen years of age, and several of 
his attendants — the chiefs always having a number of such 
in their train — ^immediately seated themselves cross-legged on 
the floor. The house was about a hundred and twenty feet 
in length, having one side separated from the other, and 
partitioned into small bed-rooms fer the use of the family. 
The remaining half formed an open court fix>m end to end. 
Many of the neighbors, having flocked in after us, to gratify 
their curiosity by looking at the visitors, seated themselves 
without ceremony, as though they wete at home. At our 
request, Repaparu's attendants fetched their New Testa- 
ments, out of which they read sundry portions, verse by 
verse, alternately, with fluency and emphasis ; answering 
also with great readiness such questions, arising out of the 
context, as Mr. Nott put to them. We addressed a few 
sentences to them through the latter, as our interpreter, on 
the great love of God manifested towards them, in sending 
the gospel of his Son to their islands. A dish of papoi, a 
preparation of bananas^ mixed with cocoa-nut water, some- 



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48 * EXOTIC TREES. 

thing like pudding, was now handed to us, in clean cocoa- 
shelis. Though a favorite kind of food here, we did not 
much relish it, having yet to learn to like the luxuries of the 
South Seas. 

We afterwards prolt»iged our ramble nearly two miles 
towards the extremity of the district of Matavai, accompa- 
nied by groups of natives, who joined us from time to time, 
eager to have the pleasure of carrying our umbrellas, or 
doing any kind office in their power. Being thirsty, we 
requested some pape-hcuiri, or cocoa-nut water, whereupon 
two or three of them ran to the nearest trees, which they 
climbed with surprising facility, by clasping the stems with 
their arms, and pressing their naked feet against the bark ; 
and thus these tall and branchless stems were apparently 
ascended with almost ^as much ease as they walked on level 
ground. Presently several fine nuts were brought to us, the 
husks of which the men tore off with their teeth ; then, 
having punctured one end of the shell, we were each pre- 
sented with a draught of this most delicate beverllge for 
appeasing thirst in a tropical clime. On our return, we 
passed through a rich grove of orange, lime, tamarind, and 
other fruit-trees, planted five-and-twenty years ago by the first 
missionaries, and now in their prime. Here stood the house 
which they built after their landing, and occupied for some 
time, while they were sowing in tears the precious seed of 
the word, apparently on the barren and unimprovable rock 
alone : that structure was afterwards burnt, during one of 
the frequent wars, and no other has been since reared on 
its site. 

All the remainder of the day, Mr. Nott's dwelling was 
thronged by the natives, who came to see and welcome us 
with their national salutation— Jo-oro-na — every blessing be 
upon you I Without hesitation, and in the most affable man- 
ner, many came in and seated themselves cross-legged upon 
the ffoor, while others stood at the door, or peeped through 
the window at us. This, it seems, is the custom of the 
country, and considered no way obtrusive. We asked them 
to sing one of their hymns, which they did very harmoniously, 
to a tune lamiliar to our ears. When they had gratified 
their curiosity, and not less manifested their good will, they 
(]piietly went away, one by one, others in succession supply- 
ing their places till evening. 

Most of the men wore no other dress than k piece of native 



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'^'"- 



DKB88 OF THE NATIVES. 49 

doth wound about the loins, and passed between the legs. 
Some had a loose mantle of the same thrown over their 
shoulders; and a few were more closely covered with an up- 
per garment called a tibuta^ which is a length of similar 
stuff, with a hole cut in the middle, through which the head 
appears, while the two ends hang down before and behind as 
low as the mid-leg, the sides being loose and open. The 
women were clad much in the same style, with a girdle suf- 
ficiently broad to serve for a petticoat, a shawl-like cloth 
gracefiilly gathered round the shoulders, and in general a 
bonnet, made after the English fashion, of platted grass. 

Mr. Nott, among other curiosities, showed us a manuscript 
copy of the translated Gospel of St. Luke, executed by King 
Pomare in a very neat, small hand. It was from this copy 
that the first edition of that Evangelist was printed, Mr. 
Nott stated that he had been greatly aided by Pomare in 
making that version, the king ^ing better acquainted with 
the Tahitian language, and its capabilities, than most of his 
subjects. This is probably an unparalleled instance of a 
prince — and that no mean one, for he had the power of life 
and death, and his will was law in all cases throughout his 
dominions— devoting time and talents to the slow and pain- 
ful labor of translating the sacred Scriptures, and copying 
out the work for the press with his own hand, that he might 
be the means of bestowing upon his people the greatest 
earthly boon which God has bestowed upon man. The 
Gh)spel of St. Luke was indeed the first volume ever printed 
in any language of the South Sea Islands, except a small 
spelling-book, necessary to prepare the way for it by teaching 
the natives to read their own tongue. 

Sept. 27. We all sailed to Papeete in the Tuscan, where 
our property was landed, and lodged on the premises of Mr. 
Crook, at that station. This day we had the satisfaction to 
meet several of the missionaries, with their partners and 
children, namely, Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, and their family, from 
Huahine; Mr. and Mrs. Williams, and their infant, from 
Raiatea ; also Messrs. Bourne and Darling, from Bunaauia. 
A meeting being specially appointed for the purpose of re- 
ceiving the deputation, and the persons accompanying us, we 
delivered our official credentials, and declared, each in a few 
words, our joy and gratitude on having, by the blessing of 
God, arrived safely at the scene of their labors, afler our long 
voyage. The brethren then passed a resolution, recording their 
5 



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60 PREPARATIONS FOR THE SABBATH. 

pleasure in beholding us as the representatives of the Society 
at home ; also expressing their hope that beneficial effects, to 
the cause of the gospel here, would be the result of our em- 
bassy. They passed another resolution of cordial, thanks to 
the directors, for the very seasonable and valuable supplies, 
&c., which had been sent out to them through us. We soon 
felt ourselves truly happy and at home among these pious and 
devoted servants of the Lord, who, possessing a remarkable 
diversity of gifts and dispositions, appear to us well qualified 
to promote the cause of the gospel in this new and interest- 
ing field. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crook have nine children ; yet the comfort 
of their habitation, the order in-doors, and the behavior of 
every member of their family, reflect the highest credit on 
their prudence and economy. We have here had a good op- 
portunity of remarking how much the skill and ingenuity of 
missionaries are called into exercise, to supply the lack of 
many European conveniences and accommodations. But 
though we had perceived much admirable foresight in man- 
aging affairs during the day, we still wondered where and 
how we were all to be lodged for the night. Without any 
bustle, and seemingly with little difficulty on the part of Mrs. 
Crook, sufficiently commodious berths were found for every 
one of us — thirty-two persons, young and old ; and a peaceful 
night followed a gladsome day. 

Sept. 28. We went on board the Tuscan again this morn- 
ing, for some packages which we wished to be conveyed to 
Matavai. In setting out, we were delayed some time, while 
the natives who were to accompany us to the latter, place 
collected their provision of cocoa-nuts and bread-fruit for the 
Sabbath, as they were not to return hither till Monday. 
This (our Friday) was their Saturday, and it is the universal 
practice of all the Christian natives of these islands to preps^re 
their Sunday's food on the last day of the week. Not a fire 
is lighted, neither flesh nor firuit is baked, not a tree is climb- 
ed, nor a canoe seen on the water, nor a journey by land 
performed, on God's holy day ; religion — ^religion alone — is 
the business and delight of these simple-minded pec^e on 
the Sabbath. 

The men having laid in their stores, we proceeded in Mr. 
Ellis's boat on our little cruise along the coast. Where we 
could see the bottom of the water, the ground was covered 
with the most beautiful corals, of different colors, and sin- 



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FIRST SABBATH AT MAT AVAL 51 

gularly diversified forms; sometimes rising so near to the 
surface that our keel grazed, upon thqir crests; then again 
we sailed over depths unfathomable to the eye. . Towards 
evening we landed safely at Mr. Nott's in Matavai Bay. 

Sept. 30. On Friday night we retired to rest, but waked 
not till Sunday mornings though the interval allowed for 
sleep had not been longer than usual ! This was the conse- 
quence of a miscalculation by captain James Wilson, and 
the first missionaries who settled here. Cotning from the 
east, and keeping up the regkoning with which they set out, 
they gained a day^ instead of dropping one, not bearing in 
mind that as London comes under the meridian ten hours 
earlier than Tahiti, which is 150° of longitude to the west, 
the day, at the latter place, is proportionably later. Some 
inconvenience has been suffered from this mistake, since the 
intercourse with Europeans has become more frequent than 
formerly here ; but not so much as to induce the missiona- 
ries to correct it, at the hazard of occasioning worse confu- 
sion in the minds of a people to whom it would probably be 
difficult to make the change intelligible. 

This has been to us, at Matavai, a Sabbath of peculiar 
enjoyment and sanctity. At sunrise, we went to the chapel 
en the beach, near Mr. Nott's house — fa neat structure, hav- 
ing bamboo walls, thatched with palm-leaves, furnished with 
benches made of bread-fruit-tree planks, and capable of hold- 
ing about four hundred persons. It is now used only as a 
school and prayer-meeting house. On our arrival, we found 
the place filled with natives, of both sexes, and various ages. 
They were all kneeling, while one of them was offering up 
prayer in the most fervent and devout manner. Scarcely a 
}iead was lifted up wl^en we entered, and stepped as soflly as 
might be to a place near the person who was officiating at 
the time. When he bad finished his address to the Deity, 
he gave out a hymn, which was sung with much animation 
by Uie people. He then read a portion of St. John's Gospel, 
many of those who w^e present producing their Testaments, 
and following his voice with their eyes on the words of the 
book. Another prayer was then offered up, and the assem- 
bly departed, in the most quiet and becoming order, to their 
homes, afler having continued together about an hour iii this 
spontaneous service, for none but natives were present, ex- 
cept ourselves — ^two strangers, who coming into their meet^ 
ing under such circumstances^ though we understood not a 



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53 FIRST SABBATH AT HATAVAI. 

word that was sung or said, yet were constrained, by eri** 
dence which we could not mistake, to confess that of a truth 
God was in the midst of them ; and so, falling down, we felt 
that we could, with them, worship Him. who is no respecter 
of persons, but who accepteth those, in every nation, that 
fear him, and work righteousness. 

Afler breakfast, at nine o'clock, we accompanied Mr. Nott 
to public service, in the greater chapel over the river. This 
we found filled with a silent, decorous, and neatly clothed 
congregation, of nearly six hundred persons ; many of the 
females wore bonnets of the English shape, and other parts 
of European dress. Mr. Nptt preached from the -words, 
"Sanctify them through thy truth." — ^John xvii. 17. And 
what indeed but the truth — ^the truth of God— could have 
sanctified such a people as they were, within this gener»- 
tion — ^yea, less than seven years ago ? The audience were 
exceedingly attentive, and appeared to join heartily in songs 
of praise, and silently to engage in prayer with the minister. 
We dined at Mr. Wilson's, whose house is hard by ; firom 
whence, learning that some native teachers would catechise 
the children, we returned to the chapel ; and there-witnessed 
a scene at once exhilarating and affbcting. About sixty 
young persons were on their knees when we entered, while 
a chief of the district was praying with them. During the 
catechism which followed, the questions and answers were 
repeated to Us in English, when we were gratified to observe 
that the former were well adapted, and the latter, for the 
most part, intelligent and satisfactory. At four o'clock there 
was public worship again. Mr. Wilson preached from Heb. 
ii. 3 : " How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salva- 
tion?" Afler the morning native service, Mr. Tyerman 
addressed us from Luke xiij. 7 : " Cut it down ; why cum- 
bereth it the ground ?" — and Mr. Jones, in the evening, from 
Numb, xxiii. 23 : " What hath God wrought !" We closed 
this first Sabbath among these Christians of the Gentiles with 
edifying conversation, in company with Mr. Nott and Mr. 
Wilson, our host. What we have witnessed and recorded- 
now we believe to be a fair exemplification of what occurs 
every Sabbath here, and at all the missionary stations in 
these parts. Oh, that every friend of this cause at home 
could see- the things that we have seen, and hear what we 
have heard, and feel what we have felt, this day, of the pres- 
ence and power of God, to heal, revive, yea, new-create the 



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PREVALENCE OF iNFABnriCIDE IN FORMER TIMES. 53 

souls which sin hath fatally Mrounded, and eiqposed to '' the 
second death!" How would their zeal, their faith, their 
hope, their love be increased, and their labors, their prayers, 
and their sacrifices, multiplied in proportion ! 

While going to Mr. Wilson's, in the morning, we convers- 
ed with Mr. Nott, who has resided here firom the commence- 
ment of the mission, on the subject of infanticide, and jearn- 
ed, with horror, that it had been practised to an extent 
incredible except on such testimony and evidence as he, 
and the brethren on other stations, have had the means of 
accumulating. He assured us, that three fourths of the chil- 
dren were wont to be murdered as soon as they were born, 
by one or other of the unnatural parents, or by some person 
employed for that purpose — wretches being found who might 
be called infant-assassins by trade. He mentioned having 
met a woman, soon after the abolition of the diabolical prac- 
tice, to whom he said, " How many Children have you ?" 
" This one, in ipy arms," was her answer. " ^-^^d how many 
did you kill ?" She replied, " Eight .'" Another woman, to 
whom the same questions were put, confessed that she had 
destroyed seventeen! Nor were these solitary cases. Sin 
was so* effectually doing its own work in these dark places of 
the earth, that, full as they were of the habitations of cruelty 
and wickedness, war, profligacy and murder, were literaUy 
exterminating a people unworthy to live; and soon would 
the '< cities have been wasted without inhabitant, the houses 
without a paan, and the land been utterly desolate." But the 
gospel stepped in, and the plague was stayed. Now the 
married, among this Christianized population, are exceed- 
ingly anxious to . have offspring, and those who have them 
nurse their infants with the tepderest Section. 

Oct. 1. We visited Mr. Crook. , In the afternoon, as we 
were walking round the head of the beautiftil harbor, we ob- 
served a man and woman stitching together the parts oif a 
canoe, which had been previously shapen from planks of the 
bread-fruit, and fitted together. The thread used fbr this 
purpose is called nape by the natives ; by the English, cinet. 
It is prepared from the fibres of the cocoa-nut husk, and 
platted into small cords, remarkable for strength and dura- 
bility. Holes are bored, two and two, about an inch apart, 
with two feet distance between each two ; these, in the pieces 
to be. fastened together, being opposite each other, and 
wide enough to allow the cinet to be drawn three or four 



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J 



54 nsHtNa 

times throi^h. The couple whom we saw at work proceed^* 
ed very deliberately ; when the cinet was passed through a 
hole, it was pulled tight by means of a short stick, whereby a 
strong purchase was obtained ; and while this was employ^ 
<m one side^ a stone was used on the other to beat the cord 
flat, that it might lie close. A peg was then driven into the 
hde, to keep it from slackening, till another stitch had been 
taken ; aind the work was secured after the last stitch in the 
same way by a pin, that filled up the hole, and wedged the 
end fast. In this manner the largest canoes are built, or 
rather are manufactured f the numerous pieces of which they 
consist being compactly held together by this kind of thread, 
wh'ch lasts as long as the timber itself, however exposed to 
the changes of weather, action of water, anr^ ordinary wear 
and tear. The joints are made to correspond as exactly as 
possible before the parts are sewed together, and they are 
afterwards caulked with the shorter fibres of the cocoa husk. 

Near this industrious pair, some men were iishing. One 
of these had a spear, with two iron arrow-shaped heads, 
fixed on the top of a bamboo shaft, upwards of ten feet in 
length. The other had a similar shaft with a bunch of slen- 
der, sharp-pointed sticks tied at the upper end, resembling a 
small carpet-broom. Armed with these simple instruments, 
they waded knee-deep into the water, watching for their 
prey, which they struck with admirable dexterity as soon as 
it came within their reach. 

Oct. 3. This day the division of stores and presents sent 
out by the directors, under our care, to the resident mission- 
aries was completed, when they all expressed themselves 
highly gratified with the kindness and liberality which had 
thus remembered them on their distant stations. Mr. Wflson 
mentioned the following circumstance in the course of <5on- 
versation. Five years ago, being at Eimeo, a ship was 
driven upon the reef whidh circumscribes its shores. Po- 
mare, with nineteen of his subjects, accompanied by Mr. 
Wilson, went off to assist the crew in getting the vessel from 
the rocks, where she was in danger of being beaten to pieces. 
No socmer had they set her afloat than a violent gale came 
on, which drove the ship with them all on board as far as 
Raiatea, one of the Leeward Islands, where they landed. 
A great feast was immediately prepared by the hospitable 
inhabitants for Pomare and his company. Mr. Wilson em- 
braced this opportunity of preaching the gospel where it had 



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HORRORS OF IDOLATRY. 65 

never been heard before. This he continued to do for three 
months, during which he was detained there by contrary 
winds ; and he had good reason to believe that many who 
heard the joyful sound learned to know it, and to walk in 
the light of God's countenance. One day^ while he was 
teaching the people, an old man stood up, and exclaimed, 
"My forefathers worshij^d Oro, the god of war, and so 
have I ; nor shall any thing that you can say persuade me to 
forsake this way. And," continued he, addressing the mis- 
sionary, " what do you want mor^ than you have already ? 
Have you not won over such a chief, and such a chief;—* 
ay, and you have Pomare himself! — ^what want you more ?" 
"*^A11 — all the people of Raiatea; and you yourself, I want!" 
2plied Mr. Wilson. V No, no," cried the old man ; " me — 
DU shall never have me ! I will do as my fathers have done — 
will worship Oro; you shall never have me, I assure you." 
fet, within six months from that time, this stanch, inflexi- 
ble, inveterate adherent of the bloody superstition of Oro (the 
- Moloch of the Pacific) abandoned his idol, and became a 
worshipper of the true God. ^^ . 

Some time afterwards, when Mr. Wilson was coasting on 
a preaching tour round Tahiti, his boat struck upon a reef, 
his books and his stores were all drenched in water, and his 
little boy narrowly escaped being drowned. In this dilemma, 
when he was r^ady to abandon his object, and return home, 
a man came to him, and said, '< Do you remember what you 
told me at Raiatea ?" " No," replied he ; " who are you, 
and what was it that I said to you ?" Thereupon, with much 
emotion, the other informed him that his preaching, while 
he was detained at Raiatea (on the above occasion) had 
made him so unhappy, under the burthen of his sins, that he 
could no longer continue his idolatrous practices, but had 
renounced them, and begun to serve and pray to Jehovah 
alone. The missionary, at these unexpected good tidings, 
thanked God, took courage, and proceeded on his way. 

We see and hear, wherever we go^ evidences of the glori- 
ous and blessed moral, religious, social and political revolu- 
tion which the gospel has wrought in these islands. Pomare, 
whUe yet a heathen, was, like all his barbarian ancestors, 
exceedingly cruel in wreaking vengeance on his enemies. 
A king of Tahiti has been known to take the living children 
of those whom he had slain in battle, make holes through 
their heads at the juncture of the neck, and passing a cord 



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56 POMARE. 

of cinet through the wounds, drag the little innocents, shriek* 
ing and struggling, along the beach, till they expired in ago- 
nies ; the savage conqueror meanwhile remorselessly rejoicing 
in his trophies like a fiend incarnate. The princes and 
chiefs were equally regardless of justice towards their sub- 
jects as of mercy towards their foes. A certain man having 
a fine sow and tea pigs, the soyereign sent him word that he 
desired to have them. The owner surrendered the pigs, but 
kept back the sow, at which his fpajesty was furiously 
enraged, but forbore to take by force what he had failed to 
obtain by intimidation. Another person had raised a luxu* 
riant crop of tobacco on his ground ; the king heard of it, 
and ordered the whole to be cut down and cured for his own 
use. Resistance would have been vain, or have cost the 
injured man his life. If he wanted a canoe, he had only tp 
demand and have the best that belonged to any of his people. 
The very mats on which a man and his family slept have 
been unceremoniously, and without any offer of compensa- 
tion, required and given up to gratify the royal rapacity. 
Some time ago, choosing to send a present of hogs and 
canoes to one of the Leeward Islands, Pomare got every 
thing of the kind that lay readily within his grasp ; but the 
objects of his bounty were as little benefited by it as his sub- 
jects from which it was extorted. The messengers whom he 
dispatched with the gift to Huahine remained- so long there, 
that they devoured ninety-eight large hogs, and consumed a 
proportionate quantity of fruits 'anfd other . provisions, to the 
great distress of the. inhabitants. AH; the inconveniences 
attending this mode of exaction from his subjects are- not yet 
removed ; though more regular forms of paying tribute are 
gradually introduced. Late circumstances connected with 
Pomare's commercial speculations, which have involved him 
in difficulties, have urged him to be more rigorous in taxing 
his subjects in the old arbitrary way. Yet he keeps nothing 
for himself more than is necessary for the maintenance of his 
household ; the large iremainder of his revenue being swal- 
lowed up by those hungry chiefs and soldiers who usually 
attend him, as counsellors and guards, and on whom he is 
principally dependent. 

At Eimeo a Christian chapel has been built, upon the site 
of a marae, or temple. When this place of worship was 
opened, and the sacrament was administered alike to con- 
verts of both sexes, an aged man, who had been a priest 



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POMARE. 57 

under the reign of idolatry, was indignant that the women 
should be admitted to eat with the men, and seriously pro- 
posed to the king that all the females who had communicated 
at the Lord's table should be killed, because the spot on 
which this offence against heathen prejudice had been com- 
mitted was holy ground, which women had never been per- 
mitted to pollute by treading upon it. Pomare of course 
rejected the Satanic counsel, and the hoary-headed priest 
himself afterwards saw and acknowledged his error.. 

In their pagan state, these islanders, like all uncivilized 
tribes, were excessively revengeful, and would pursue or 
watch the object of their enmity from place to place, and 
fix>m shore to shore, for many years, if an earlier opportunity 
occurred not to gratify their cruel rage. On such occasions, 
when they have at length slain their victim, the murderer 
has been known to pound the body to pulp with large stones, 
and then, spreading it to the sun till it was dried like leather, 
he would cut a hole in the middle, through which to thrust 
his head, and wear it as a tibuta, the arms dangling down in 
front, and the legs behind, till it was worn out, and fell in 
pieces from his back. A practice similar to this, it is said, 
obtained among the ferocious New Zealanders. How differ- 
ent is the character of the South Sea converts now ! No 
people are more harmless and inoffensive ; none more " kindly 
affectioned one toward .another." 

A few weeks before our arrival, some dissatisfaction had 
arisen in a district of Tahiti, in consequence of the king's 
partiality in distributing his property among his chiefs. An 
individual had sent Pcnnare a large hog, for which he hum- 
bly asked a black-lead pencil in return. This being refused,- 
he and some others who had taken offence for similar causes 
formed a conspiracy to destroy the king, and to effect a revo- 
lution in the government. The plot being discovered, the 
two ringleaders were apprehended, tried and condemned. 
Tahitians seldom deny a crime of which they have been 
guilty, when charged with it ; and these culprits frankly ac- 
knowledged theirs. They were sentenced to death, and* 
hanged upon a tree in the presence of multitudes, who wit- 
nessed the execution with indescribable horror, as a scene 
equal9 new and terrible ; justice nQt having been wont to be 
administered with such solemnity, of old, when the most 
summary and cruel punishments were inflicted on offenders 
without any legal forms. Mr. Crook attended on the spot, 



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58 pomar£. 

and while the bodies were hanging (which they did for an 
hour) earnestly addressed the spectators, and '^ reasoned 
with them of righteousness, temperance, and a judgment to 
come," allowing brief intervals of awfiil silence, that their 
minds might be more affected by ruminating on the subjects 
thus brought hoipe to their consciences. 

In connection with the vengeance formerly wreaked upon 
criminals, and the monstrous atrocities committed against 
vanquished enemies, we have been told that there are wild 
men in the mountains who have haunted the highest accessi- 
ble eminences for many years, and living in such deplorable 
degradation, that the barbarism of their countrymen, before 
they received the gospel, was civilization in comparison with 
their state. These were principally persons who had offend^ 
ed the king, the chiefs, or the priests, or had been vanquish- 
ed in batUe, and fled to the fastnesses and woods in the 
interior of the island for refuge. One of these stray beings 
had been taken alive some short time ago, and brought to a 
Christian village, where he was treated with the utmost 
kindness and hospitality by the people, as well as introduced 
to their religious meetings, but without any apparent happy 
influence upon his sullen and untr actable disposition. He 
seized the first convenient opportunity, when unobserved, to 
steal away from the custody of benevolence, and escape back 
to his rude freedom and hard fare among the mountains ; nor 
has he since been heard of Several others are known to be 
yet living in those forlorn and hideous solitudes. 

Oct. 6. Mr. Nott received a letter from the king, at Eimeo, 
who expresses high satisfaction on hearing of the arrival of 
the deputation, and those who accompanied them as future 
settlers. He says that he regards us as friends, shall treat us 
as such, and furnish us with food and other necessaries. He 
proposes to return from Eimeo as- soon as his health will 
allow him, and particularly requests that, in the meantime, 
the presents from the society intended for him may not be 
shown to any one else.^ 

• We are glad to hear that Pomare spends his evenings in 
listening to " the words of eternal life " — ^portions of the 
Scriptures which he himself has essentially aided to tru^slate 
into his own tongue being read to him by the chiefs and 
other persons in attendance. He has sometimes twenty or 
more of these sitting around him, taking verse by verse in 
turn. Of these he has himself taught several to read, and he 



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SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. 59 

delights to improve others. He learned to read in the year 
1802, and began to write about the same time. He may be 
said in a great measure to have taught himself both these 
accomplishments, which were never acquired by a South 
Sea Islander before. He engaged the missionaries to furnish 
him with lessons, consisting of syllables, words, sentences 
and paragraphs, in gradation, upon slips of paper; these he 
took with him when traveling from place to place, and 
copied at his leisure, with unwearying diligence and applica- 
tion ; thus reading and writing at the, same time, and giving 
his instructors very little trouble. He is wont also to engage 
in extemporary prayer in his own family; though he x)cca- 
sionally calls upon one or other of his attendants to officiate. 
Prayer is thus offered twice a day beneath his roof, and he 
permits no business whatever to prevent the regular discharge 
of this duty. 

It is lamentable, however, that an example in many re- 
spects so much to be commended, and so worthy of imitation, 
should be counteracted in its benign influence; by some de- 
basing habits to which the king is unhappily addicted. He 
is inordinately fond of spirituous liquors, but as he is depend- 
ent upon ships touching on his coast for supplies of these, he 
is frequently, for long intervals, abstemious from necessity. 
This is remarkable, when it is known that he has ample ma- 
terials for making spirits in his own land, and is well ac- 
quainted with the art of distilling. Not only does the sugar- 
cane grow luxuriantly here, but also the tii plant, from the 
root of which excellent spirit may be extracted. Before 
Christianity was embraced, there were multitudes of stills 
throughout Tahiti and the adjacent islands, and vast quanti- 
ties of spirits were manufactured. But when the gospel 
change took place, every still was destroyed, and their use 
in future entirely prohibited. Thus is this extraordinary man 
so deeply sensible of the evils of intoxication, that he will not 
suffer ardent spirits to be prepared even for himself, notwith- 
standing his infatuated love of strong drink, rather than haz- 
ard the consequences to his people, were they again to be 
exposed to such perilous temptations. When some Russian 
ships of discovery tou6hed at Tahiti, not long ago, the com- 
mander soon discovered Pomare's besetting infirmity, and 
expressed his astonishment that, having the means of indul- 
gence within his power, he did not avail himself of them. 
His astonishment was of another kind when the missiona- 



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60 PROGRESS OP CHRISTIANITY AT RAIYAYAI. 

ries explained to iiim the reason of such extraordinary self- 
denial. 

But whatever Pomare may have been formerly, while he 
was a heathen; whatever he may be now in the sight of 
God, professing as he does the Christian faith, without 
works, in all respects, corresponding thereto ; — ^he has always 
acted in the most friendly manner towards the mission- 
aries, and the cause in which they have been laboring' 
among his subjects ; never failing, when opportunity offered, 
to employ his influence for the promulgation of the gospel. 
In the year 1^0, he visited Raivavai, or High Island, lying 
about four hundred miles southward of Tahiti, where, not- 
withstanding its distance, his authority was acknowledged. 
On his anival, he found two parties at war with each other, 
and devastating the country by their feuds. Pomare inter- 
posed, brought the hostile leaders together, and reconciled 
them. When he was about to return home, he left this 
charge : — " Watch and see ; — ^the man who • stirs up war 
again, let him be put to death." The inhabitants, at his 
persuasion, had cast away their idols; and two Tahitian 
converts were stationed among them, at his departure, to 
instruct the willing savages in reading, writing, and other 
useful arts. The king's visit on this occasion appears, from 
accounts received a few months ago, to have been followed 
by the most auspicious effects. The peace had not been 
broken ; a large chapel had been erected, which was crowd- 
ed on the Sabbath with eager audiences. The captain of 
the ship, who brought this intelligence, said, that on^he 
Sunday when he was there, he counted eight hundred and 
forty-eight persons at public worship — seven hundred within, 
and the rest standing without, hearing the scriptures read, 
and prayers offered, by teachers, who had themselves, not 
long before, been dark idolaters. The whole population of 
Raivavai is little more than sixteen hundred souls. They 
had turned the stocks, which they formerly reverenced as 
gods, into stools to sit upon in the temple which they had 
dedicated to the true God. They are now earnestly desiring 
European missionaries to be placed over them, and Para, 
the chief of the island, sent hither a message by the afore- 
mentioned captain to that effect. 

As we were returning from a visit to Matavai, this even- 
ing, (Oct. 6,) we were invited by some natives to partake 
of such hospitality as they could afford, which gave us an 



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TAHITIAN SUPPER — TABUED TRElBS. 61 

opportunity of witnessing, and enjoying too, a meal in the 
genuine Tahitian style. In a court, surrounding a good 
habitation, we were placed on a bench under a purau-tree. 
As it soon grew dark, two rude lamps-^ach a stone about 
four inches square, in the middle of which was a hole, the 
shape and size of a tea-cup, filled with cocoa-nut oil, having 
an upright cotton wick blazing above it — ^were placed on 
the ground, and gave sufficient light during the entertain- 
ment. The table-cloth^— purau-leaves, spread in a circle— - 
was laid on the ground. On this was placed a hot bread- 
fruit, smoking from the oven, a piece of a baked fish, and a 
cocoa-nut shell of salt water, into which the morsels of the 
fish were to be dipt before they were put into the mouth. 
Cocoa-nut and spring water constituted the beverage. We 
relished the repast, and were delighted with our host. He 
was an old man, and had known captain Cook, and called 
himself his firiend. We were much amused with his con- 
versation, which a little broken English, mixed with the 
native dialect, sometimes rendered ludicrously intelligible. 
He described captain Cook as a tall, stout man ; and said, 
that at the first visit of the latter to the island, he himself 
had one child, at the second, three, and at the third^ five. 
The English, he observed, had tables, chairs, and dishes, at 
their meals; but the Tahitians took their food in the prim- 
itive manner which we saw. We bade him farewell with 
hearty expressions of thanks, which were returned to us 
with not less hearty good wishes by our host and his family. 
A§ we went home through the darkness, our guide was very 
' careful to warn us against obstructions in the way, especially 
when we climbed " One-tree Hill," which is very steep and 
rough. At ja particular point he stopped,- and directed 
our attention to the bay below,- which extends at the foot 
of the mountains, observing, that there Pomare, father of 
the present king, had fallen down in his canoe, and died 
instantly. 

Several of the cocoa-nut trees, which we passed in our 
walk, having patches of leaves tied about the stems, at the 
height of six or seven feet^ we inquired the reason, and were 
told that such -trees were tabu — set apart as private property, 
and that all persons, except the owners, were thus prohibited 
from climbing or gathering fruit from them. A tree so tOf 
hted is seldom violated; when it is, the delinquent^ if 
6 



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62 ISLANDS WHICH HAVE RECEIyED CHRISTIANITY. 

found out, is punished with banishment to a desolate island, 
as unworthy of honest society. 

Two natives came into Mr. Nott's house, and sat till late 
at night, apparently listening to our conversation with the 
most reverential respect. At length they rose up from the 
floor, and one of them said to Mr. Nott, " I don't understand 
a word that you all have been thinking and talking about; 
but I'll tell you what I have been thinking : — ^there are 
many parts of this island, especially Taiarabu, that have no 
teachers ; — why don't you send teachers to them ?" So say- 
ing, he and his companion departed. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Islands which have received Christianitv — Language of the Natives 
of the Society Islands — Destruction of Idols — Domestic Manufac- 
tures — Presents from the King — ^Hiro, the God of Thieves — War- 
spear — Missionaries prepare a Code of Laws — Tatooinc abandoned — 
visit to Eimeo— Strolline Players — Public Service — Introduction to 
Pomare — Interview with Christian Church and Congregation — 
Social Meetings for Religious Improvement 

Oct. 7. We have spent a second blessed Sabbath-day 
here. — The following islands are known to have cast away 
their idols, and declared themselves worshippers of the liv- 
ing God : — Tahiti, Eimeo, Huahine, Raiatea, Taha, Bora- 
bora, Maupiti, which may be seen from Borabora, thirty 
miles off; also Tetaroa, twenty-eight miles north-west of 
Tahiti ; Maiaoiti, Tubuai, three hundred miles south of 
Tahiti ; Raivavai, upwards of sixty miles east by south of 
Tubuai ; and Rurutu, upwards of three hundred miles south 
of Maiaoiti. It is believed, that several of the islands in 
the Dangerous Archipelago have likewise abandoned pagan- 
ism, and are waiting for the gospel. Though some of the 
avowedly Christian islands have no European missionaries 
resident upon them, native teachers, by the blessing of God, 
conduct the Sabbath and week-day devotions, reading the 
scriptures, singing, and praying, ** in the great congregation ;'' 
as well as privately, and from house to house, expounding 
the truths of Christianity according to their knowledge; 
exhorting those who say that they are believers, to adorn the 



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LANGUAGE OP THE NATIVES. 63 

doctrine of God our Savior by a suitable walk and con- 
versation. * 

Oct. 8. We are daily learning for ourselves, from the 
lips of the natives, words and phrases of the language. 
By these means we have already a considerable vocabulary 
written down ; which we often rehearse before our teachers 
of this class, who, sometimes seated in a circle about us, 
for hours together, exercise all their ingenuity and patience 
too, in giving us instructions, especially in the pronuncia- 
tion, which is most difficult to catch, and delicate to use, 
there being a nicety and refinement in this, which our 
British friends would hardly believe could exist in a lan- 
guage of uncivilized men. Sometimes, in our walks, as 
they run along side of us, they pick up a stone, a stick, a 
leaf, a flower, a fruit ; and name it to us in Tahitian, giving 
it also in parau Bretane (English) if they happen to know 
that: and all this they do with unaffected good nature, 
never being tired of repeating the word, till we have caught 
the correct accent and sound, or come as near as we can. 

Oct. 9. We make a point of putting down, from day to 
day, such information respecting the past and present state ^ 
of these islands as we receive. The mighty moral change 
commenced from the king himself. Pomare, like his pro- 
genitors and his subjects, was a gross idolater ; and so he . 
remained for many years afler the arrival of the mission- 
aries, though he was always their steady friend and patr<Hi. 
At length he began to suspect the power of bis national 
divinities, and by a bold experiment, in which he felt that 
he hazarded both his kingdom and his life, he resolved to 
pi|t them to the test. It had always been customary for the 
people when they caught a turtle to present it to the sove- 
reign. This royal perquisite was immediately taken to the 
marae, and there baked; which being done, part of it was 
offered to the idol, to render him propitious, and the remain- 
der was brought to the king and his family, who were then, 
but not before, allowed to eat of it. It was pretended by 
the priests, and of course believed by the multitude, that if 
this ceremony was not performed, some supernatural pun- 
ishment would be inflicted on the offenders. On a certain 
time, a turtle being brought to Pomare, he commanded it to 
be dressed at his own house, and forbade any portion of it 
to be presented at the temple. He then sat down with his 
household, but no one except himself had the hardihood to 



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64 ^ DOMEBTIC MANUTACTURES. 

taste. The superstitious chiefs and people naturally expect- 
ed to see vengeance poured upon the sacrilegious prince, 
nor was he himself without secret misgivings that spoiled 
the keen relish with which he would otherwise have rioted 
on the delicious food. But nothing disastrous following, he 
was convinced of the folly of idolatry and the impotence of 
his gods ; he therefore determined to cashier them, and em- 
brace the religion of the missionaries. 

Hereupon he convened his chiefs, told them what he had 
done, and exhorted them to follow his example, at the same 
time assuring them that he should employ no coercion, but 
leave every one free to do as he pleased. For himself and 
his house, however, he declared, like Joshua of old, that 
they would serve the Lord. By an extraordinary correspon- 
dence of feeling, the principal men and a great proportiojQ 
of the common people, in comparatively a short time, came 
to the same resolution. The majority of the idols were, in 
the sequel, committed to the flames, or delivered to the mis- 
si(Hiaries as spoils of the gospel, and Jehovah was publicly 
confessed to be the only God of the Tahitians. After re- 
peated inquiries we are fully satisfied that no compulsion 
was used to carry this wonderful measure; and human 
compulsion, if attempted, would probably never have carried 
it against priests, and chiefs, and people, all inveterately 
attached to the superstitions of their fathers. What but the 
great power of God alone could have done this ? 

On our walk to-day, we called at several houses of the 
natives, by all of whom we were cordially welcomed. In 
one we saw two women making cloth of the inner bark of 
certain trees. A strip of this, being carefully cleaned from 
the outer rind, is placed upon a piece of wood, called tutu, 
about £>ur inches square, with two deep grooves on one side, 
and smooth on the other. This is beaten by women sitting 
on the ground, with an instrument of the wood called Je. 
This is about eighteen inches long, and two inches square, 
one end being rounded for a handle. The four sides of this 
instrument are cut longitudinally into grooves, graduating in 
finehess ; the coarser being applied first, and the finer suc- 
cessively till the cloth is finished. This bark being gluti- 
nous, the pieces are united without difficulty, either sidewise, 
or end to end, by strokes of the le ; these strokes also, re- 
ducing the thickness of th9 materials, both widen and 
lengt^n the cloth, till the whole is completed, in measure 



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DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 65 

and substance, as may be required. When thus prepared 
the web is first bleached, and afterwards stained the color 
intended. This is altogether women's work. 

In another house, we witnessed the manner of making 
that sort of matting called pint, which is of a coarse texture, 
woven of rushes by the fingers. The ends of the rushes 
where the joints occur, are cut off with a muscle-shell, as 
expertly as they might be with a pair of scissors. When 
the makers offer these mats for sale, they expect an equal 
length of white calico in exchange. They are used for 
flooring and bedding ; the latter by the natives, the former 
by- the missionaries. — We found others of the industrious 
people employed in manufacturing the mats, which' they call 
paua, of cocoaniut leaves, cut into necessary lengths and 
breadths, which are admirably platted together, and form 
very strong protections to keep out the rain, when laid, as 
they generally are, at the doors of the dwellings. 

The process of obtaining cocoa-nut oil next caught our 
attention. The kernel is first scraped into thin flakes, being 
ingeniously scooped out of the shell by means of a semi- 
circular piece of flat iron, sharpened and fixed upon the an- 
gular point of a sloping stool, on which the person sits, and 
turns the nut, open at one end, over this edge till the con- 
tents are cleared out. The sliced kernels are then put into 
a trough, or an old canoe, where in a few days the oil 
drains from them, is carefully collected, put into bamboos, 
and corked up for use. This oil is called mori, and has 
entirely superseded the candle-nut for lighting. To the 
missionaries, however, the natives are indebted for this val- 
uable preparation. 

An opportunity was afforded us of observing the Tahitian 
method of baking. A broad, shallow excavation, shaped 
like a tea-saucer, six inches in depth, and wide in propor- 
tion, was made in the ground by means of a pointed stick. 
A fire was then kindled in it with dry wood, over which a 
number of stones, the size of a man's fist, were piled, and 
lefl till they were highly heated. The wood ashes being 
then carefully separated, the glowing^ stones were spread 
over the bottom of this oven. A pig's head and feet were 
placed on one side, upon the stones, and on the other two 
pieces of bread-fruit, from which the rind had been scraped. 
The whole was then covered with purau-leaves to a good 
depth, upon which was heaped the earth that had been 
6* 



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66 PRESENTS FROM THE CHIEFS. 

scooped out of the hol6, to keep in the heat and steam. In 
less than an hour and a half, the flesh and fruit were ready ; 
and the earth and leaves being carefully removed, the food 
was brought out perfectly clean and well cooked. . The whole 
was cleverly managed by a little boy ten years of age. 'Large 
hogs are sometimes roasted whole in these earth-ovens, hav- 
ing some of the hot stones put into the inside. Being thus 
prepared, the gravy is retained, and the meat is excellent. 

Oct. 10. The old man, who calls himself Mr. Mane, and 
captain Cook's friend, whose new house we expect to occu- 
py, has engaged, at Mr. Nott's request, to make the necessa- 
ry division of it into rooms, for our accommodation. He is 
very civil, and will not employ any one to help him in the 
work, being determined to do every thing himself. The peo- ' 
pie ofTahiti are not of various trades and occupations, every 
man, even the chie&, with few exceptions, being able to 
build his house, construct his canoe, manufacture his fishing 
tackle, &c. ; and when we consider with how few and simple 
tools he contrives to do all this, his skill and dexterity are ad- 
mirable. 

One of our taios (or friends) has presented us with a hog, 
some cocoa-nuts, maias and mountain plantains. When a 
present is thus made, it is usually placed on the outside of the 
house, and the chief, whose servants have brought it, himself 
^enters, and invites his friend to come out and look at it. 
The latter of course complies, and orders his attendants to 
bring the articles within doors. ' No expressions of thanks 
are used on these occasions, and we cannot find out that the 
language contains any terms for such acknowledgments. 
We have learnt, however, that those who are favored with 
such gifis from great men, are expected to make returns of 
something more valuable to the mercenary donors. 

Oct. 12. A considerable number of chiefs waited upon us, 
with a great train of attendants, bringing various presents, 
consisting of hogs and fruits. When we went out to receive 
them, the whole party were sitting on their heels in silence, 
with their faces towards the house, at the distance of twenty 
yards from the present^-the pigs being tied up, and the fruits 
spread upon the ground. At our aj^earance they all rose, 
and the chiefs informed us of the object of their visit. Ac- 
cording to the pustom, in such cases, we went and looked at 
the gifts; but our feelings compelled us to go beyond the 
usual courtesy, and express our sense of their kindness thus 



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HIRO, THB GOD OF THIEVES. 67 

manifested to strangers. A present from the king ta as hav- 
ing been announced, we went to the house of Manaonao 
(Pomare*s vicegerent at Tahiti, during his absence), at Par 
peete, where his majesty has a house, it being necessary that 
his bounty should be administered on his own premises. -We 
were then informed by the old chief (who is old and griev- 
ously afflicted with a species of elephantiasis), that the pres- 
ents were made to us in the name, not only of the king, but 
of the chiefs, the pec^le, and the missionaries, to the dq)uties 
of the London Society, and those who had accompanied us 
hither. There were five hogs, a great bundle of native cloth, 
as much as three men could lift, and a large quantity of cocoa- 
nuts, bananas, and mountain plantains. We were requested 
to look at these things, which we did, and, as in the fimner 
case, expressed, as well as we could, our pleasure on receiv- 
ing such tokens of friendship from the king and the several 
classes of his subjects, which had been named to us. 

Having frequent occasion to recur to the former state of 
society in these islands, we have just heard, that, among oth- 
er idols, there was a god of thieves, held by his worshippers 
in the highest honor. He was called Hiro, and among his 
votaries were many of the cleverest men, not from the lower 
ranks only, but even some of the principal chiefs. The arts 
and contrivances which these resorted to, m ottler to obtain 
the property of their neighbors and strangers, proved that 
this strange representative of Satan waa served with more 
than ordinary devotion. His rites were celebrated in dark- 
ness, at the change of the moon. While the husband prowl- 
ed forth to rob, the wife went to the marae to pray for his suc- 
cess ; yet, if success were not always found, it would be with 
an ill grace if they should charge Hiro with bad faith towards 
his followers ; for, faithful as they were in making vows, they 
were knavish enough in performing them ; thus, if a hog had 
bemi stolen, an inch or two of the end of the tail was deemed 
a sufficient thank-offering to him. With this in his hand, 
the thief went to the marae, and, laying it down <m the 
ground, he would say, cantingly, " Here, good Hiro, is a 
piece of the pig that I stole last night for you, — but don't you 
tell." Then he would slink away, persuading himself that, 
if he had wronged his neighbor, he had not wronged his god ; 
though, to do his ingenuity justice, he bad tied such a triple 
knot of villany, that it would be a nice point for a casuist to 
determine, whether he had cheated his neighbor, his god, or 
himself, the most. 



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68 MISSIONARIES PREPARE A CODE OF LAWS. 

An idea of the savage barbarity with which wars were ac- 
customed to be carried on among these tribes, may be formed 
from the horrible weapons with which they mangled and 
slew one another. Among these, there was what might be 
called strident; an instrument, consisting of a long shaft, 
to the head of which were attached three spines from the 
tail of the ray-fish. These are strong, sharp bones, deeply 
barbed; and they were so artfully fastened, that, when 
struck into the body of an enemy, they were instantly detach- 
ed from the handle, and remained rankling in the wound, 
from which the barbs prevented their being withdrawn. To 
be pierced by one . of these, was almost certain death, and 
death accompanied by the most excruciating torture. 

But when the gospel changed their hearts, it softened their 
manners, and enlightened their understandings. Finding 
their religion to be false, they suspected that every thing else 
by which they had been ruled must be wrong — their customs, 
their manners, their legislation. Hence, at their paraprou" 
rcLSf or conversations for improvement, instituted by the mis- 
sionaries, they would frequently solicit information, not on 
moral and religious subjects only, but also on government and 
jurisprudence. The missionaries, however, always referred 
them to the king and the chiefs, when questions of policy 
were put to them, saying, that they came not thither to med- 
dle with the laws and civil institutions, but to teach them the 
true religion, which would itself prepare them to receive and 
practise what was true, and right, and good, in every other 
respect. At length, the king himself requested their assist- 
ance in forming a new code of laws, founded on scriptural 
authority and principles. Even this they declined as long as 
they could with propriety, but being often importuned, they 
consented to prepare a code of legislation, suited to the 
changed circumstances of the people. This, though neces- 
sarily imperfect, in the first instance, but capable of being 
improved from time to time, as observation or experience 
might warrant, did great credit to those who framed it, to the 
king who adopted it, and to the people who submitted to a 
^stem of polity and jurisprudence so essentially different 
from that under which they had lived. The practice of 
tatooing their persons was one in which all classes delightr 
ed, but which they willingly abandoned, as associated with 
idolatry and licentiousness, when they received a purer reli- 
gion. It was made a crime under the new laws^ and when 



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STROLLING PLAYERS. 0» 

committed (which is very rare indeed), punished with very 
great severity. Such sacrifices of passion, pride, supersti- 
tion, vanity, self-indulgence, ferocity, with dl the malignant 
and inveterate evils in which they had been nurtured, have 
seldom been made by whole nations at once, as, on the adop- 
tion of Chtistianity, were resolutely, spontaneously, and al- 
most universally, made by the people of these smdl islands, 
each of which was in fact a country by itself, and the few 
hundreds or thousands of its inhabitants a distinct nation. 

We left Papaeete about noon, this day (Oct. 10), and sail- 
ed, with a pleasant breeze, in Mr. Bicknell^s boat, for Eimeo, 
which lies twenty-five ipiles from this liarbor ; presenting, as 
we approached it, a landscape on the sea, whence it rises, 
and on which it seems to repose under the blue firmament, 
having an undulated outline, that swells, fi'om the coral-reefed 
shore, to the elevation of three or four thousand feet at its 
sharp pointed summits. . In one of the highest of these peaks, 
there is a hole, open to the sky beyond, which may be seen 
through it. Tradition says, that the god Pae, being angry 
with this island, shot an arrow at it from Tahiti, which pass- 
ed through the heart of the rock, leaving this orifice behind, 
as a memorial of his prowess. On the south side of the same 
eminence is a vast amphitheatre, which, in the last war, com- 
menced by^ the idolatrous party against the king and his 
Christian adherents, was selected by Pomare as a place of 
refuge, in the issue of his being defeated and driven from his 
own island by the rebels. In this natural strong hold, almost 
impregnable to barbarian assailants, he hoped to be able to 
conceal himself and his friends, including the missionaries, 
till eventual safety 'could be secured. The battle, however, 
was in favor of the righteous cause ; idolatry itself was over- 
thrown by the decision of that day ; and those whom his arms 
had not destroyed in the conflict, his clemency afterwards 
subdued and endeared to his sway. 

As we drew near the island, Mr. Nott added to the pleasure 
which we felt in contemplating the majestic scenery before 
our eyes, by relating various circumstances of the age gone 
by, and the new one that is begun. During the former pe- 
riod, there was a description of persons, called Papaiaomu 
(Areois), a kind of strolling players, who went about the 
country, from one chief's district to another, reciting stories 
and singing songs fi>r the entertainment of the people. The 
stories were called Aamu, and were dramatic in form, so that 



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413 VISIT TO PAPE-TOI. 

several speakers might take their distinct parts, and not 
merely recite, but act them. These compositions, we are 
told, frequently did credit to the talents of the authors, while 
the accuracy and liveliness with which they were repeated, 
showed considerable powers of memory, as well as of imita- 
tion in the performances. But they were connected with un« 
utter able abominations, and therefore have been entirely 
discontinued since purer maimers have followed in the train 
of Christian principles. The licentious dancers, the barba- 
rous cock-fightings (for these were favorite games formerly), 
with other detestable and cruel sports, have been likewise 
abandoned ; the natives confining themselves to the innocent 
and healthful exercises necessary in fishing, sailing, climbing 
trees, &c., in pursuing their daily manual occupations ; many 
of which are new to them, since civilization has multiplied 
the number of their wants, and increased their means of sup- 
plying them. We have not detected any instance of wanton 
barbarity inflicted on animals, either by children or adults ; 
whatever be the state of their hearts, they have received the 
gospel as a dispensation of mercy, and externally, at least, 
it appears, in this character, to influence all their con- 
duct. 

When we got into shoal-water, the bottom of the sea was 
covered with forests of the most beautiful corals, exquisite 
in coloring, and endlessly diversified in ramification ; while 
fishes of hues yet more brilliant, and shapes as peculiar, were 
playing among their intricate mazes. 

About eight o'clock in the evening we reached Pape-toi, 
on the north-west of the island, where the missionaries re- 
side. Messrs. Henry and Piatt were waiting with a great 
concourse of the people, to welcome us. We had scarcely 
got under cover of Mr. Piatt's hospitable roof, when five of 
the deacons of the church came to aroha us, that is, to ex- 
press their joy at our arrival in Eimeo. Most heartily we 
returned their congratulations, by declaring our wonder and 
delight at beholding what great things the Lord had dofte 
for them. One of these, who was spokesman for his breth- 
ren, said (among other strong observations) — ^"We are 
brands plucked out of the burning. Satan was destroying, 
' and casting us one after another into the flames of hell ; 
but Jehovah came, and snatched us out of his hands, and 
threw water upon the fire that was consuming us — so we 
were saved !" After inviting us to meet the whole congre- 



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IDOLS BURNT AT EIMEO. 71 

gation on Monday, to have a friendly talk together^ they 
departed. 

Oct 14. (Lord's day.) The public serifices, in the na- 
tive languages, were most numerously attended, both in the 
fore and afternoon. Prayer-meetings were held as usual in 
the intervals. Oh, how good and how pleasant did we find 
it, in their Christian sanctuaries^ to witness the stillness, the 
order, the devotion of these poor islanders, lately wild sav- 
ages, ignorant alike of God and of themselves, and wallow- 
ing in all manner of abominations — their religion, such as it 
was, teaching them nothing but evil ! 

We visited one of the deacons, who, on account of lame- 
ness, was unable to wait upon us yesterday with his breth- 
ren. The benevolent and intelligent expression of his 
countenance exceedingly struck us, and interested - us to 
know something of his personal history. He is a chief and 
also a judge of the island, who, -both in his official and pri- 
vate character, is venerated by his people^ and regarded by 
the missionaries. The latter bear testimony, that by his 
uniform Christian demeanor he has hitherto adorned that 
gospel, which he was the first in Eimeo publicly to confess 
by throwing his idols into the flames. This he did in the 
presence of his countrymen, who stood shuddering at his 
hardihood, and expecting that the evil spirits, to whom the 
senseless stocks were dedicated, would strike « him dead on 
the spot for the profanation. He remained unharmed, how- 
ever, and it was not long before other chie& followed his 
example, and the people joining in with them, the temples, 
the altars, the images of Satan were universally overthrown. 
We have remarked, both here and in Tahiti, that in various 
instances, the churches of the true God have been erected 
on the very sites of the demolished maraes ; so that where 
their murdered brethren were wont to be offered up to 
devils, the regenerated natives now present themselves, body 
and soul, as living sacrifices to Him, who spared not his 
own Son for them, and who with Him is now freely giving 
them all things. 

A new chapel being much needed at this station, many 
of the materials are already prepared. The stone work for 
the windows has been wrought with peculiar neatness, and 
would do credit to European masons. A chief, who resides 
in another part of the island, but comes every Saturday 
night, with his family, to spend the Sabbath here, is building 



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72 INTRODUCTION TO POMARE. 

a substamial habitation near the intended place of worship. 
This is to be plastered both within and without, and when 
complete will be a really handsome and comfortable man- 
sion, such as had never been known among his pagan 
ancestors, nor might have been attempted for ages to come, 
had he and his posterity remained pagans. We were sur- 
prised, and pleased, to-day, to see so large^ a proportion of 
the congregation clothed after the English fashion, and with 
English manufactures, which they have already learned 
gracefoUy and modestly to adapt to their persons, as well as 
accommodate to the climate. 

We are informed that Pomare has appointed to-morrow 
for our introduction to him. The missionaries deeply de- 
plore his present threatening illness; always speaking of 
hrm in the most grateful terms, as the decided and steady 
friend of them and their work, notwithstanding his insane 
propensity, at times, to drink ardent spirits to excess. Oh, 
what a lesson is here aflbrded, of the infatuating, enslaving, 
destroying ascendency of sin over human weakness, in the 
form of but one gross habit inevitably fixed ! He employs, 
indeed, all his influence and authority to prevent others firom 
committing the same folly ; often laments his own infirmity 
with vain remorse and impotent resolution to shun the snare 
in future; but when the temptation again presents itself, 
again he falls. The sad spectacle of their monarch, thus 
led captive by an enemy the most insidious, we have rekson 
to believe, has made both young and old, among his subr 
jects, more watchful against sensual indulgences, and more 
constant in prayer to be delivered from evil. 

Oct. 15. Being summoned to wait upon Pomare, we set 
out, accompanied by Messrs. Nott, Henry, and Piatt. The 
king was confined by indisposition at a house, not far from 
hence, on the north-west side of Taloo harbor. Before we 
reached his majesty's residence, we passed the queen's, a 
long low building, with several small square windows in 
front, and enclosed by a high fence of purau sticks. On 
the way, we had to cross several small streams, over which 
we were carried on men's shoulders. The natives are very 
powerful and expert for such service, which, in traversing 
^these islands, is often needed. As we approached the pal- 
ace, if we may call it so, the royal guards formed a long 
line on one side of the road, with their fire-locks shouldered; 
some of these were 4lre88ed in English costume^ and others 



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INTRODUCTION TO POMARE. 73 

in native cloth, without any regard to uniformity. This train 
' of soldiers reached to the bamboo fence surrounding the 
dwelling ; when, by aid of stepping-stones on each side, we 
had surmounted thi» stockade, we were desired by an officer, 
in a scarlet coat, to halt. Immediately he gave a signal, 
and a volley of musketry was fired ; this, we understand, is 
the highest token of respect which the king ever confers 
upon his visitors. 

After waiting a few moments in this court, we were adr 
mitted into the house, and introduced by Mr. Nott to Po- 
mare. The king, after the first recognition of his visitors, 
pointed to some low stools, on his right hand, signifying that 
we should sit down upon Ihem. He himself was seated on 
the ground immediately before the door, a large mat being 
spread over the long dry grass that covered the floor, and a 
calico sheet laid upon that part of the mat which the king 
occupied. Several pillows were placed behind him against 
one of the pillars that supported the roof, and on these he 
leaned during the audience. He was handsomely arrayed 
in his best robes. He wore, on the upper part of his body, 
a white calico shirt, over which was thrown a beautiful 
tibuta, of native cloth, brilliantly colored and ornamented ; 
the ground being yellow, and various figures stained -upon 
it, with great taste, in the Tahitian style. His lower limbs, 
as he reclined, were enveloped with the white sheeting on 
which he was placed, gathered loosely about him. On a 
stool, at his left hand, sat the queen, Taaroa Vahine, a young 
woman, about twenty-five years of age, with her son, a fine 
boy, not yet a year and a half old ; and her sister, Taaroa- 
maiturai, at her side. The queen is a short, good-looking 
person, and, comparatively, of a fair complexion. She and 
her sister were well-dressed in the English fashion, with 
gowns, bonnets^ and, what is very rare, shoes and stockings. 
The little prince had nothing on but a thin muslin vest, that 
reached below his knees. He is not yet weaned ; the 
queen, his mother, suckles him, and she performed that ma- 
ternal duty several times in our presence. The boy's name 
is Teariitaria. Near this group sat the princess Aimata, a 
healthy girl about ten years of age, by Pomare's former 
spouse. Her skin is of a darker tincture than her half- 
brother's. She was neatly clad in a blue-flowered fi'ock, and 
wore a straw bonnet. Next to her were seated three ladies 
of honor dressed in English cottons : — two of these were 
7 



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74 INTRODUCTION TO POMARE. 

very corpulent. To the queen, her son, the princess, her 
sister, and these three female attendants, we were formally 
introduced, and had the honor to shake hands with each^ 
On one side of the door, nearly in front of the king, sat 
Tati, his prime minister ; and further off, ranged through 
the interior of the spacious apartment, stood a great number 
of chiefs and servants of the household. Many other per- 
- sons, on the outside, were permitted to look in upon the 
scene, through the interstices of the enclosure or walls, 
which were nothing more than purau staves fixed in the 
ground, in the usual manner. In a corner of the building 
stood the king's bed, screened by a curtain of native cloth, 
which formed a small recess, with space sufficient for a 
bedstead. The house was about sixty feet long by forty 
wide, without division of rooms ; and, besides the bed al- 
ready mentioned^ contained no furniture, except a few Areoi 
stools, several mats, and some small articles of domestic 
convenience. 

When we were duly seated, we first inquired after his 
majesty's health ; to which he replied, that it was the same 
as it had been for some time, and he was still suffering pain. 
We then announced the purpose of our visit to his domin- 
ions, and delivered to him the most respectful remembrance 
and regards of the society which we represented ; assuring 
him of the gratitude and esteem, in which his protection 
and encouragement of the missionaries were held by the di- 
rectors and officers. We then produced the letters which 
we had brought for him, from the society, and stated that 
the presents, according to his own desire, had been left at 
Tahiti. He returned a very gracious answer, expressing his 
pleasure at beholding us on his islands, as a deputation from 
the society in England. We next thanked the king for his 
kindness towards our brethren, who were stationed here as 
preachers of the gospel, and cordially congratulated him on 
the glorious and peaceful triumphs of that blessed gospel 
over the ancient cruel and abominable idolatries that pre- 
vailed before missionaries visited these shores ; — ^triumphs, 
in which, we were confident, he himself must heartily re- 
joice, since, under God, he had been eminently instrumental 
in promoting them. 

Pomare now inquired concerning the operations of the 
society in other regions of the earth, and seemed highly 
gratified with the glad tidings which we were enabled to 



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INTRODUCTION TO POMAltE. ' 75 

bring him, respecting the progress of the gospel in Africa, 
the East and West Indies, and elsewhere. We took this 
opportunity of recognizing the establishment of missionary 
associations within his own dominions, and returned thanks, 
on behalf of the- parent society, for the munificent contri- 
butions of cocoa-nut oil, and other articles of native pro- 
duce, which had been sent by himself and his subjects, and 
received by our treasurer. We further informed him, that 
we had brought another missionary and his wife, to be sta- 
tioned among his people ; also two artizans, the one a car- 
penter, the other well skilled in the manufacture of cotton ■ 
cloth. These we recommended to his special protection ; 
as it was the desire of the directors of the missionary so- 
ciety to benefit him and his subjects, by teaching them (next 
to the lessons of eternal truth) useful arts and occupations, 
whereby, even in the comforts of this life, they might be 
raised far above their former state. In this he appeared 
cheerfiilly to concur. 

The discourse then turned on European politics. He 
asked concerning the state of France since the restoration 
of the old &mily and government ; and mentioned Buona- 
parte as being in safe custody. We told him that we had 
left France, England and all Europe at peace ; that the king 
of the British Islands, George the Fourth, was in good 
health, and the country in a state of increasing prosperity 
in its commercial concerns ; — we laid particular stress on 
the benefits which England derived from the influence and 
example of his (Pomare's) late friend, George the Third, in 
encouraging agricultural improvements, general industry, 
and education by means of schools, in which not only or- 
dinary but Christian instruction was given to the children 
of the poor ; we added, that our present sovereign and many 
of the nobUity, as well as the ministers of the gospel, and a 
vast number of the professors of religion among us, were 
promoting the knowledge of the sacred scriptures, in every 
quarter of the earth, to which access could be obtained, by 
sending to all people, in their own language, translations of 
the words of eternal life. We had not sat long, when he 
ordered wine to be brought, with glasses, which were placed 
on a low stool before us. Fearing that our presence and 
conversation might prove fatiguing to him, as he was evi- 
dently very much indisposed, we rose to depart, but he re- 
quested us to stay a little longer, and then we were con- 



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76 INTERVIEW WITH CHURCH AND CONGREGATION. 

ducted to the court-yard to view the presents which he had 
provided for us. These consisted of fourteen fine hogs, and 
five large heaps of bananas, mountain plantains, taro, bread- 
fruit, cocoa-nuts, &c., placed on framed, like hand-barrows, 
each as heavily loaded as two men could carry. We return- 
ed to acknowledge the royal bounty, manifested by these 
gifts, as well as those we had received in Tahiti, on Friday 
last,' after which we took our leave, highly gratified with 
the circumstances of this audience. 

Pomare, so far as we could judge, for we only saw him 
seated, has more of personal dignity than could be expected 
from one who had been so lately a rude and fierce barba- 
rian. In stature, we are told, he reaches six feet two 
inches, with limbs and frame athletic in proportion. His 
countenance is far superior in comeliness, as well as in ex- 
pression, to the engraved portrait which has been published 
in England, though that presents a general likeness. The 
visage is long, the features bold, the lips thick, and the nose 
broad-set, according to the prevailing traits of the Tahi- 
tians ; but his complexion is swarthier than ordinary among 
his countrymen. He wears his beard rather long on the 
upper lip, reserving also a small tuft between the lower lip 
and the chin. His hair is worn short round the front and 
sides of the head, with one long lock behind, which was 
roUed up and fastened at the crown. His hands are consid- 
erably tatooed, particularly round the joints of the fingers. 
His manner appeared courteous and affable, though grave, 
and he was occasionally languid from ill health ; but, as we 
are informed, he is never loquacious. Every one speaks of 
him as a man of talents, judgment and foresight ; as well as 
possessed of far more general knowledge than could be ex- 
pected, considering the few and imperfect means he has en- 
joyed of gaining instruction. His subjects look up to him 
as an oracle, and behave, in his presence, with profound 
veneration. When we remember how lately he was sole and 
despotic arbiter of life and property throughout these islands, 
much credit is due to him for having exercised his authority 
with comparative mildness and equity ; those instances of 
rapacity and oppression, which occasionally occur, being in 
fact exceptions from the acknowledged forbearance and leni- 
ty of his usual government. 

In the. after part of the day, we proceeded to* the place of 
worship, to meet the church and congregation of believers 



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SOCIAL MEETINGS FOR RELIGIOUS IHPROTEBIENT. 77 

hero, according to appointment. These were all assembled 
to meet us in their best apparel ; and with looks of the most 
animated satisfaction, they welcomed us as we entered, and 
made our countenances to reflect corresponding delight, even 
as face answereth to face in water. Mr. Tyerman opened 
the meeting with prayer. We were then conducted to that 
part of the chapel where the deacons and church-members, a 
hundred and three in number, were seated. To these we 
gave the right hand of fellowship, in the name of the mission- 
ary society, and all those Christian friends in England whom 
we represented on this occasion. We afterwards addressed 
the audience, and congratulated them on what God had done 
for them, since it had pleased him to open the eyes, the ears 
and the understandings of the population of these beautiful 
and sequestered isles (long under the dominion of the prince 
of darkness), to see and hear and know the things that be- 
longed to their peace. After expatiating at some length on 
the propagation of the gospel, in other parts of the world, by 
missionary, Bible, tract and school societies, — ^the word 
preached and taught being every where accompanied by 
signs following, — a hymn was sung, and Mr. Bennet closed 
the meeting with prayer. Mr. Nott was our interpreter. 
We then shook hands with all the baptized and candidates 
for baptism. Never had we witnessed more Christian affec- 
tion and unity of spirit. The fruits of the gospel are the 
same every where, — love, joy and peace, social as well as 
personal. 

When we retired from this service to a neighboring house, 
to partake of some refreshments, the, kindness of the congre- 
gation, was shewn to us, by the usual tokens, — a present of 
two hogs, a quantity of such fruits as were in season, and 
some roots of taro of prodigious bulk. In the evening, there 
was a meeting of a considerable number of females, among 
whom were the queen and her sister, at Mr. Henry's house, 
for the purpose of praying, reading and conversing on reli- 
gious topics. Similar means of griace are enjoyed weekly, 
and conduce much to the mental and spiritual improvf^ment 
of those, who, under the despotism of idolatry, were the most 
degraded of slaves. 



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78. SHELLS, &C. 



CHAPTER V. 

Project of a Cotton-Mill — Shells, &c. — Magnificent Natural Panorama 
— Night-scene — Bans of Marriage — Palma Christi and other Plants — 
Native Martyrs — Great Marae — Arabu, Chief of Eimeo— Cowries, 
,&c. — 'Roman Catholic Missionary — Trials of the first Preachers of 
the Gospel here— Roguery of the Islanders formerly — ^their present 
Character contrasted — Idolatrous Priests — Second Interview with Po- 
mare — ^Tatooing — Mosquitoes — Return to Tahiti — Housekeeping — ; 
Native Manners — Barter Trade. 

Oct. 16. This morning, accompanied by the missionaries, 
we went up the valley, to examine a situation which had 
been pointed out, as eligible for a mill of any kind, but espe- 
cially for cotton works, such as were proposed to be con- 
structed by Mr. Armitage. The supply of water by a plen- 
tiful stream, the pleasantness, healthfulness and fertility of 
the situation, with its proximity to the residences of the mis- 
sionaries, seemed to render this spot, in every way, suited 
for such an establishment.. The vast amphitheatrical bosom 
of the mountains might graze thousands of cattle ; and it was 
with pleasure that we saw several cows and a bull eating the 
luxuriant herbage on their slopes. This small herd belongs to 
Mr. Henry, and supplies him abundantly with milk and butter. 
Pomare has signified his approbation of this plan of a cotton- 
factory, " if the man can carry it into effect" These words 
repeated several times, intimate not only some doubt on the 
part of the king of success, but some prejudice against the 
undertaking, from the failure of Mr. Gyles's previous experi- 
ment. 

In the afternoon ^e ascended the fine harbor, and river- 
mouth, in two canoes. On the coral rocks and 4he beach, 
as we proceeded, we collected the following shells* — the 
areho, a small brown turbinate, a quarter of an inch long, 
found adhering to a leaf in the water; — a siQall muscle, of 
delicate taste, called by the natives pice; — tona, a large 
cockle ; — ^the cA£, another bivalve of the same species, but 
larger even than the former ; — also the ptiiy a brown worm, 
marked with black rings, an inch apart; some of these 
worms were from one to one and a half and two feet in 
length ; they lay at the bottom of the shoals, and when tak«n 
out seemed to be nothing more than long slender bladders of 
water. The piao, or brown butterfly, was flying in great 



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BIAGNIFICENT NATURAL PANORAMA. 79 

numbers around. We met a man who had caught a singu- 
lar and splendid fish. It resembled a flounder in shape, 
being twelve inches by six in length and breadth. The pre- 
vailing color was a silvery gray, the tail and side fins of the 
richest gold, the delicate shades of which were radiated be- 
yond the junctures of these with the body. The natives call 
this fish paraha, and consider it excellent food. We observ- 
ed, likewise, a small species of sprat, called ona, the body of 
which is brown, the fins black. The mcum toria, a small 
bird, like a plover, was frequently seen sitting on the rocks. 

This is one of the finest harbors in the world for depth, 
safety, and convenience of obtaining firesh water and wood. 
It is nearly three miles in iength by half a mile in width. 
The deep water continues at the sides to the very shore, so 
that a ship may approach close, and be moored fast to a tree 
with perfect security. The entrance is through the opening 
of a reef, which runs across the mouth, and protects it fi-om 
heavy seas. When we had advanced about two miles to- 
wards the head of this bay, we came to a bar of sand, brought 
down by the river. Over this, the natives dragged the 
canoes, and then we were paddled a mile up the stream, on 
either bank of which the most luxuriant tropical vegetation 
expanded^ in the majestic ito, chestnut, t^t-apple, and cocoa- 
nut trees ; with innumerable puraus, of every size and form ; 
shrubs and plants, especially the cryptogamous ones, flour- 
ishing in richest abundance, and often of prodigious magni- 
tude. 

We landed near the site of the sugar-mills, formerly erect- 
ed hf Mr. Gyles, now in ruins ; the valuable parts of the 
machinery having been removed by Mr. Bicknell, junior, 
and Pomare, with the view, it is said, of re-commencing the 
works at Tahiti. The sugar scheme failed here, in conse- 
quence of the king's jealousy, excited by false alarms insinu- 
ated into his mind, by foreigners, that slavery and the cul- 
ture of the cane were necessarily associated ; as though the 
Europeans would presently come and possess themselves of 
the islands, when they found that sugar was produced in 
them. From the site of the dilapidated mills, we ascended 
Mount Gyles (so called firom the late settler here), which 
stands nearly in the midst of a vast circumvallation of 
towering eminences, that meet and astonish the eye at every 
turn. 

The mountains, with surpassing grandeur, and not less 



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80 MAGNIFICENT NATURAL PANORAMA. 

beauty of contour and coloring, when seen at due distance, 
do indeed form corresponding walls, to what may be stylea 
an immense rotunda, roofed with a blue expanse of firma- 
ment, overhanging the pinnacles of the everlasting hills. 
Here, were such an occasion to arrive, a fit theatre mijght be 
found for the assembled population of an empire, to receive 
a message fi-om heaven, by the voice of the archangel, and 
the trump of God, whose sound should go forth, and be heard 
throughout the whole area and circumference, crowded with 
gazing, listening, or adoring multitudes. The proportions 
of this temple of earth and sky (for such it appeared) were 
so harmonious and exact, that its immensity was lost, at first 
sight, for want of a contrast whereby to measure its parts. 
But when we looked back upon the harbor of Taloo, and 
saw the steep declivities, by which we had ascended from the 
beach, diminished like peaked points beneath our feet, we 
were then made almost tremblingly sensible of the magni- 
tude of the mountains that here engirdled our horizon, and 
the breadth of the interjacent valley, in the middle of which 
we stood, and felt how little is man, when he perceives but a 
glimpse of the greater works of God, though they are uncon- 
scious matter, and he a living, intellectual soul. Yet is there 
an exaltation (akin to the immortality that stirs within him), 
even . in that humbling sense of littleness ; for it is hot his 
inferiority to mounds of earth, and tracts of water, which he 
feels, but his utter nothingness before Him who made all 
these, and into whose presence-chamber he seems to be 
brought, when, scenes, like that which we were contemplat- 
ing, overpower the nerves, and almost disembody the spirit 
by the entrancement which they induce. Language can 
convey no distinct idea of such a panorama as here stretched 
around us. The ground, clothed with exuberant vegetation, 
rises gradually from the coast towards this interior district, 
where the whole surface bursts, as it were, into abrupt and 
precipitous elevations, the crests of which are naked rocks, of 
stupendous bulk, and strangest forms. Some seem to stand 
on very narrow bases, with broad and beetling fronts ; one; 
facing the harbor, resembles a huge tower, surmounted by a 
sharp spire ; in another place, a mass of black stone, apart 
from the adjacent range (which is brown basalt), bears a> 
rude likeness to the head and shoulders of a man. The val- 
leys intersecting these gigantic heights, are as lovely and 
fertile as the eye can desire to look upon, when, giddy and 



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BANS OF MARRIAGE. 81 

bewildered with gazing on the terrible sublimities above, it 
seeks repose in the green dells and shady solitudes below. 

In the evening, while we slowly returned across the har- 
bor, the glimmering of the stars, as they multiplied over 
head, gave to the faded realities of day-light the unsubstan- 
tial forms of shadows ; woods, rocks and mountains being 
alike dark shapes, and the sea itself an invisible mirror of 
the firmament, in which beneath, as above, the planets Jupi- 
ter, from the east, and Venus, from the west, contended with 
each other in brilliancy and beauty. * 

It added much to our enjoyment on this excursion, to be 
in company with the only two remaining missionaries, Mr. 
Nott and Mr. Henry, who first came out, in the ship DufT, 
with captain Wilson; and while on our return, at night-fall, 
we sang, in our boat, upon the water, '^ God moves in a mys- 
terious way — his wonders to perform," &c., these fathers of 
the Polynesian church acknowledged that He had often thus 
dealt with them, and having found Him ever faithful, they 
.had learned to trust in Him, under -the darkest dispensations 
of Providence. 

Oct. 17. Mr. Nott preached this afternoon to a congre- 
gation of about three hundred persons. At the close of the 
service, the bans of marriage were published between a 
young man and woman, who, having formed a strong attach- 
ment, desired to be united. A relative of the female, how- 
ever, disapproving of the match, stood up, and forbade it. 
This brought on a short altercation between the parties. 
Some friends of the young man had objected in the first in- 
stance, but having been induced afterwards to consent, the 
young woman's friends determined to retaliate, and were not 
now to be appeased. The disappointed couple, therefore, 
in great affliction, were obliged to postpone their nuptials, 
till all who were interested should be reconciled. After pul>> 
lie worship most of the people retired to the adjoining school- 
room, to attend a prayer-meeting, at which the queen and 
her sister were present. These personages are always ac- 
companied by two soldiers, armed with muskets, wherever 
they go. 

Towards evening we visited some of the plantations in the 
neighborhood of the king's house. Here we saw the plant, 
called papa^ a kind of rush, the long spires of which are 
used in making the finest mats. The paper mulberry, 
called onte^ grows in great luxuriance here; its bark furnishes 



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82 PALMA GHRISTI NATIVE MARTYRS. 

the material for the best native cloth. The stem is sel- 
dom more than an inch in diameter, rising to the height of six 
or seven feet, and producing a broad, rough, light-green leaf. 
We were shown a ninii, qr press, by which the residue of 
the cocoa-nut oil is extracted, after the better portion has 
been drained off by the process formerly despribed. The 
bamboo-bottles, in which the oil is kept, are single joints of 
that cane, which hold from two to three quarts each. The 
oil is introduced by a small hole pierced through the partition 
at one end; when full, the aperture is plugged up, and 
bound over with the leaf of the fara, tied tight with purau 
bark. The palma christi, or castor oil plant, grows plentiful- 
ly in these islands. It produces its berries, at the same 
time, in every stage, from small green clusters to full ripe 
ones ; and frequently in the same bunch, the crude and the 
mellow appear intermingled. This seems to be the case, in 
some degree, with most of the fruit-bearing trees in this cli- 
mate, which, being ever-green themselves, yield, contempo- 
raneously and in succession, leaves, blossoms and fruit : — the 
vi-apple, and one other tree alone, being deciduous. 

We called upon the church deacon, already mentioned 
as being a chief and judge under the king. When this man 
first embraced the gospel, he became an object of hatred and 
abhorrence to the idolaters. A party of these had once con- 
spired to kill him, when he and a few other pious persons 
were assembled together, in the evening, for prayer. The 
ruffians came secretly upon them, armed with muskets, and 
levelling their pieces, were about to destroy the whole groupe 
at a volley. Their deliverance was singularly providential ; 
the marked victims within knew nothing of the lurking assas- 
sins without, yet were the latter restrained from executing 
their diabolical purpose, by an influence, which (as they 
declared afterwards) they could not understand. Seized 
with sudden horror at the deed on which they had been so 
desperately bent, they threw down the murderous engines, 
and rushing into the room, confessed their guilt. The Chris- 
tians received them with so much kindness, and so freely 
forgave them, — thus heaping coals of fire upon their heads, — 
that they were utterly overcome, and went away promising 
never to molest them again ; and they kept their word. Two 
others, however, who had professed the Christian faith, were 
called to seal their testimony with their blood. Their per- 
secutors having surprised them, and escape being cut off, 



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GREAT MARAE. 83 

they meekly said, — " We know what you want. Y6u may 
kill our bodies ; our souls you cannot kill ; — do your pleas- 
ure." They were slaughtered in cold blood, and their 
remains offered at the marae, in sacrifice to the idol-gods ; 
but sacrifices of every kind, to '^ the abominations " of Eimeo, 
were soon after abolished for ever. 

Oct. 18. Wishing, to visit a marae once held in extraor- 
dinary veneration, at the distance of seven miles westward, 
we sent to the king to request the loan of a suitable canoe. 
One was immediately sent, with a sufficient number of na- 
tives to paddle it to the desired spot. On our way we 
touched at two small motus (incipient islands) composed of 
coral rock, and scarcely above the level of high water. On 
these, the aito (the iron-wood of Europeans) grows in gveat 
luxuriance, entirely covering the surface, and presenting the 
appearance of a forest upon the sea. Each of these islets is 
about a mile and a half in circuit, and distant half a mile 
from the coast of Eimeo. Some rabbits have been turned 
loose upon one of them, in hope that they may breed there. 

The wind being contrary we landed before we had reach- 
ed the marae, and walked thither along the shore. Here we 
passed a spacious chapel (itself formerly a marae), where 
had been held the annual missionary meeting for the adja- 
cent islands, in May last. On that occasion, three thousand 
persons were assembled. This building is famous for hav- 
ing been the rendezvous of the Areois. Here they cele- 
brated their horrid excesses ; and here the doom of thou- 
sands, when hostilities were meditated, had often been de* 
cided by the auguries of the priests. This structure, in the 
native style, is two hundred and ten feet in length, forty-five 
wide, supported by seventy pillars at the sides, and having 
nine others within, placed along the middle, to support the 
ridge-tree. When the glorious revolution took place, the 
king transformed this haunt of all that was unclean into a 
Christian sanctuary. 

Thence we proceeded to the great marae, or rather assem- 
blage of several maraes, built on a projecting point of land ; 
such situations often being chosen, as most conspicuous at 
sea, and most convenient for landing canoes. Near the sea, 
upon the very beach, is a large heap of massy stones, a hun- 
dred feet long, and twenty feet high. The side near the 
water is in ruins, many of the blocks having fallen down ; 
the other side bears more distinct traces of its original con- 



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84 ARABU, CHIEF OF EIMEO 

struction, several of the steps, or courses, of hewn stone, re- 
maining entire. Adjoining .are the dilapidated walls of two 
enclosures. In one of these the priest was wont to officiate, 
in a sitting posture,' with his hack resting against a huge 
stone, formerly erect, now prostrate. In this attitude he 
offered up prayers to the idol, which was placed at the oppo- 
site end. Fragments of carved ornaments in wood were 
lying about, mingled with the relics of hogs and fishes, once 
offered in sacrifice. At a short distance stands a second 
marae, nearly perfect. This consists of three steps, the front 
stones of which are hewn, having courses of rounded ones 
ranged alternately in layers with them. The summit is half 
the width and length of the basement ; the interior has been 
filled up with coral blocks. A quarter of a mile from this 
stood the house of the gods. Here their images were depos- 
itee}; but having been ejected, their dwelling has fallen into 
irreparable decay; stones, beams, and rafters are scattered 
Qver the ground, mouldering and overrun with rank vegeta- 
tion. These hideous dens and dungeons of idolatry are sur- 
rounded by a gloomy grove of what once wer6 sacred trees — 
the ati, aito^ and others ; beneath whose melancholy shades 
the rites of blood and the orgies of darkness were celebrated, — 
a spectacle for fiends to glory in, and from which angels, if 
they came nigh, would turn away and weep. 

As we came. away we met Tarahoi, a hoary-headed man, 
who had formerly been a prophet of Oro (the god of war). 
At this place Mr. Henrji has seen him, in a fit of pretended 
inspiration, convulsed through all his limbs, distorting his 
countenance, and foaming at the mouth, like one Verily pos- 
sessed by an evil spirit. His oracles, uttered in unnatural 
ejaculations, were words of fate, and on them depended life 
or death, war or peace; kings and people being equally 
swayed by his mysterious counsels. Leaving him we pro- 
ceeded to the residence of Arabu, the principal chief of 
Eimeo, who, though he was one of the last to yield to Chris- 
tianity, has been among the first of its professors in every 
good word and work. He had prepared a bountiful refi-esh- 
ment for us ; but, while it was setting out, presented us with 
cocoa-nut water, of which we took a welcome draught, after 
the morning's fatigue. A number of natives, meanwhile, 
came into the house, the whole floor of which was carpeted 
with handsome mats, in honor of our visit. We ^seized the 
opportunity of addressing the company, in earnest and affec- 



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COWRIES, dZrC. 85 

tionate terms, on their eternal interests. They listened with 
humble and apparently sincere devotion. The entertain- 
ment, which was now brought in, consisted of an entire hog, 
smoking from the oven, borne by two men, who placed it on 
a tray upon the floor, at the side of a large wooden bowl, 
called an umiti, containing a baked fowl and bread-fruit. 
The table-cloth, consisting of purau leaves, was spread be- 
side these dishes, before us (the guests), in a circular form, 
about four feet in diameter. Afler a blessing had been im- 
plored, a native carver, with a large knife, separated portions 
of the flesh, fowl and bread, laying them, in turn, before us ; 
when we all ate and were satisfied. While we were enjoying 
this repast, we could not prevail on our kind host to partake 
of any thing with us. This is the custom of the country. 
Whatever is set before their guests is expected to be eaten 
by them, or taken away. Here was an ample supply, both 
for ourselves and our attendants, who gladly carried off^ all 
that remained. We staid so long with this hospitable chief, 
that night overtook us in oUr canoe, before we could reach 
home. But the evening v^as serene; not a breeze ruffled 
the lagoon, and the natives think nothing of striking upon 
sunken rocks in these still waters ; when such an accident 
happens, they jump out, and heave 'the light bark over the 
obstruction, then spring back to their seats, and paddle away 
again, in perfect security — from fear at least. We arrived 
safe, but late, at the missionary station. 

Oct. 19. In rambling among the rocks and coral reefs, 
we have found many objects of interest and curiosity, in 
natural hif^tory. The poreho, or cowrie, abounds in its nu- 
merous and elegant varieties. The nmu, a purple spunge, 
adheres to the corals, and looks beautiful under the water. 
Two species of eels are common here ; the one about six 
inches long, and the bulk of a goose-quill ; the other smaller 
still, with a mouth projected far beyond the head, at the ex- 
tremity of a large snout. We remarked also the nohu, a de- 
scription of toad-fish, five inches in length, thick and chubby 
in its form ; with small eyes, sunk deep into its head, and 
just behind an uncouth mouth, which opens upwards. It 
has gills and fins, with a row of sharp spikes upon its back, 
and is assuredly one of the most loathsome things to look 
upon in the animal creation. It lies at the bottom of the 
water, and is so nearly the color of the sand as not to be 
easily discovered. This creature is the dread of the natives, 
8 



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86 PRESENT OF FISHES. 

who sometimes tread upon it with their naked feet, which 
the keen pricl^es upon its hack pierce deeply, and cause 
excruciating torture. A locked jaw, and death, are some- 
times the results of being lacerated by this miserable little 
urchin, which happily is not common. Another plague to 
the natives is the kuruhurumau, a crab-like insect, which 
also pricks their feet, and gives exquisite pain. — We found a 
brown-speckled gelatinous animal, having two horn-like pro- 
jections on its head, and two below the neck ; also two flaps, 
that double over its back, from which it ejects a purple fluid, 
when disturbed. Many small fishes, singular in shape and 
splendidly tinctured, play among the coral groves, or glide 
beneath the smooth lagoons. 

This evening we attended the catechising of adults at the 
chapel. There were about two hundred present, young and 
old, of both sexes. They read in course, verse by verse, 
from the New Testament, and then explained their views of 
the meaning. These were generally correct, and where er- 
roneous, it was the business of the missionaries to set them 
right. They are exceedingly docile, and receive with filial 
reverence the instructions of their teachers. 

Oct. 20. We ascended, to a considerable height, the 
mountain behind the missionary settlement, from which a 
commanding prospect of the adjacent reefs and winding 
shores is obtained. The rocks are a blue stone, of close and 
hard texture, containing a considerable portion of ferruginous 
matter ; when exposed to the atmosphere, the metal oxydizes, 
and the mass assumes a deep-black color. 

We received a present of fishes from Pomare. One of 
these, called oirihumu, is curious. It is eighteen inches 
long and half as many broad ; the shape oval ; the tail and 
fins yellow, with a border of black ; strong and sharp teeth 
arm either jaw ; besides which, it has a formidable defensive 
apparatus, both on the back and under the belly, namely, 
three sharp-pointed bones curving backwards, connected by 
a membrane ; these the fish can raise for the annoyance of 
an enemy, or contract, so as to lie flat with the body, at 
pleasure. There are five rows, also, of short spires extend- 
ing about the tail. It is esteemed delicate food. 

Oct. 21. We had the usual Sabbath services, in the native 
and English languages. In the evening, Mr. Tyerman bap- 
tized the infant daughter of Mr. Piatt, the missionary. 

We have lately been told that, several years before the ar- 



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TRIALS OF THE FIRST PREACHERS HERE. 87 

rival of our missionaries, some Popish adventurers, from Li- 
ma, in Peru, caiAe to establish the Roman faith here, as had 
been done by their church throughout South America. 
They settled in Tahiti, where they built a commodious house, 
and enclosed the space about it with a strong fence, to pro- 
tect their live stock of hogs and fowls. The natives, how- 
ever, by one ingenious stratagem or another, contrived to 
rob them of every thing ; by fish-hooks and lines catching 
the fowls, and by more violent means possessing themselves 
of the swine. At length, finding that the natives treated all 
their attempts to convert them with derision, and, besides 
plundering them of their property, continually harassed them 
with knavish pranks — on one occasion, alarming them with 
the apprehension that poison had been given to them, when 
they had been induced to taste of the teve, which blistered 
their lips as soon as they touched it — ^these unfortunate 
emissaries abandoned their project in despair, and re1;urned 
home. • 

For many years our missionaries were used in the same 
reckless and mischievous manner ; but neither mockery nor 
mal-treatment moved them. Enduring hardness as good 
soldiers of Jesus Christ, they could not be conquered, be- 
cause they would not yield. These devoted men, so soon as 
they had gained sufficient mastery of the language, made 
frequent tours through the islands, publishing from village to 
village the gospel of the kingdom. They generally travelled 
two and two together ; and when they arrived in a populous 
neighborhood, one went to one extremity, and the other to 
the other, inviting the inhabitants, from house to house, to 
attend at the appointed place. After thus collecting a small 
flock, and conducting them towards the central rendezvous, 
one of their reluctant recruits would make this excuse, and 
another that, to go into the bush, to call upon a friend, &c. ; 
80 that seldom more than ten or twelve could be mustered 
when the service began. Some of these soon deserted likewise, 
and the rest either made game of the preacher, or were them- 
selves laughed to scorn by their profane neighbors. These 
would say to a deformed person, *' Go, you hump-back, to the 
preacher, and he will set you straight;" or to a cripple, " Take 
your lame leg to the white man ; he will cure it." For nearly 
twenty years, the missionaries bore reproach and shame, will- 
ingly, for the Lord Jesus ; but it grieved their feeling hearts 
to see the same ignorance, superstition, lewdness and cruelty, 



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88 ROGUERY OF THE ISLANDERS FORMERLY. 

without diminution, prevailing among the heathen, as they 
found at their landing. Meanwhile, like their Roman Catho- 
lic predecessors, they could scarcely preserve any movable 
property from people who gloried in theft and roguery. One 
day, when a great quantity of linen and other apparel, which 
had been washed, was exposed 'to dry in the garden, 
some expert pilferers, by means of long bamboos, with fish- 
hooks at the end, abstracted every article, and escaped with 
the spoU, unperceived. The houses being open, like bird- 
cages, passers-by could see every thing that was hung up 
within ; and they frequently had the boldness and the skill 
to make what they coveted their own. Mr. Nott, however, on 
one occasion, having preached a sermon to some of them, on 
the conversion of Zaccheus, the publican, the next day oae of 
his hearers brought a gimblet, a second an axe, a third a ham- 
mer, a fourth a book, and other various articles — all stolen, and 
some of them long ago, from ships and strangers — the con- 
science-smitten culprits confessing their depredations, and 
promising amendment. This afforded some encouragement, 
and, indeed, it was one of the first satisfactory fruits of the 
labors of our brethren here. 

Contrasted with by-gone times, in this respect, and in 
proof of the honesty of the people now, it may be mentioned, 
that a pair of gloves, which Mr. Tyerman had lost one night, 
upon the public road, were brought back to be owned the 
next day, by a young woman who had found them. We are 
not yet aware that any thing has been purloined frcmi us since 
our landing. Many packages, brought from' the ship, have 
been (from necessity) left out, night after night, under a shed, 
which is quite open at one end, and nothing has been missed. 
Let men of the world, in the exercise of ordinary candor, ac- 
count for this change in the character of a whole people— not 
in one island, but in several — on any other ground than that 
of a pure and divine principle superseding a corrupt human 
one, wherever the gospel has been victorious over idolatry. 

But the most formidable obstacle to the success of the mis- 
sionaries, in their evangelical work, was the apparently indis- 
soluble union of statecraft and priestcraft here ; the civil and 
ecclesiastical offices, if not lodged in the same individuals, be- 
ing confined to those who were interested in upholding both — 
force not being sufl^cient, without fraud, to hold even barba- 
rians under their bondage. Justice and humanity were out 
of the question ; nothing was too violent or too infamous to bo 



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IDOLATROtS PftlEdtS. 89 

(Adopted) if it promised to strengthen or to increase royal or 
sacerdotal usurpations. The king stood at the head of all the 
chiefs on the one hand, and of all the priests on the other ; 
consequently, these two bodies supported their common head, 
while he protected and aggrandized each in return, that 
he might secure his own ascendency. This crafty and 
cruel system kept the people in the most abject servility. 
Whatever the king, the chiefs, or the priests, required or com- 
manded, none durst refuse or resist. If any one were so 
rash, he was marked out as a victim to be sacrificed to the 
demon-divinities, in whose name, and by whose sanction, 
all acts of oppression were decreed and justified. A poor 
fellow who had committed an offence of this kind, being 
aware of his danger, sought sanctuary on the premises of 
one of the missionaries, and so long as he remained within 
the enclosure, he was safe. Several months had elapsed, 
and the affair seemed to be forgotten, when the man ventur- 
ed forth again. Within three days he was caught, and 
murdered. His body was carried to the marae, in a basket 
called haape, made of cocoa-leaves twisted together ; such 
as the priests used in presenting human sacrifices (afler they 
had been slain at^ a distance) to their atrocious idols, in 
whose presence the carcasses were hung upon the sacred 
trees around the shrine. 

Though the king was supreme over the priests, as well as 
the chiefs, it is remarkable what power the former, especial- 
' ly those of Oro, who pretended to inspiration, sometimes af- 
fected to exercise over hin^. In their fits of fanatical frenzy, 
while delivering oracles, they would insist on the sovereign's 
implicit compliance with their mandates, denouncing the 
most dreadful judgments if he were refractory. One of these 
insolent impostors, on a certain occasion, vehemently urged 
Pomare to commence some horrid operations on the day fol- 
lowing. The king hesitated, saying, " If it rains, we shall 
not be able to proceed.'' " "The weather is in my hands, 
and there shall be no rain to-morrow," replied the priest. 
Next day, however, the rain descended in torrents till noon. 
Mr. Nott, who had heard of what had passed, went to the 
king, and pointing to the clouds, as they poured down the 
water, exclaimed, '* What is this, king ?" "What is it ? — 
why, it is rain," answered Pomare. "But did not the 
prophet of Oro tell you that the raiji was in his hands, and 
that there should be none to-day ?" inquired the missionary. 
8* 



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90 SECOND INTERVIEW WITH POBfARE. 

'' He did ; but no doubt Oro is angry on some account^" re* 
plied the king, evidently evading the consequence of such 
failure in the prediction. This circumstance, and other ex- 
posures of the knavery of the pretended prophets,' no doubt, 
had their effect upon that slnrewd and intelligent prince, 
when the eyes of his mind became once a little enlightened^ 
to discern the fooleries and atrocities of the ancient super- 
stition. 

The following circumstance will tend to show how the chiefii, 
leagued with the priests, maintained their dignity in the eyes 
of the people. When a chief was seized with sickness, or when 
his wife bore him a child, the whole district was immediately 
laid under a restriction, which they called rahu. This was 
done by the direction of the priest, who sent aporo (a herald), 
dressed in green leaves, fastened round his neck, and hang- 
ing down to his girdle, to make proclamation, in these words : 
" Let no fires be kindled ; let no food be cooked ; let no ca- 
noes put to sea,'' &c. &c. So long as this prohibition re- 
mained, the people were obliged to go to distant parts of the 
island to prepare their victuals ; nor was it removed till cer- 
tain prayers had been made, and sacrifices offered at the 
marae. Meanwhile, if any one dared to violate the inter- 
dict, immediate death was the penalty. — ^The gospel was the 
fittest instrument to break such a yoke ; and it Jtas broken it. 

Oct. 22. We have had a second interview with the king. 
He proposes to make an aquatic tour round the island of 
Eimeo, by short stages, for the benefit of his health. He 
came from his house, early this morning, in his canoe, and 
being unable to walk, appointed us to meet him at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Bicknell, which is near the beach. His prime 
minister, Tati, waited upon us to announce his master's 
wish to take friendly leave of us before his departure. Ac- 
cordingly we accompanied him to Mr. Bicknell's, where we 
found Pomare lying on a sofa, with his legs and feet covered 
as before. His breath was short ; he oflen coughed, and 
showed symptoms of great weakness, as well as pain, 
from indisposition. He told us that he had given orders for 
all such things to be collected for us (curiosities of the coun- 
try), as we might desire to take home on our return. We 
intimated that we should like to have the model of a canoe. 
He replied, " It is made long ago ;" — meaning that it should 
certainly and immediately be done. He inquired concern- 
ing our plans for future operations; especially, when we 



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mAma^ formeblt a phophet of oro. 91 

vhottght of making the tour of Tahiti, as he himself intended 
to return thither, after having completed his voyage round 
Eimeo. We explained to him, as far as we could foresee, 
our purposes in respect to cursorily visiting those windward, 
and also the leeward i^nds, in the course of a few months. 
He afterwards asked what o'clock it was, probably that he 
might gratify his curiosity with the sight of our watches ; 
being fond of all such articles as display exquisite mechanical 
skill in their construction. He is said to possess many val- 
uable watches of his own, and to have given no small num- 
ber away among his chiefs. Having examined ours with 
much attention, he inquired if we had any spectacles. Mr. 
Bennet produced a pair, with green shades. Pomare put 
them on, looked through them, and seemed much delighted, 
but returned them very quietly. When we had left the house, 
however, he requested one -of the missionaries to follow us, 
and propose an exchange of his own green shades, which 
were too small, with those of Mr. Bennet, which precisely 
fitted him. The request was, of course, readily complied 
with. Our audience, this time, lasted about an hour, and we 
had much reason to be pleased with the king's courtesy. 

When we had returned to our friend's house, the queen, 
her daughter, and her sister, came in, to take leave of us, 
before commencing their journey with the king. They 
were all attired in the native fashion, with a cloth girt round 
the loins, and another thrown loosely over the shoulders. 
Their English dresses, it seems, are their robes of state, and 
for Sundays. They wore small bonnets, however, and shoes 
and stockings. 

Two chiefs afterwards visited us. One of these, named 
Mama, is a man of great influence in Eimeo, and formerly 
was a prophet of Oro. He assured us, that although he 
sometimes feigned his fits of inspiration, to deceive the cred- 
ulous multitude, yet, at other times, they came upon him 
involuntarily and irresistibly. Something seemed to rush- 
through his whole frame, and overpower his spirit, in a man- 
ner which he could not describe. Then he frothed at the 
mouth, gnashed his teeth, and distorted his limbs with such 
violence that it required five or six strong men to hold him. 
At these times his words were deemed oracles, and whatever 
he advised respecting state affairs, or other matters, was im- 
plicitly observed by king and chiefs. However loath any 
person nyght be to admit the reality of Satanic possession, 



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92 FORMER PERILS OF MISSIONARIES^ 

in these days, all who have witnessed the fearful exhibitions 
of idolaters while affecting preternatural influences, or have 
conversed with such as have themselves been actually, or in 
imagination, under those influences — and who^ after they 
have become Christians (when no 4oubt of their sincerity 
could be entertained), have declared ingenuously how far 
they had wilfully imposed upon others, or how far ( judging 
by their present feelings and convictions) they have been 
themselves deceived by fanatic excitement, so as to have be- 
come the passive instruments of him whose business it is 
"to deceive the nations;" — ^would feel it very difficult to in- 
validate the pretension, though there is by no means suf- 
ficient evidence absolutely to establish it. Our viisitor says 
that he never feels any thing of the kind now, nor has he 
ever been tempted in like manner since he embraced Chris- 
tianity. These desperate impostors oflen threatened to kill 
the missionaries, whom, nevertheless, they dreaded as much 
as they hated. Often they could not bear the sight of those 
good men, and ran to hide themselves at their approach. 
The preservation of the lives of our missionaries in such a 
country for twenty years — always exposed and defenceless as 
they were, yet boldly rebuking sin, and inculcating righte- 
ousness — conduct calculated to rouse the vengeance of a 
wicked people, without fear of God or respect for men be- 
fore their eyes, — may surely be regarded as a proof of the 
divine care of " the good Shepherd,' ' who sent forth his im- 
mediate disciples as '* sheep among wolves," with this maxim 
for their conduct — '^ be ye wise as serpents, but harmless as 
doves ;" and this assurance for their comfort amidst trials — 
" the very hairs of your head are all numbered." — Matt. x. 
16, 30. 

The two chiefs who called upon us today, with many 
others, are about to accompany the king on his coasting voy- 
age found Eimeo, and thence to Tahiti, to witness the event 
of his alarming malady; and to know, as they themselves 
informed us, his mind concerning the future government of 
his dominions. Pomare seems to be very generally esteemed* 
by all classes of his subjects, who regard him as the greatest 
sovereign that ever reigned in these islands. 

In the evening we walked along the foot of the mountain 
towards the king's house, where we had had our first ajudience 
with him. Hard by, observing a small cabin, composed of 
leaves and mats, about the size and shape of a gipsy-tent^ 



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TATOOIN6. Wl 

and open at one end, we inquired of the neighbors what it 
was ; when we were answered that it was ^.fare hurt raa, — 
a house of prayer, belonging to Pomare, into which he is 
accustomed often to retire, for secret devotion. It stands 
near the beach, is shaded by a few trees, and surrounded with 
a fence. We could not look upon such an oratory, for such 
a man, without deep emotion. The very grass that strewed 
the floor, on which he was wont to prostrate himself, seemed 
evidence of '' some good thing found in him towards the 
Lord God of Israel." 

Oct. 23. We have often been struck with the singular 
ingenuity displayed in the tatooing of the bodies and limbs 
of these people. No two are marked alike. Different 
figures and devices, according to every one's fancy, are im- 
printed upon their skins, with a regularity and beauty which 
cannot but excite admiration. In very few instances the 
face was tatooed ; the chest, arms, loins, legs, and hands of 
the men were principally thus ornamented. The women are 
tatooed on the same parts, but more especially and curiously 
about the ankles, and over the foot as far as the toes. ^h& 
rank of the individual might frequently be guessed by the 
quantity and character of these elegant delineations. We 
cannot learn that tatooing had any immediate relationship to 
idolatry, or any of its rites ; there is little doubt that it was 
an artifice employed to enhance personal beauty, according 
to the notions prevalent here, as well as among other barba- 
rous nations, with whom this usage obtains. As soon as 
Christianity was received, the practice was conscientiously 
abandoned. None of the young people are seen thus deco- 
rated, though some attempts have been made to revive the 
fashion in several of the islands. In fact, it is now looked 
upon as a badge of heathenism, imd if openly resumed, in 
any district, would be regarded as a symptom and signal 
of revolt against the existing government, of which Christi- 
anity is the avowed basis. Tatooing was executed by pro- 
fessional artists, who travelled about the country fer employ- 
ment, and obtained ample recompence from their customers, 
in hogs, cloth, fruit, and whatever else they wanted. The 
operation was generally performed at the age of twelve or 
thirteen years. The whole was not accomplished at once, 
but at different times, as the patient was able to bear the 
pain and inflammation that followed every stage of the process. 
The instruments used were flat bits of hard bone, an inch 



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d4 MOSQUITOES. 

in length, and of different widths, from an eighth to a quarter 
of an inch. One edge of each piece was cut into fine, close 
spikes, like a very small-toothed comb ; it was then fastened 
to a stick four incl;ies long, as the head of a rake is attached 
to the handle. This being held between the fore-finger and 
thumb of one hand of the operator, and the indented edge 
struck gently with a piece of wood, held in like manner in 
his other hand, inflicted as many punctures in the skin as 
there were points in the instrument. The coloring matter 
was introduced with the strokes, the teeth of the bDuy tod 
being each time dipped into a preparation of soot, produced 
by the burnt candle-nut, collected in a small oven, and mixed 
with water to the consistency of cream. This coloring, in 
the olive skins of the natives, becomes an indelible dark 
blue ; and where the tatooing has been well executed, the 
patterns resemble exquisite net-work, or delicate embroidery. 
It is remarkable, that though the parts which bear these im- 
pressions are liable to be affected with blotches and scars, like 
the rest of the body, yet, when the wounds are healed, the 
figures reappear on the sound skin, though sometimes a little 
distorted. 

Oct. 24. The weather being favorable, we took leave of 
our friends, many of whom came to say, " laorana" " all 
blessings be upon you !" and at eight o'clock a. m. we put 
off in a boat for Tahiti. We were, however, soon compelled, 
by a cross wind, to land a few miles from the missionary set- - 
tlement. The chief of the district not being at home, we 
were but scantily supplied with provisions by the poor inhab- 
itants, who nevertheless made us. welcome, and furnished us 
with the best cheer they could. The mosquitoes swarmed 
here, and wigre excessively troublesome ; for we no sooner 
forebore driving them away than they alighted in great mul- 
titudes on our hands, and quite covered them, till we again 
destroyed or swept off the pestilent annoyances. 

On the beach here there is a marae, built of coral blocks, 
twenty feet by twelve in length and breadth, and sloped from 
the ground like the roof of a house. It is less dilapidated 
than these forsaken structures generally are. We had oflen 
heard of the pious people of these islands retiring among the 
bushes, for the purposes of prayer and communion with God. 
To-day, we were happy to follow their practice, and under 
the shade of thickets or embowering trees, poured out our 
souls before Him who inhabiteth eternity, and whom we 



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RETURN TO TAHITI. 95 

found as verily presetit among the woody solitudes of Eimeo, 
as in temples made with hands in our own country — at the 
domestic altar, round which we have worshipped with Chris- 
tian friends, or in the closet, at our own home, when we have 
shut to the door, and prayed " to our Father which seeth in 
secret." At our temporary lodging here, there was no divis- 
ion of the house into rooms, the whde being one open apart- 
ment, from end to end ; so that, being obliged by continued 
adverse weather to spend the night in it, blankets spread 
upon the floor were our beds, while our boat's crew of natives 
slept upon the grass that strewed the floor, or in the open air 
without. There being a small chapel, Mr. Nott had previ- 
ously preached to the few people that lived at hand. 

Oct. 25. The wind having subsided, we re-embarked at 
four o'clock this - morning, and by eleven in the forenoon 
reached Tahiti safe and well. We had scarcely landed 
when a strong gale began to blow, which, if it had sprung up 
a few minutes earlier, must have driven us many miles down 
the coast, westward, before we could have made shore. We 
reached Matavai in the evening, afler having refreshed our- 
selves at Mr. BicknelPs, and been sumptuously entertained, 
by an aged chief, named Noauno, by the way. 

Oct 27. Feeling the necessity of having some rallying 
point, as well as store-room for our luggage and provisions, 
we had engaged a small house at Matavai, which being now 
conveniently fitted up for our reception, we removed into it 
from Mr. Nott's. It is a native dwelling, situated at the 
head of the bay, and near the river, commanding views of 
land and water of great extent on the Tahitian coast, with 
the graceful island of Eimeo reposing in aerial perspective, at , 
the distance often leagues. On the one hand, about a stone's 
throw, a chapel of superior architecture, and large dimen- 
sions, is rising towards completion ; on the other, a rich and 
productive orchard of orange, lime, citron, and tamarind 
trees, planted by the first missionaries. Near this stood 
their original residence, built by themselves, substantially, of 
wood and stone, but burnt down by the enemies of Pomare, 
in the fi^st war against Christianity, which drove the king 
and our brethren from Tahiti, to take refiige in Eimeo. 

The house which we have taken measures thirty feet in 
front, and is eighteen feet wide. The walls are of purau 
sticks, placed an inch and a half asunder, so that to Europe- 
an constitutions it is airy enough. The roof slopes to within 



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96 SECURITY AND CONTENTMENT. 

six feet of the ground, and is thatched in the native style 
with broad leaves. The door is composed of a few rough 
boards, clumsily nailed together, and hangs upon leathern 
hinges, which have once been the soles of a pair of shoes. 
In front of this, on the outside, there is a. small enclosure, 
formed of stakes driven into the ground, and so high as not 
very easy to be stepped over. This is to keep out the pigs, 
which would otherwise visit us in our dwelling, with as much 
freedom and as little ceremony as the people themselves. 
At some. points, boards, and at others, mats, are attached to 
the walls to keep out a little of the wind and rain. We, 
however, shall find it convenient to line the inside with cloth, 
to prevent being continually overlooked by curious eyes, 
hundreds of which are daily peeping and prying around us. 
The interior arrangements are open-work partitions, like the 
extreme walls, forming a bed-room and also a place for stores, 
at each end, with a spacious drawing-room between, carpeted 
with long grass. Two canteen tables have been lashed to- 
gether to form one ; boxes placed upon each other are our 
seats, but not much to be depended on, as their crazy support 
is very apt to be withdrawn if slightly overbalanced. Our 
landlord's old bedstead, a number of casks, and other lum- 
ber, furnish one side of this grotesque apartment Our own 
iron bedsteads were at first placed on the floor, but we were 
then so liable to be invaded by armies of fleas, peopling the 
grass with which the floor was strewn, that we were obliged 
to raise them on stilts, to a height which made the evil of 
climbing into bed only less than the evil of falling out might 
have been. Even this precaution did not prevent our be- 
siegers, the fleas, from storming. our nocturnal citadels; it 
only put them to a little more trouble in scaling the outworks. 
But we had multitudes of assailants in the air as well as on 
the ground ; from these (the musquitoes) our lawn curtains 
proved a sufficient defence, when we had once excluded the 
enemy from within, and drawn them round our beds. 

When we commenced housekeeping, we each engaged a 
native man-servant to wait «pon us, cook our victuals, carry 
us across fords, and help to manage the boat when we had to 
sail from one place to another. But, however humble our 
dwelling and scanty our accommodations, we envy not kings 
their psdaces nor great men their splendor. The presence 
of God, not visible but felt, hath hallowed and blessed our 
frail tabernacle, which we dedicated to Him froin the hour 



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NATIVE MANNERS. 97 

that it became our abode. Here it is our duty and our hap- 
piness to serve Him, in .that cause to which He has appoint- 
ed us. Though our slightly wattled dwelling could have 
affcNrded no security against violence, we needed none ; shel- 
ter from the elements was all that we wanted. Hither, dur- 
ing the intervals of visiting, and after the fatigues of the day, 
we retired for privacy ; and at night lay down in peace, fear- 
ing no evil, under the never-slumbering eye of Him that 
keepeth Israel; and amidst a people, lately savages, now 
Christians — Christians in their infant state. — On an island 
inhabited only by children, we should not have been more at 
home and at ease. 

Oct. 28. (Lord's day.) While we were in the house, be- 
tween the ^hours of divine service, many of the natives came 
in, with the frank familiarity which custom justifies here, 
. and observed with quiet but intense curiosity all that we did 
and all that we hadgibout us. One of them read a chapter 
from the gospel of St. Luke ; they afterwards sang a hymn ; 
and all behaved with the utmost decorum. Though it is not 
always agreeable to our notions of comfort to be encumbered 
with the presence of strangers, we must acknowledge that 
there is always so much good nature expresesd in their coun- 
tenances, and such simplicity of manners among them, that 
it is impossible to be seriously offended with their inquisitive- 
ness. They go into every room, and carefully examine what 
happens to attract their notice, but never remove any thing 
out of its place, nor even handle it. 

Oct. 29. The Tahitians are very early risers. No sooner 
does the day begin to davm than they quit their couches, 
^d proceed to their occupations, beginning with their pri- 
vate and social devotions, for in every house there is family 
prayer, morning and evening. Whatever these islanders 
may have been, in their heathen state, they are not the in- 
dolent beings now which they were formerly represented to 
be. They do a ffreat deal of work, but it is chiefly d<Hie in 
the early part of the day, while Europeans are in bed. 
This morning many had assembled about our house, between 
five and six o'clock, bringing different articles for sale. 
They were careful, however, not to disturb us. By seven 
o'clock our sitting-room was crowded. Our visitors brought 
a great variety of merchandise, to tempt us to barter ; — sach 
as hogs, goats, fowls, eggs, native cloth, pearl-shells, fishing- 
hooks (very ingenious and beautiful contrivances), lines, cor- 
9 



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98 BARTER-TRADE. 

dage made of various materials, mats, bags, nets, calabashes 
for water vessels, sweet-scented oil, ttmitis (large wooden 
dishes), |7ent<5 (stone-hammers), stools, spears, bows and ar- 
rows, &c. &c. We made various purchases by barter; 
knives, forks and scissors were in the greatest request, but 
European cloth would have been more acceptable, now that 
civilization is increasing their wants and their comforts, the 
former stimulating them to procure the latter by honest in- 
dustry, and improvement in such arts and manufactures as 
they already practise, or are learning. Our house continued 
to be crowded, both within and without, tin afternoon ; and 
though the people ceased to importune us to buy their com- 
modities when they saw us prepare for breakfast and dinner, 
yet many seated themselves on the floor, and witnessed with 
earnest attention our performances at both these meals. 
Though we could very well have dispensed with siich spec- 
tators, yet we willingly indulged their l^mless curiosity^ in 
hope that they might be induced, by what they saw, to 
change their own ruder modes of feeding. 

Among the wares offered for sale were mourning-bells. 
These are made of two large pearl-shells, loosely fastened 
back to back ; when knocked against each other, they emit a 
singularly shrill noise, which may be heard at a considerable 
distance. These bells were i:^d when a member of a 
family died, or when a chief was ill. In the latter instance, 
the priests went about at night, ringing these bells, making 
the most dismal noises, and uttering such intercessory pray- 
ers to the gods as follow : — •"*' TM tea ; have mercy ! — Tahi 
po tea ; have mercy, this night ! — Faa hoia mai to maru i 
restore thy own servant ! — Eiatoa tenaia ; quench not his 
life!" — ^This lugubrious mummery was all deceptive and 
hypocritical, to impose on the credulity of the people. The 
crafty priests cared not for the chie&, any further than as the 
chiefs were necessary instruments of extortion upon the vas- 
sals for the maintenance of idolatry. Every conceivable 
trick was resorted to for the acquisition of property; people, 
chiefs, the sovereign himself, were all fleeced to enrich the 
greedy hierarchy. The most valuable presents which the 
king received from England, or obtained from the captains 
of vessels touching upon his coast, he was generally com- 
pelled to offer to the gods. But these gifts were reserved for 
great occasions, such as the commencement of a war. Then 
were the royal treasures impoverished to enrich the maraes, 



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THE PWIPIRI. 99 

and rendfer the deities propitious ; the priests of course being 
the proxies of the dumb idols, and appropriating all the pre- 
cious things either to their own use, or distributing them 
among their dependents and patrons ; thus maintaining their 
. influence over every class of the community. 

Towards evening we walked out into the neighborhood. 
In one house we found twelve women diligently employed in 
beating out cloth from the bark of trees, keeping up a regular 
stroke, to a tune, with their wooden hammers. In the midst 
of this den lay a new-born infant, upon the floor, hat asleep. 
As we walked through the grass, our clothes, before we were 
aware, had become studded, nearly all over, with a small 
burr, called piripiri, which is so keen that it instantly ad- 
heres where it touches ; and, piercing through the thinner 
parts of the clothing, scratches and inflames the skin. This 
little plant abounds every where, and is, in the vegetable 
world, what fleas and mosquitoes are in the animal — a vexa- 
tious companion. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Fishing by Torch-light— -Valley of Matavai— Suflfering? of first Miauon- 
aries— Hare Birds— Ora Tree, &c.— Basaltic Clifi&— Simple Method 
of producing Fire — Traits of Tahitian Character — Mode of Living — 
Administration of the Sacrament — Diseases of the Natives — Burial 
of a Child — Proper Names — Phosphoric Matches — ^Apprehensions of 
a Disturbance^— Site for Cotton-Factory — American Ship in Matavai 
Bay-^Account of a Plot once formed by Tahitians to seize a Euro- 
pean Vessel — Providential Preservation of the Lives of Mr. Wilson 
and Mr. Bennet at Sea— The last Battie of the last Native War. 

Oct. 31. Last night our house was surrounded and as^ 
saulted by depredatdrs, who made repeated attempts to force 
an entrance, but were unable. The circumstance did not 
give us much uneasiness, the rogues being only pigs and 
dogs. We were much more annoyed by our enemies within 
doors — ^the fleas, which, in spite of our stilted bedsteads, ob- 
truded upon us, and were so ardent and active that sleep was 
hopeless in such society. The fleas here are much smaller 
than those in England, and are so nimble that it is next to 
impossible td catch them. They breed in the herbless sand, 
and shelter in the grass that covers the floors of the houses ; 
happily, the light clothing of the natives affords these vermin 
little cover for hiding themselves. 



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100 PISHING BT TORCH-UOHT. 

Several women, accompanied by a man, were engaged this 
evening in catching fish, by torch-light. They first made a 
dam across the stream, of the branches of trees, close twisted 
together. In this three openings were left, through which 
the water was allowed to run. At each of these one of the 
party was stationed with a net, which was held in ' such a 
manner that scarcely a fish could pass without being entan- 
gled. Two others, with their torches, made of dry cocoa- 
leaves, commenced operations at some distance above ; the 
one on this side of the stream, the other on that, walking 
slowly, and striking the water with part of the leaf, to drive 
the fish downwards into the nets. By this simple contrivance 
a large draught was taken. 

Clocks are not yet common in Tahiti, and but few of the 
people have watches. It is very difiicult, therefore, to con- 
vey an idea of the exact time when any thing is to be done. 
We wished to have an early breakfiist to-morrow ; our old 
landlord told the servants to bake some bread-firuit for us ; he 
then imitated the crowing of the cock, signifying that it was 
to be ready when the cock himself should make such a noise 
in the morning. This veneraUe man is unwearied in his en- 
deavors to accommodate us. He learned to read and write 
at an advanced age. This evening we were singing some 
Tahitian hymns, with the people who came to see us, when 
he produced a hymn-book, transcribed by himself, in a legible 
hand, firom a printed copy. The impression first issued was 
so inadequate to supply the eager demands, that many per- 
sons were at the pains of thus writing out the hymns for their 
own use. 

Nov. I. This morning, accompanied by the Rev. Messrs. 
Wilson and Jones, we set out to ascend the valley of Mata- 
vai. This valley lies north-west and south-east Towards 
the sea it opens into a rich champaign of considerable extent, 
covered with groves of bread-firuit and cocoa-nut trees ; while, 
inland, it grows narrower and narrower, trending like the 
curvature of the stream that winds through it This stream 
has a considerable fall in several places ; the bed consists of 
large l^ack stones ; the width varies, but is generally about 
"twenty jards. The base of the high mountains, on both 
sides, occasionally comes down to the edffe of the water,* 
so that we had, fit)m time to time, either to ford it, or submit 
to be carried across on men's shoulders. In one part of our 
progress, we took off our shoes and stockings, and walked 



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VALLEY OF BfATATAI. 101 

about a mile barefoot, having to cross the stream six times 
within that distance. In this short exercise we learned to 
sympathize with our elder missionaries, who for many years 
were wont to travel barefoot over the stony tracks of this 
mountainous and uncultivated country, preaching the gospel 
wherever they could persuade a few natives to listen to them 
— ^though that wasoflen with scorn and derision. Sometimes, 
when they had to cross great breadths of burning sands, they 
used to furnish themselves with bundles of foliage from the 
adjacent woods, and, laying down a green leaf at every step, 
they set the soles of their feet successively upon these cool, 
soft patches of carpeting, and thus escaped the blistering ef- 
fects of treading upon a soil that resembled hot ashes con- 
cealing half-extinguished fires. Recollection of the hard- 
ships of these faithful men, while they thus trod their painful 
way over gravel that cut, and sand that scorched, their feet, 
in miserable worn-out vestments, and often scantily supplied 
with food, — humbled us by comparison with our easier cross 
and lighter load ; while it endeared them also to our afiec- 
tions, as those to whom it was given not only to labor but to 
sufter for the sake of the Lord Jesus. 
^ The mountains on either hand rise abruptly and to a con- 
siderable altitude; their sides are generally clothed with 
trees and bushes, which overhung our heads as we went, and 
closing or opening the scene of sky and valley, frequently 
presented the most singular and pleasing pictures. In. sev- 
eral places the crags towered perpendicularly from the bed 
of the current, to the height of five hundred feet and more, 
decorated with trees and shrubs, which, starting out of the 
fissures in their bold faces, seemed to grow in air, suspended 
and supported of themselves. From the tops of these huge 
masses of rock, which are but the basement-story of the stu- 
pendous superstructure of mountains, the upper eminences 
sloped to a fearful elevation beyond, and appeared to hide 
their sunny peaks in the deep-blue firmament. Throughout 
the whole vailley there are objects of grandeur and awe that 
overwhelm the beholder and defy description. Some years 
ago, part of an adjacent cliff slid down to the bed of the 
river here, and dammed up the channel, till the water had 
spread into a broad pool, which threatened, when it should 
burst by accumulation, to devastate all the lower lands. The 
terrified inhabitants expected to see their dwellings, plantar 
tions, and all they possessed, borne onward into the sea, 
9* 



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102 RARE BIRDS— ORA TREE. 

while they had no power to avert or restrain the calamity. 
Providence, however, so ordered, that the water gradually 
made its way through the looser materials, till the leakage 
had slowly opened a moderate vent, through which the whole 
body drained off, without doing any further injury. 

The stones distributed through the bed of the river cprre- 
' spond with those of the adjacent rocks, being chiefly a coarse 
breccia or pudding-stone, composed of blue rag and chert in 
brown clay ; the material is exceedingly hard, and resembles 
the substance of Roman walling found in our own country. 
Some of the porous blocks contain small quantities of iron 
pyrites, and occasionally minute sparks of silicious crystals 
in the cavities. The mouroa, a tropic-bird, was occasionally 
seen flying from point to point, at a vast height in the narrow 
sky, between the opposing cliffs, in which it builds its nest. 
We observed also the otu teatea/or white crane; and the 
opia, which resembles the swallow in shape and habits ; but 
the tail is short and not forked ; the body is of a glossy blue, 
the wings, tail, and head dusky brown, and the biU yellow. 
It oflen swept by us, in its pursuit of flies, low along t)ie 
ground, or following the course of the river. Lizards of va- 
rious kinds, from four to five inches long, were numerous in 
our path ; their bodies generally brown and speckled, with 
blue or green tails. They are harmless and vivacious, but 
slunk under cover at our approach. The brown libellula, or 
dragon-fly, abounds here. Black flies, like those of England, 
and mosquitoes swarm every where. 

We passed a remarkably large tree, called ora, of that 
species from the bark of which the natives make a valuable 
brown cloth ; the leaf is shaped like that of the laurel. This^ 
specimen, at its root, measured nearly forty feet in circum- 
ference. The upper part of the stem divided itself into two 
lateral branches, extensively ramified, while the bark, from 
the ground to the head, was thickly mantled with ferns and 
parasitical plants. The vi-apple, in this valley, flourishes 
amazingly. The lower part of the trunk is curious, expand- 
ing into five or six flat buttresses, admirably adapted to sup- 
port the wide-spreading top. We found the tara papa, or 
pine-apple, growing wild, on which the rats feed deliciously. 
The apBy a plant of the arum species, springs up here to a 
great size. One of its broad, deep-green leaves, carried over 
the head, is a sufficient shelter from rain or intense heat; 
and these were so used by the natives, who, when they first 



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BASALTIC CLIFFS. 103 

saw the European umbrella, naturally called it farercuiuupe 
— from /arc a house, raau a leaf, and ape the above-mention- 
ed plant, — the arum-leaf^house. 

As we advanced up the valley, the sun shone with great 
strength, and we found it a fatiguing journey to the point at 
which we aimed. At length we reached the object (called 
by the natives pihaa), a singularly fine basaltic cliff, with the 
rivulet flowing at its basis, from which it rises almost perpen- 
dicularly, to the height of two hundred feet, by three hundred 
in breadth. Above, it is covered with dark earth, fragments 
of rock, and towering trees. The whole mass is columnar ; 
the pillars being irregular pentagons^ the sides of which vary 
from five to eight inches in width ; and all the pillars stand 
close to one another without adhering. There are no joints, 
nor natural divisions in the shafts, from the bottom to the 
top ; though in some are seen casual fractures, which cross 
the diameters at different angles, evidently occasioned by ex- 
ternal injuries from falling substances, as those columns which 
are not exposed to similar injury from above are perfect. 
This magnificent breast- work stands nearly perpendicular, 
with a slight inclination towards the south-east. But the 
most singular feature of this basaltic formation is presented 
on that quarter which is highest up the stream. The columns 
there descend fiiom the same elevation with the rest, and are 
parallel to them, till within twenty-five feet of the water, 
where they swerve into a graceful sweep, or segment of a cir- 
cle, of which the diameter might be forty or fifty feet. The 
shafts of this curved part preserve their exact juxta-position 
to each other, and have been as entire as the upright ones, 
though now they appear considerably more shattered, by 
fragments of rock precipitated from the top. The whole 
bulk consists of hard compact basalt, of a dark-blue color, 
much resembling many of the beds of trap-stone in Europe. 

On the contrary bank of the river, the rocks are so intri- 
cately overgrown with underwood that it was too difiicult for 
us to ascertain whether they were of corresponding structure ; 
but about a quarter of a mile higher up the current, the ba- 
saltic form was Apparent on both sides. There the clustered 
columns are lying in almost every conceivable poation with 
respect to each other, yet all in so regular a state as to imply 
that they have not been disturbed since their first arrange- 
ment, by whatever means that may have been produced. 

A heavy shower of rain hastened our departure, after soiBe 



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104 SIMPLE METHOD OF PRODUCING FIRE. 

time spent in beholding and admiring this stupendous work 
of almighty skill. On our way home, we had an opportunity 
of observing the simple and ingenious process by which the 
islanders obtain fire. A man took a piece of dry purau 
wood, twelve inches long, and two thick. With another 
stick of the same tree, sharpened to a point, and held with 
both his hands, at an angle of about 45°, he rubbed the for- 
mer gently, as it lay on the ground, till he had scratched a 
groove in it several inches long. Then, continuing the same 
operation, but pressing the point harder upon the lower piece, 
and increasing the velocity of the motion, some brown dust 
was soon formed within the groove, and collected at one end. 
In a few seconds smoke was apparent, and the dust was ig- 
nited. The spark was then immediately conveyed into a 
finger-hole opened in a handful of dry grass. The man 
blew upon it, and, waving the tufl in the air, the grass was 
quickly in a flame. The whole experiment did not occupy 
more than two minutes. 

Nov. 2. From an interesting conversation with Messrs. 
Nott and Wilson, this evening, we obtained the following in- 
formation. King Pomare, though his power has long been 
absolute, has never intermeddled with the spiritual concerns 
of the missions, or of the Christian churches formed in his 
dominions. He was long ago baptized, but has never yet 
partaken of the Lord's Supper, nor sought admission to it, 
often saying that he is not a fit subject. In fact, he seems to 
have a dread of this ordinance, lest, by unworthily receiving 
it, he should incur the divine displeasure. 

The Tahitians, in their heathen state, never forgot a ben- 
efit nor forgave an injury. In the last war between the 
Christians and idolaters, the latter, being vanquished, fled to 
the fastnesses of the mountains. A chief of the victorious 
party learning that, among the enemy who had thus escaped, 
there* was a man who had shown kindness to himself in a 
former war, set off to find him, tracking the fugitive as well 
as he could from hill to hill, and thicket to thicket, frequent- 
ly calling him by name, to the extent of his voice, imploring 
him to come forth, and promising him safety and subsistence. 
At length he found the poor fellow, received him under his 
protection, brought him from the wilderness to his own house, 
and there fed and treated him with the hospitality of a kind 
friend. Nor were instances of such gratitude rare. On the 
other hand, their revenge was implacable, following its victim 



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UNEQUAL MARRIAGES. 105 

from island to island, or waiting from year to year, till it 
X could revel in his agonies and exult over his death. Chris- 
tianity has confirmed what was good, and extinguished what 
was evil^ in the habits and dispositions of these people. 
They love as brethren, and they can forgive, as they pray 
to be forgiven. This was signally exemplified in the war 
above alluded to, which was conducted without ferocity, and 
in which, for the first time, mercy was shown to the vanquish- 
ed. Th« Christians conquered by their valor, but they 
triumphed by their forbearance. Neither plunder, nor vio- 
lence, nor massacre followed the defeat of their foes ; and 
the latter, astonished at this new thing in the islands, were 
soon induced to submit to such magnanimous conqderors. 

Tbe ancient wars of this people were horribly destruc- 
tive — when the weapons were slings, shears, clubs, &c. — and 
the conflict was decided, man to man, at close quarters. 
The greater part, on both sides, oflen fell; the prisoners 
were butchered in cold blood ; and those who fled to the 
mountains were hunted down and slain, like wild beasts. 
Since they have procured fire-arms from European visitors, 
and learned the use of them, the slaughter on their battle- 
fields has not been so great in proportion as formerly. The 
gospel of peace, however, has abolished all wars in those 
islands which have cordially received it. 

Nov. 3. Several persons brought us presents of fruit, this 
morning, among whom' was a female chief, whose husband 
is " a man of low degree." Such unequal matches are fre- 
quent, but they affect the condition of neither ; the woman 
retains her rank and authority, but does not exalt her partner 
to an equality with herself in these respects. The children 
of such marriages, under the reign of idolatry, were always 
destroyed at their birth, as being degraded by the inferiority 
of their father. Now all children are not only spared, but 
tenderly nourished and trained, by both parents, who are 
affectionately fond of them. Yesterday we saw at the 
church-meeting a woman, who is now regarded as a pious 
character, who, <' in her times of ignorance," had kffied eight 
of her offspring with her own hands. What ought to be our 
detestation of a system which thus outraged nature in her 
dearest charities! What our admiration of that religion 
which proposes to reclaim the beings whom that system had 
perverted — and which hcLS reclaimed them, in hundreds^ yea, 
thousands, of instances ! 



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106 ADMINISTRATION OF THE SACRAMENT. 

This afternoon our kitchen took fire, and the whole fabric 
was quickly « consumed before our eyes. The loss was not 
great. Our provisions are dressed, at a short distance from 
the dwelling, under a wide-spreading purau tree. A fire is 
made on the ground, and, to prevent its being extinguished 
by a sudden fall of rain, a few large leaves were formed into 
a kind of roof, which was suspended by a string fastened to 
an over-hanging branch. By some accident the flames 
caught this awning ; in an instant all was in a blaze, and a 
few moments afterwards all in ashes. Few are our wants in 
this happy land, and they are easily supplied ; in no part of 
the world, probably, with less variety of materials for provid- 
ing the comforts of life, are the latter more accessible to 
every body, in all places and circumstances. The evils of 
wealth and poverty are scarcely known, where hogs and 
fowls are all that are needed for animal food, and wholesome 
fruits may be plucked from almost every bough ; while, to 
build dwelling-houses, frame vessels to navigate the ocean, 
and furnish clothing suitable to the climate, — ^the wood, the 
bark, the leaves of trees, self-planted, or improved with small 
culture, abundantly suffice. 

Nov. 4. Being sacrament-day, we partook, for the first 
time, of this ordinance, with our brethren and sisters from 
among the gentiles. .We had the privilege of carrying 
the elements to the communicants, and were deeply affected 
to observe the becoming solenmity with which they were re- 
ceived, — in some cases, with tears, and with treipbling.' 
From the devotion which was manifested, and the great care 
taken by their pastors in receiving candidates to the Lord's 
table, there was good cause to hope that those who here 
commemorated the dying love of their Redeemer were wor- 
thy, however little they tnight seem in their own eyes. There 
were sixty-five natives, men and women, present. All who 
have been baptized are candidates for this ordinance ; but 
none are admitted till the missionaries are fully satisfied of 
the sincerity of their professions, and the reality of their re- 
ligion, by the consistency of their conduct and conversation. 
Among the communicants, this day, was a man who had 
been a priest and a prophet of Oro, the god of war — and not 
the Mars only, but the Moloch of Polynesia — so cruel and 
abominable were the rites with which that representative of 
Satan was worshipped. This votary, however, once so hon- . 
ored and enriched by his office, when he felt the gospel as 



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DISEASES OP THE NATIVES. . 107 

the power of God, renounced his distinctions, forsook the 
crafl whereby he got his wealth, and became, so far as man 
can judge, a sincere and humble disciple of the Lord Jesus. 
The fact and evidence of this, and many a like conversion, 
cannot be doubted by infidel or gainsayer ; the common day- 
light reveals these; and God, who knoweth the heart, we 
must believe, will show, in his own time, that, in the majori- 
ty at least, the changes were not less real and spiritual than 
avowed and apparent. How delightful it was to us to wit- 
ness such a company as were assembled this day, in such a 
place, words. cannot express. Their whole behavior in the 
house of God corresponded with that of an old-established 
congregation ; and their appearance was that of respectable 
people, according to the peculiar habits and manners of their 
country; modesty, cleanliness and neatness characterizing 
their deportment, their persons, and their apparel. 

In the aflernoon we were present at the catechetical in- 
struction of the children, by Repaparu, a chief who lives in 
this vicinity. There were a hundred and four. of these little 
ones assembled round the patriarchal teacher ; among these 
we observed but one who had any personal defect ; the rest 
were healthy and cheerful, sound in mind and limb. The 
sight was beautiful, but its moral aspect was yet more so to 
the eye of faith, at once seeing and foreseeing the effects of 
Christianity thus supplanting paganism on a soil which the 
latter had cursed with thorns and briers, through unrecorded 
ages past. 

In the evening we distributed medicines for the use of 
men, women and children, who came to us, afflicted with a 
complaint (very prevalent just now) which occasions great 
difficulty of breathing, but which soon gives way to such ' 
simple remedies as we may venture to recommend. Mr. 
Nott says that he remembers several occasions when epidemic 
disorders have visited these remote regions, brought by stran- 
gers from the other side of the globe. A grievous ulcer, at 
one time, was thus introduced, which spared neither chiefs 
nor people, nor the missionaries themselves; and a canoe 
coming hither fropi the leeward islands, while this plague 
raged, took back the infection to their shores. It does not 
appear that the children here are subject to such infectious 
disorders as prevail in Europe ; the small-pox, measles, hoop- 
ing-cough, croup, d&c, are unknown. Scrofulous complaints 
are common^ and make shocking ravages. There are a few 



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108 BURIAL OF A CHILD— PROPER NAMES. 

lepers ; we have seen one in attendance on the king ; his 
skin is white, covered with a scaly scurf, and exceedingly 
unsightly ; his hair and eye-brows are of a flaxen color, and 
his eyes very tender. The disease is not considered conta- 
gious. Consumptive cases occur, and cut off many of the 
young. 

Nov. 10. The corpse of a child wa^ interred this morn- 
ing, according to the Christian rites now observed here. 
The coflin, shaped as in England, was neatly covered with 
white native cloth, bound about with cinet. While borne on 
the road, a mat, for a pall, was thrown over it, but when set 
down at the grave-side this was removed and spread on the 
grass. The missionary (Mr. Wilson), having read a chapter 
from the New Testament, prayed, and delivered a brief dis- 
course. The coffin was then let down into the ground, by 
slips of purau bark, which served for cords, and the mat, 
folded up, being spread upon it, the earth was thrown in, 
and the grave closed. What seemed to us remarkable wasf^ 
that the father himself assisted in depositing the remains of 
his offspring in the dust, and was the first to begin filling up 
the opening by pushing the earth into it. This, however, he 
did with affecting solemnity, though not a tear rose in his 
eye. The mother was not present. 

We have learnt that there is no class of names here ap- 
propriated exclusively to either sex. Parents give their chil- 
dren such as they please, which are often chosen from local 
or incidental circumstances, and are sometimes absurd 
enough. Thus there is a hoy, in this neighborhood, who 
is called Vahineino, which means a had woman; also a girl, 
Taata^maitai, a good man. Children do not take the names 
of their parents, and each person has but one at a time ; this, 
however, he may change at will, and go by ten or more in 
the course of his life ; but formerly no one durst appropriate 
that of the sovereign, which would have been death ; and so 
sacred was this prohibition that if there were a ^ight resem- 
blance only, between a subject's name and the king's, the 
former must be abandoned. Hence we have never met with 
either person or thing called by any sound at all like Pomare. 
As this proscription extended to the whole family of the Arii, 
or blood-royal, and also to the principal chiefs, the names of 
their vassals and inferiors, nay, those even of plants and ani- 
mals (to avoid desecration), were wont to be changed when 
any of the privileged order received at birth, or afterwards 



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PHOSPHORIC MA'PCHfiS. 109 

adopted, similar ones. In their Heathen state, the designa- 
tions which many persons hore were such as characterized 
the national impurity of manners and grossness of mind. 
Christianity has, in this respect, wrought a happy reforma- 
tion; the missionaries, df course, refusing to acknowledge 
any convert or baptize any child by an improper name. 
The king's name, and his alone, is still regarded as forbid- 
den to the multitude, though respectable people are said to 
forbear using it from reverence Ufiheii prince rather than 
regard to Bn^ assumed monopoly on his part. This is the 
only trait of a savage custom left, which we have yet found 
in these islands, and at any rate it is a harmless, though not 
an insignificant one, when regarded as the last memorial of. 
a tyranny passed away which reached the very names of the 
slaves upon whom it was exercised. 

Nov, 6. This evening, after the missionary prayer-meet- 
ing, many persons followed us to our home ; when they had 
sat awhiie they informed tis that they were come to see some 
fire-works, which they had heard we could show them. At 
first we were quite at a loss to guess what could have given 
rise to such a repcMrt, till recollecting that, yesterday, we had 
tried some phosphoric matches, which we had brought with 
us, we concluded that these must be the fire-works of which 
they had been told. 'Accordingly we gratified the simple 
pec^le exceedingly, when we exhibited the process of light- 
ing a few such matches by introducing them into a phial 
containing the chemical preparation for that purpose. Re- 
paparu, the aforementioned chief, coming in, stood astonish- 
ed, as at the performance of a miracle, when he witnessed 
this well-known experiment. Being invited to dip a match 
himself, he held the apparatus at arms' length, and trem- 
blingly complie4. He succeeded, and was delighted with 
the result ; but his success could not embolden an ancient 
warrior, one who had fought many a battle, and faced the 
greatest dangers in the field, to touch the phial, or even to 
come near it ; he was panic-struck at the mysterious spectacle 
of light coming out of darkness, though the simple method of 
producing fire by the friction of two pieces of wood, among 
his own countrymen, is, in reality, much more curious and 
surprising to the eye of an intelligent stranger. Frequently, 
when the natives examine our various articles, which may be 
new to them, they exclaim, "wonderful Britain!" Last 
night we put together a French lamp, and lighted it, where- 
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110 AFPREHElfSlONS OF A DISTURBANCE. 

upon our old landlord, overpowered with amazement, cried 
outj '* TahitiinQr '' Beretane maitai T "Tahiti bad! Brit* 
ain good!" Unwilling that he should feel any prejudice 
against his own country, which we saw was rising in his 
mind, we replied, ^'Aita; Tahiti maitai,'* — "No; Tahiti 
is good." 

Two grasshoppers were brought to us ; — ^the one. called 
vivi, of a delicate straw-color, an inch in length, but more 
slender than the English insect; the antenn» also are longer; 
the other a small green one, half of the size of the former, 
and more compact in its proportions. There is a remarka- 
ble paucity of all kinds of animals in this part of the world, 
except of fishes, whose varieties as well as numbers are very 
great. 

Nov. 7. We went to the chapel this morning to see the 
schools. That for adults commenced at six o'clock with 
singing and prayer. There were between two and three 
hundred present, whose names were called over, each an- 
swering to their own. A chief superintended the lessons ; 
the people read one to another, some in elementary books, 
others in the scriptures ; many with great fluency. At the 
end of an hour they went away, when the children came in 
with their teachers. This attendance also lasted no more 
than an hour. The portions of time devoted to instruction 
are necessarily short, but adapted to the circumstances of 
the people, who, having been unaccustomed either to close 
mental application, or personal confinement, would be wea- 
ried by longer exercises. But these brief seasons oft^i re*- 
curring, and the minds of the learners, both old and young, 
being quick of apprehension, and their memories tenacious, 
they make surprising progress. 

Intelligence has just been received fit>m Eimeo, that the 
king is worse — indeed, in imminent danger. Should he die 
at this time, it is apprehended that there may be a serious 
struggle among the chiefs of this island for the ascendency ; 
jealous symptoms occasionally appearing. Should such a 
convulsion take place, neither our property nor our lives 
would be very safe, in the reaction, or rather the resurree- ' 
tion, of heathenism, which is not dead, but sleeping, in the 
hearts of the unconverted ; for we cannot forget that the pro- 
fession of Christianity is not Christianity, however happily 
influential in restraining evil it may be, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances ; but in the " time of temptation/' what can be 



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SITE FOR CdTTON^FACTOKY. Ill 

expected from those who "have no root in themselves?" 
Our fears, however, may be groundless, and arise from our 
inexperience of the improtjed character of the whole people, 
and the regenerated character of a great many, who consti- 
tute the Christian churches among them. 

Nov. 8. We were presented with a bunch of bananas, of 
extraordinary size, weight, and number of fruits ; of the laU 
ter there were two hundred and fourteen, most of them full 
grown. It was as much as the strength of one of us could 
* accomplish, to lift this single cluster from the ground. 

Several chie& called to take leave of us, being about to 
sail'for Eimeo to visit the king. It is supposed that, in the 
event, of his demise, Tati, his prime adviser, will assume the 
regency, as guardian to Pomare's son or daughter, both of 
whom are children. This chief, though an able and worthy 
man, is not generally beloved, as he is suspected to be in- 
clined towards arbiti'ary measures in the administration of 
state affairs, to which the people, having now tasted the 
sweets of enfranchisement, are resolutely opposed. " The 
Lord reigneth ; let the earth rejoice, and the multitude of 
,the isles be glad thereof." /This is our assurance of hope. 

Messrs. Armitage and Blossom can\e, this afternck)n, to 
inform us that they had examined^ and approved of the sta- 
tion which had been pointed out for a cotton-mill, in Eimeo. 
The chiefe of that island were very anxious that the manu- 
factory should be established there, and had offered to build 
suitable houses, d&c, if it were- so determined. Pomare, too, 
had said that he should not prevent it, if we were in favor 
^of Eimeo, — ^though both' he and Manaonao, a principal chief 
here, had set their minds on having the first cotton-works 
commenced in Tahiti : the latter, fearing. to lose this benefit 
to his district, had actually dispatched two double canoes, 
with forty men, who had taken possession of the machinery 
against Mr. Blossom's will, 6ut under a plea of royal author- 
ity; On consulting with Messrs. Nott and Wilson, it was 
their opinion that it would not be well to thwart the king's 
purposes, because, unless the undertaking were counte- 
nanced by him, it would inevitably fail in the issue. 

Nov. 9. We walked to the house of Manaonao, to settle 
the question respecting the cotton factory ; and at his desire 
we visited several places in his district of Pare, but found 
them all equally ineligible, there being no fall of water ^om 
any source of sufficient power to be applied to mill-wodt. 



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11'2 AMERICAN SBIP IN MATAVAI BAY. 

The old man was mueh distressed by our unfavorable repwt, 
and requested us to explore another water-course, at a place 
called Pirae, where there is a small village, with several 
considerable buildings, unoccupied, which might be turned 
to immediate use, if the settlement should be made there. 
This site appeared to all of us preferable to any other that 
we had seen, and if the plan must be tried in Tahiti, we 
agreed that this should be the place. The chief was now 
as much delighted as he had been before disheartened ; and 
he issued orders for the workpec^le to begin, f(»thwith, to 
put the standing tenements in repair, at his own expense, 
for the present accommodation of Messrs. Armitage and 
Blossom. 

In the bed of one of the currents which we traced, we 
found a black shell, resembling an KagUsh snail's, la size 
and shape, but having six sharp Sfunes, like those of a thorn, 
growing round it in a spiral form, from the centre to the cir-^ 
cumference. 

Nov. 10. Early in the aflernoon, a ship was descried in 
the offing, and by six o'clock she cast anchor* in Matavai bay« 
She proved to be the General Gates, captain, Riggs, an 
American, in the seal-fishery, three years fh>m' home, but 
unsuccessful, having taken no more than eleven thousand 
seals, when seventy thousand were wanting to complete her 
cargo. The captain had touched, a few days ago, at Kaiva- 
vai, or High Island, where, havmg detected a native in the 
act of stealing a musket from his boat, he attempted to re- 
cover it, but received a. blow from a sabre (which the savage 
had concealed) Uiat had nearly cost him his life, having cut 
through his hat. This island acknowledges the sovereignty, 
of Pomare, who had visited it, some time ago, and left two 
Tahitians there to teach the inhabitants the truths of the gos- 
pel. In the affair just mentioned, the captain was about to 
take venge^mce upon the natives for the affixmt which he 
had suffered ; but the Tahitian missionaries interposed, and 
made peace. Captain Riggs speaks well of the people gen- 
erally, who have abjured idolatry, and embraced the doc- 
trines of Christ. Instances have not unfrequently occurred, 
in which the missionaries at Tahiti have prevented the com- 
manders of foreign ships from committing, or sustaining, in- 
juries. Once, in war time, a party, under some provocation, 
had «leclared that they would seize the first vessel which 
should arrive on the coast. Mr. Nott, then residing with 



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A PLOT TO SEIZE A EUROPEAN VESSEL. 113 

the king, who was a fugitive from his own island, in Eimeo, 
heard of this, and determined, if possible, to prevent it. He 
therefore wrote a letter to warn any captain, who might ar- 
rive, of the desperate design. It was a matter of no small 
difficulty to find a trust-worthy messenger, who would watch 
the opportunity, and deliver the caution in time to obviate 
the danger. By the advice of Pomare, a native of the Po- 
motu islands was selected for this service. The letter was 
given into his charge, and he was directed to go and reside 
among others of his countrymen, at Matavai. It is said that, 
notwithstanding he acted with the utmost discretion, he was 
suspected by the Tahitians ; Ijowever, he proved true to his 
employers, and by good management contrived to secrete the 
letter till the opportunity of using it came. At length. His Maj- 
esty's ship, the Hibernia, captain CampbeH, appeared, and an- 
chored in the bay of Matavai, for it was not in the man's power 
to get on board before she came in. The natives immedi- 
ately put out in their canoes, and, being welcomed by the 
crew, soon crowded the deck. They were headed by the 
chief of Pare, who was to conduct the execution of the plot. 
To throw the captain off his guard, this chief presented him 
with a large roll of native cloth, and behaved with the great- 
est semblance of good will. Two or three days were neces- 
sary to complete the preparations for the capture. When 
the crisis arrived, the chief of Pare gave the signal of attack; 
but the chiefs of Matavai, who were leagued with him, per- 
ceiving that there were more of his people than of theirs on 
board at the time, and fearhig that these would get the 
greatest share of the plunder, tacitly forbore to act. This, 
providentially, caused the delay of another day. Early the 
next morning, the Pomotu man, finding part of an old canoe 
on the beach, with perilous resolution hazarded his life in it, 
and was able to keep it afloat till he was received on board 
of the British ship. Proceeding instantly to the cabin, where 
the captain lay asleep, he awoke him, and presented the let- 
ter. A favorable breeze was blowing, and the vessel was 
soon under weigh, and out of reach of danger, either from 
the natives already on board (including the chief of Pare), 
or the multitude of canoes that were putting off from the 
shore to join them, and carry the design into effect. Enrag- 
ed by this unexpected failure — the occasion of which they 
instantly perceived — the Tahitians on board rushed towards 
the cabin to murder the man who had given the strangers 
10* 



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114 NATIYB FUNEBAL. 

the hint to escape. The cq)tain, however, protected him 
with a loaded pistol, which k^ the assailants at bay, and 
they were presently all driven overboard, and picked up by 
their companions, in canoes, as they swam fcnr their lives 
towards the harbor. Captain Campbell immediately sailed 
for Eimeo, where he waited on Mr. Nott, and gratefiilly ac- 
knowledged his very considerate kindness, to .which the 
preservation of the ship and crew appeared to be owing. — ^The 
same certain had an armed schooner on her way to Tahiti, 
the arrival of which was expected in a few weeks. He there- 
fore left a boat's crew at Eimeo, with directions to keep a 
good look-oat to prevent that vessel from proceeding to Ta- 
hiti. The men failed in this duty, from neglect or accident ; 
the schooner reached its appointed destination, and was im- 
mediately boarded, stormed and plundered by the savages. 
One man was killed in the conflict ; the rest of the crew, 
though overpowered by numbers and taken prisoners, event- 
ually made their escape to Eimeo, and the schooner was af- 
terwards recovered* 

Nov. 12. We have agreed with captain Riggs, of the 
Gfeneral Gates, to convey us to the leeward islands, which he 
intends to visit, and whither, but for this favorable opportu- 
nity, we had not expected to be able to go before next 
/spring. 

A man from the Pomotu islands having died yesterday, we 
went to see the funeral this morning. The coffin was one 
end of an old canoe ; the corpse was covered with a piece of 
coarse red cloth, and tied down with a cord. Two of the 
deceased's countrymen dug the grave with the broad ends of 
two old paddles. His wife sat beside the coffin on the 
ground, while the earth was thrown up. She did not ap- 
pear at all disconsolate, but joined in conversation, and even 
in laughter, with the company around her. 

In the afternoon, wishing to visit captain Riggs, to agree 
upon the terms of our passage, we went, accompanied by 
Mr. Wilson, down to the beach to look for a conveyance. 
The ship's boat had not come on shore, and we saw no ca- 
noes at hand, though there were many out of call round the 
vessel. At last we found a small canoe lying under the 
shade of some pandanus palm-trees, and not far from the wa- 
ter's edge ; but there were no able-bodied natives near the 
spot to paddle us, all the men being gone to the mountains 
to procure food, or to the ship for traffic and curiosity. Sev- 



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PROyi0SNTIAI« PKS8ERVATION AT SEA. ' 115 

^ral mothers with their children having followed ns, we ask- 
ed a woman and a boy if they could row us to the ship. 
They readily answerend, " Yes, surely we could ;" " but," 
said the female, ''no woman is «o«r permitted to go out to 
any ship that comes here, as they used to do." The mish 
sionary, however, under the peculiar urgency of our circum- 
stances, granted her a dispensation in this case. Thereupon 
we dragged the canoe to the water, and shipped ourselves 
into it with no little diffipulty, on account of the narrowness 
of the vessel, and its extreme liability, from lightness, to be 
upset by the smallest derangement within. The woman and 
boy took their stations fore and aft ; Mr. Tyerman sat near 
the head, next to the boy ; while Mr. Bennet and Mr. 1/V^il- 
son occupied the space between them and the woman at the 
stern. We got pretty well over the surf; but as we proceed- 
ed from the shore, and found the swell of the sea regularly 
increasing, while the upper edge of our little bark was near- , 
ly even with the water, we began to feel the peril of our situ- 
ation, and heartily repented haying quitted the firm land in 
such a (^ockle-shell. But, as Mr. Wilson thought there 
would be quite as much danger in attempting to return now, 
as in going forward, we pushed away, and were soon along- 
side of the General Gates ; when, as might have been ex- 
pected, we perceived the agitation of the water to be greatly 
heightened by the rocking of the ship. Our canoe, however, 
was paddled up to the gangway ; whereupon, Mr. Tyerman, 
being nearest to the ladder, stood up and caught hold of the 
ropes ; but, as the first step was rather high, he inadvertent- 
ly, though very naturally, set his foot on the edge of our tiny 
vessel, which, before a wbrd could be uttered to warn him 
of his imprudence, was fairly overset, and floating bottom 
uppermost. Here Mr. Bennet must speak for himself — 
''Anticipating this catastrophe when I saw Mr. Tyerman 
get up, and not being able to swim, I seized hold *of the side 
of the canoe, and kept hold when it was capsized ; but, hav- 
ing only the round bottom to rest my arm upon (canoes being 
without keels), I felt I should not be able to maintain my 
buoyancy long; I recollected also that many sharks are 
usually in the neighborhood of ships, off shore. In this ex- 
tremity I cried out loudly for help, and soon saw many of the 
natives peeping carelessly over the sides of the vessel, and 
saying one to another, ' Te papcLoi roto te mitt! te papacd 
roto te miti P — ' The foreigners are in the water ! the for- 



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11,6 THE LAST BATTLE OF THE LAST NATIVE WAR. 

eigners are in the water !' But they moved not to my assist- 
ance ; in fact, being themselves almost amphibious, and such 
accidents often occurring to them, they thought we were 
sporting among the waves ; it never came into their heads 
that we could not swim ! Mr. Tyerman, however, on look- 
ing back, and perceiving our plight, hastened to obtain a 
rope, which he and another person threw overboard ; when 
one end falling across the canoe, within my reach, I eagerly 
grasped it, first with one hand, then with the other ; but I 
had no sooner let go the canoe, expecting to be hoisted up 
into the ship, than down I sank close under its side. My in- 
stant thoughts were these :— they have dropped the rope ' 
without keeping hold of the other end,*' I shall now certainly 
be drawn under the vessel ; — and thus I enter eternity ! It 
is the will of God ; and I commit myself to his mercy, in 
whose presence I must appear in a few moments ! While 
these presentiments were rushing through my mind, sudden- 
ly 1 felt the rope tighten within my hands, for I continued to 
clasp it instinctively, though my head had already become 
confused, from the quantity of water which I had swallowed, 
and the horror of my natural feelings — though perfectly will- 
ing then and there to die, if such were the appointment of 
Providence. But a gracious power w^s present to preserve 
me, and happily I was hauled on board, when I speedily re- 
covered to the delightful enjoyment and expression of grati- 
tude and praise for this great deliverance. Mr. Wilson, 
who held by the after-part of the canoe, was rescued by 
some natives, who sprang from the ship into the sea as soon , 
as th^y were aware of his actual danger. As for the woman 
and the boy, who had paddled us from shore, thsy swam 
about quite at their ease, till they could conveniently climb 
on board of the ship." 

This evening, after our return to land, Mr. Nott related to 
us several particulars concerning ^e last battle of the last 
war — and may it ever be the last! — ^in this island; when 
Pomare, having professed himself a Christian, was opposed by 
a powerftil idolatrous party, and overcame them, not less by 
his clemency after the conflict than by the prowess of himself 
and his followers in it. It. was on the twelfth of November, 
1815, that this decisive action was fought, and it was the 
Sabbath. Pomare had previously landed from Eimeo, with 
a considerable number of his faithful adherents, most of 
whom, like himself, had renounced the worship of idols ; and 



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THE LAST BATTLE OF THE LAST NATIVE W,AR. 117 

with the force which he then mustered ^about eight hundred, 
including those who had joined him in Tahiti), he hoped to 
be able to quel\ the insurrection and recover the sovereignty 
of this island. Mr. Nott, who had resided with him during 
his temporary exile, forewarned the king to be on his guard , 
during the Sabbath, while the army rested for the purposes 
of devotion, since it was probable that the enemy would 
seize that opportunity to attack him during the time of divine 
worship. Accordingly he commanded his people (as many 
as had the opportunity) to assemble armed, and to be pre* 
pared at any moment i^aihst surprise, but on no account to 
move except in obedience to his signals. HaviAg planted 
their muskets on the outside of the building in which they 
were convened, at the hour of prayer, they entered upon the 
solemn service, but were soon interrupted by the cry, " it is 
war ! — ^it is war !"-— Pomare, who remained without, on a spot 
where he had an ample view of the neighborhood, having 
discovered a considerable body of the enemy, hastening in 
martid array towards the place where he and his people 
were met. He, however, maintained his presence of mind, 
and ordered that the singing should proceed, prayer should 
be made, and the whole duty of God's house be performed, 
unless actual hostilities were commenced before it could be 
concluded. This was done, when, under the dire necessity 
laid upon them, they rose from worship, and went forth to 
battle, resolved, in the spirit of the exhortation of Joab to 
Israel, to " be of good courage, and play the men for their 
people, and for the (cities^ of their Qoa ;" content also to 
add, " the Lord do that which seemeth him good I" Thus 
they marched in several bands, one following another, to 
meet the foe. When the first troop had advanced some dis- 
tance, a signal was given, whereupon they halted, and, fall- 
ing down on their knees, implored divide protection, and 
success against the idolaters. They then went forward, and 
the second division, at the same place, bowed themselves on 
the ^und in like manner, supplicating help from above ; 
division after division followed the example, and thus, not 
with carnal weapons only, but with the most effectual missile 
from the armory of God — ^with *'aU prayer " they faced, they 
fought, and they discomfited, the rebels. One of the chief 
prophets of Oro, the god of war, animated the idolaters, 
promising them victory, the q)oil of their antagonists, aqd 
the sole dominion of the island. The struggle was long, and 



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118 HUMANltY OP THE CONQUERORS. 

fierce, and waver ibg in its issues, as the- desultory conflicts 
of undisciplined combatants must be. While the foremost 
warriors of the king's army were thus engaged with open 
breast, and arm to arm, against their desperate assailants, a 
corps of chosen men, defiling through a wood that flanked 
the field, emerged fix)m thence in the critical juncture, and 
fell with irresistible impetuosity upon the rear of the latter, 
levelling and routing ail before them. The chief command- 
er of the iddaters was slain; and the intelligence of his 
death being rapidly communicated through the ranks of his 
followers, already broken, a panic seized them, and they 
fled in titter confiision to the mountains. 

The prophet of Oro, among the most disheartened and 
terrified, sought refiige with the rest in the recesses of the 
interior. He has since declared that the power of Oro then 
forsook him — ^the evil spirit went out of him, and never after- 
wards returned. Pomare's conquering bands were eager to 
pursue the fiigkives and complete the victory, though they 
disavowed the purpose of destroying them. The king, how- 
ever, interfered, and said, in a style of oriental magnificence, 
''The mountains are mine: follow not the vanquished 
thither ! The motus (the low coral islets where the enemy 
had left their wives and children) are mine : let them done 
there idso. Proceed only along the open ways. Take no 
lives:-— take nothing but the s^ils which you find in the 
field or on the roads." The idolatrous prisoners were so 
affected by the king's lenity, and the forbear^ice of the vic- 
tors generally — Shaving expected, as a matter of course, to be 
barbarously murdered in cold blood — ^that many of them 
immediately offered to join Pomare's army. These were 
magnanimously pardoned, and received into his service; so 
that, on that very day, idolaters who had fought for Oro and 
his priests united jn rendering thanks to the only true God 
for the victory ^which the Cl^istians had obtained. Others 
of the dispersed^ adversaries, when they saw and heard how 
differently the king acted on this great occasion firom the in- 
human usages of their country, gave themselves up at discre- 
tkm, coming with their weapons in their hands, and words of 
peace on their lips. They were all made welcome. Thus 
ended that glorious day fot Tahiti — ^glorious, not for Tahiti 
only, but for all the islands in the Pacific whither the gos- 
pel has subsequently been carried firom that Zion in the 
West. 



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REBEL PRIEST OF ORO SPARED. 119 

On the evening of the battle, the aforementioned prophet 
of OrQ stole down from his retreat to the beach, with one 
attendant only. There they seized a small ^canoe, and put 
off to sea ; bat the courage of the attendant failing, he flung 
himself into the water, at the reef, and swam on shore. 
The prophet, therefore, pursued his voyage alone, through the 
darkness of the night ; and, by almost incredible exertions, 
reached Eimeo in safety. On landing he went and ddlvered 
himself up to the queen, whom Pomare had left* behind under 
the care of Mr. Nott. The missionary was consulted asxto 
what ought to be done with this strange and terrible being, 
who was known to be at once one of the most implacable of 
the king's enemies, and the most malignant of the opposers 
of Christianity. A hesitating word from Mr. Nott might 
have caused him to be massacred, without mercy, on the 
spot. " Let him live ; do him no harm ; give him food, " 
said the Christian teacher ; an^ his advice was obeyed. 
The humbled and astonished captive was overcome by such 
unexampled kindness; and, being allowed his liberty, he 
began to attend the school for adults : soon afterwards he 
made open profession of the faith of the gospel, and has 
thenceforward conducted himself as a sincere convert. 

Such was the elTect, upon the minds of the natives at 
large, of the clemency shown to the defeated rebels in Tahiti, 
that a spirit of prayer came upon the whole population ; and 
the voice of penitence, of supplication, or thanksgiving, 
resounded at aJl hours of the day from the bushes, under 
cover of which the people— men, women, and children, 
socially or singly — ^retired to give utterance to their desires, 
th(Bir fears, or their exultation, under the conviction of sin, 
alarm at the judgments which they heard denounced by the 
new religion against the wicked, or their joy, hope, and peace 
in believing. The priests of Oro were maddened by this 
change, which they could not prevent ; they threatened the 
king, the people, the missionaries, but their rage was impo- 
tence. Their idols could not save either themselves or their 
worshippers ; all the former perished, and many of the latter 
turned from them to. serve the living God. 



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TISIT TO BUNAAUIA. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Visit to Bunaauia — Maubuaa, or the Swine^awner—rMan punished for 
Swearing* — Return to Matavai — Coral-groves — King of Borabora's 
Solicitude to have a Missionary — Eagerness of the reople to obtain 
Books — Anecdote of Fomape — VisH of Captain Walker — Simple 
Substitute for Bellows — Interview with Pomare — Sail to Eiineo — 
Examination of Candidates for Church-fellowship— Public Fast and 
Prayers for the King — Anecdote of Raiatean Affection towards a 
Missionary — Shaving Process — Singular Species of Crab — Native 
Generosity — Evils resulting from the Use of Stills — ^Taro-Planta- 
tion — The Hoop-Snake — A Court of Justice— First Burning of 
Idols. 

Nov. 15. We sailed coastwise, this aflemooD, to Buna- 
auia, to visit the missionary station where Messrs. Darling 
and Bourne labor. By the way we touched, in our slight 
boat^ upon many sunken rocks^ which lie thick between the 
reefand the shore ; but in every instance we escaped without 
injury. 

We have been gratified with a sight of the printing-office, 
from which, besides portions of the scriptures, a translation 
of Dr. Watts*s catechisms, and a complete edition of Tahi- 
tian hymns, have recently been issued. We afterwards pro- 
ceeded to the chapel ; it occupies a piece of ground formerly 
desecrated by a vast marae, of which there is yet a relic 
undestroyed — a memorial reminding beholders of what hath 
passed away, and from what thraldom the children have been 
delivered whose fathers Satan had bound, it may be through 
a series of ages,^since these islands were first colonized by 
sinners, who, descended from Adam, " have gone in the way 
of Cain." The country hereabout is well cultivated, and 
proportionately fruitful. We were glad to see many dwellings 
in progress of erection upon the improved plan' of wattling 
and plaster; having the interior divided into convenient 
family apartments. Proofs of industry and advancement in 
' civilization were discernible every w^ere, in the persons, 
the dress, the manners, and the habitations of the natives. 
Formerly the desultory, roving, and indolent habits of the 
whole population of these islands prevented them from 
taking any unnecessary pains to build their houses for 
permanent occupation. Tl^ provident and well-regufated 
modes of living, introduced with the gospel, have proved 
-^ favorable to improvement in every way, and perhaps in 



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MAU^CAA, OR TBB SWiNE-OWNER. 1^1 

none more than in their domestic economy, from which, 
decency, good order, and comfort have expelled the grossness, 
confusion, and filthiness of what might he called promis- 
cuous intercourse — when men, women, and children, in- 
mates and strangers, ate, drank, and lodged, in one long, 
narrow apartment, of which the whole structure consisted. 
So much are the residents in this district pleased with 
the happy innovations lately adopted, that at a public 
meeting, expressly convened for that purpose, a resolution 
was passed, that any house thereafter built in the old 
slovenly style might be pulled down by any body, and the 
dilapidator should be exempt from punishment. 

A few mornings ago a woman, with an infant in her 
arms, called on the missionaries here to beg a little milk. 
Being asked whose child it was that she carried, she 
answered, ".Mine. ^' To a second question, as to its age, . 
she said, " It was born last night, when the moon was 
yonder," pointing to that part of the heavens from which 
the beautiful planet had lighted her babe into the world. 
The pains of parturition are comparatively mild in this 
genial clime, and under the favorable circumstances which 
freedom from artificial restraint in clothing, and bodily 
exercise naturally produce. Yet there are here occa- 
sional cases of death among the women from that 
cause. 

Nov. 17. Several chiefs of this district have waited upon 
us with presents of fruit and hogs. Among these was oho 
named M(iubuaa, or pig-owner. His office, under the 
idolatrous system, was to provide human sacrifices when 
the king required such from this neighborhood. With a 
stone, or other weapon, he used to spring upon his select- 
ed victims, unawares, and, when slaughtered, packed the 
bodies in cocoa-leaf baskets, and delivered them to be hung 
up, according to custom, on sacred trees, round the maraes 
of Oro. This man has slain many for such horrid offer- 
ings. He is now a member of a Christian church, and, 
to all appearance, " a new creature." 

The missionaries have sometimes much to bear with in 
the conduct and conversation of their converts, — even 
those who have given satisfactory evidence of their genuine 
change of heart. The day on which Upaparu, a chief 
of the district of Matavai, had been baptized, he addressed 
Mr. Bourne in a very improper spirit, rudely demanding, 
11 



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rZZ BiAN PUNISHED FOR SWEARING. 

" What are you teaching us ? Aud why do you not instruct 
us in English^ and other things besides religion?" ''A 
soft answer" turned away his wrath, though it did not 
satisfy him ; he went ^ away offended. A day or two 
afterwards, reading the words of our Savior to his dis- 
ciples, ** He that despiseth you, despiseth me," he was smit- 
ten to the heart, and became so troubled on account of his 
bad behavior to the missioiiary, that, though he held out 
some time, he could neither eat nor sleep till he had con- 
fessed his fault and obtained reconciliation. 

In the afternoon it was announced to us, that the congre- 
gation of Christian natives had met in the school-room, and 
desired to see us. We found about five hundred present, 
whom we affectionately addressed on their privileges and 
duties. They then signified their wish to be permitted, indi- 
vidually, to shake hands with us, in token of their esteem, 
and we cheerfully consented ; the women first, the men next, 
and the children last, coming forward in turn thus to con- 
gratulate us on our arrival among them. A hymn of praise 
was then sung, and Mr. Bourne concluded this meeting of 
warm hearts and happy countenances with prayer. 

Not only the chapel, but the school-house in which we had 
just met, and the dwellings of the missionaries, stand upon 
the ground of the demolished heathen temple already men- 
tioned. It was of great extent, and was held in such vene- 
ration formerly that it was usual for the inhabitants of the 
adjacent valley, which winds into the interior of the island, 
to come every morning, and offer prayers on their knees, at 
this shrine of the prince of darkness. 

Nov. 18. Being the Sabbath, public worship was devout- 
ly attended by congregations of seven to eight hundred per- 
sons. An ignorant old man, who had made no decided 
profession of religion, was excluded from divine service, and 
required to stand on the outside of the chapel during its 
performance. He had been guilty of profane swearing, 
which in the eyes of these people is a heinous offence. In 
a fit of passion he had threatened one who had provoked 
him, in very peculiar phraseology, namely, — " that he would 
kill, and deliver him to be eaten by his God." , This menace^ 
in their idolatrous state, was regarded as the most dreadful 
that could be uttered ; and the culprit, on the present occa- 
sion, was punished by the authority of the chiefs, who, 
though they mingle not only in the sanctuary but in general 



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RETURN TO BfATAYAI. 123 

with the people, as their equals (all hejng under the govern- 
ment of the laws), yet when they please to command are 
still obeyed with implicit deference. , 

Nov. 19. As we returned to Matavai, the day was exceed- 
ingly fine, but the heat of a vertical sun, to which we were 
exposed upon the water, without awning in our small boat, 
made the voyage irksome. The bottom of the sea, as we 
glided along, was brilliantly bestrewed with corals, in end- 
less varieyty of form and exquisite tints of coloring. Among 
the myri^ of beautiful fishes that sported in these subma- 
rine forests was one of very peculiar shape. It was about 
an inch long, crossed with three black belts in a parallel 
direction. The body, which is flat, terminates abruptly, 
as though it had been cut short behind, and from this squared 
end the tail projects. 

In traversing the bay of Matavai we found a considerable 
swell breaking upon the beach, and from a cavern, at the 
foot of One-Tree Hill, the foam came rolling and flashing 
with furious precipitation. On reaching Mr. Nott's house, 
we found there the king of Borabora, whose name is Mai. 
He had brought a letter from Mr. Orsmond, the missionary on 
that station, expressing great joy at our arrival here, and idSec- 
tionately inviting us to visit that island. On hearing that Mr. 
Jones had come out with us as a missionary, the people of Bo- 
rabora had held a public meeting, and resolved to request 
Mr. Jones to settle with them. So earnest were they to obtain 
their object that the king himself had been deputed as their 
ambassador, and had come a hundred and thirty miles hith- 
er in an open boat. By the way he had been driven from 
island to island by contrary winds, and at length reached Ta- 
hiti with his life in his hand, preserved to him by a merciful 
Providence. Mai is thirty-five years of age, a tall and stately 
person, with pleasing manners and intelligent aspect. The 
case of Borabora is not singular ; missionaries are wanted 
on every hand ; and from shore to shore, on the Pacific deep, 
voices are crying, " Come over and help us !" 

Before we left Bunaauia, this morning, we had an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing how eager the natives are to obtain such 
books as are, from time to time, printed here. Mr. Bourne had 
just completed a compendious spelling-book, with a transla^ 
tion of Dr. Watts's small catechism. This book they call 
the Baba. It having been announced for publication to-day, 
before six o'clock in the morning about a hundred persons 



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124 ANECDOTE OF POMARE. 

crowded the house, anxious to secure the precious volume ; 
and, being fearful that there might not be copies to supply all, 
each urged his claim to priority of purchase. The price was 
a bamboo of cocoa-nut oil. " See," cried one, " how large 
a bamboo mine is ! — ^let me have a book first." " But mine 
is much larger than his," exclaimed another ; " let me have 
one before him." A poor man, lest he should be too late, had 
applied on Saturday night, but could not get his Baba then. 
He, however, refused to take back his bamboo of oil, and 
lashed it to one of the posts of the house, to hang there in 
readiness against the Monday. All, at length, were gratified. 

Nov. 20. We had invited Mai to breakfast with us at eight 
o'clock. He arrived before seven, having previously attend- 
ed the adult-school in the chapel. He brought in his hand a 
copy of the three Gospels which have been printed in th6 
Tahitian language. The word of God is made the travel- 
ing companion of these people, who go not fi'om home a 
day without it. The king appeared to prize his treasure 
exceedingly. At breakfast he sat at table with us, and used 
his knife and fork with tolerable address after the Euro- 
pean fashion. He ate heartily, but not immoderately. The 
Tahitians often take a large quantity of food at once, bi^ 
then they have but one principal daily meal, in the forenoon, 
and that consists chiefly of vegetable provision. Pomare 
once dining on board a ship, the captain asked him what 
part of the fowl he would please to have. "AH of 
it," replied the king, to the astonishment and amusement of 
the foreigners, who soon, however, perceived the purpose for 
which his majesty chose " the lion's share ;" — ^he had several 
attendants, to each of whom he sent a part. Mr. Orsmond 
and Mr. Jones wrote a letter of grateful acknowledgment 
to the people of Borabora, declining their invitation at 
present ; after which Mai left Tahiti on a visit to Pomare at 
Eimeo. 

Nov. 23. Mr. Davies, the missionary at Papara, arrived 
here, with intelligence that the king, with his chie&, had 
landed at Atehura, from Eimeo, last evening. He gives an 
encouraging account of the progress of the gospel on his 
station. — ^In the afiernoon a brig, direct fi'om Port Jackson; 
anchored in Matavai Bay. It proved to be the Dragon, 
captain Walker, who brought a letter for the missionaries 
here, fix>m the Rev. Mr. Marsden, informing them that, m a 
late trial between a Mr. E. and himsdf, as the firiend of 



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SIMPLK SUBSTITUTE fOft BELLOWS. 125 

king Pomare, damages to the amoutot of <£1200 had been 
given in favor of the latter. Captain Walker said he had late- 
ly been in Bengal, and that at a place where he had given an 
account, in a public assembly, of the wonderful changes 
which the religion of Christ had effected in thei^ islands, a 
young man,, a. Brahmin, steppied forth, and, in a long and 
energetic address, declared his astonishment and delight at 
hearing such good news, and concluded by saying that 
thenceforth he himself would abandon idolatry, and embrace 
the faith which had wrought such marvels here. 

Nov. 24. A message arrived from the king, who is at 
Bunaauia, expressing his earnest wish that we would defer 
our voyage to the leeward islands, for certaih reasons. We 
deemed it expedient to comply, though our arrangements 
were otherwise nearly completed. — ^As we returned home 
from Mr. Wilson's, where we had dined, we observed on an 
open, airy plot of groupd, near the sea, a Tahitian apparatus 
to perform the work of a pair of bellows, in blowing a fire 
to heat iron. This contrivance was under a fara-tree. In 
order to concentrate the wind to a point, and bring the blast 
upon the flame, several mats, made of cocoa-leaves, were 
placed so as to form a sort of funnel, behind which the fire 
was kindled. Some of .these mats were fixed upon their 
edges, forming an acute angle, at which two X)thers were 
placed on their ends, .about a foot from the, ground. Thus 
all the wind falhng within this opening was made to pass 
through the aperture at its contracted end, and thereby 
brought to bear upon the fire. Though there was only a gentle 
breeze abroad, yet the blast here was sufficient to produce 
the intensity of heat required. 

Nov. 26. Accompanied by Messrs. Nott and Crook, we 
sailed to Bunaauia, in captain Walker's boat, on a visit to 
Pomare. In approaching the royal presence we had to pass 
by a long line of soldiers, who had been stationed in advance 
to receive us. Several of them carried bells in their hands, 
which they tinkled from the time when we came in sight till 
we had passed them. These body-guards stood with their 
muskets Mouldered, but did not fire ihem. We found the 
king lying upon a couch, covered with a white counterpane, 
and his head considerably raised by pillows. He received 
us very graciously, and we, in return, wished him " every 
good," according to the most approved form of salutation 
used here. He looked better, we thought, than when we 
11» 



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126 IBTTBETISW l^rrR POMAAft. 

last saw him, in Eimeo; but yet his person was much 
swoHen, and, on feeling his pulse, the ann remained pitted 
where the pressure had been. The queen, with her son 
upon her knee, sat near the king, and a number of chiefs, 
both men and women, were in attendance, all sitting' cross- 
legged on the floor, at the extremity of the shed in which 
this audience was giyen. A table was {4aced near Pomare, 
on which were spread various fruits and wines, of whi<^ we 
were invited to partake. Among the -company {uresent we 
noticed one of those natives whc^ complexions , are as fair 
as those of Europeans ; but in this instance his white and 
florid c<^or appeared mmatural, and the effect of disease, the 
• skin being scaly, and his weak blue eyes so tender that he 
held down his head to escape being annoyed by the light. 
It is common for persons, afflicted with incurable disorders, 
or any strange deformity, to resort to the house of the king 
or some great chief, where, as part of their retinue, they find 
a sanctuary and maintenance. 

The king being too unwell to converse much, after sitting 
a little while, and talking on subjects connected with our 
visit to his dominions, we took our leave. We were after- 
wards informed that Pomare had been seized with a fainting- 
fit, last night, and it was apprehended for some time that he 
was dead. The missionaries were immediately called in. 
They found the chiefs and all his attendants weeping round 
him. When he revived, he complained of violent pains in 
his right side, and was so impressed with the expectation of 
early dissolution, that, as soon as he was able, he entered 
into discourse with them on the probable consequences of . 
his death; Though he would give them no positive direc- 
tions respecting his successor, he earnestly exhorted them to 
be unanimous in their choice, and then they would do well. 

Nov. 27. On our return to Matavai, we found a man, 
who was at work on the new road, dressed in a jacket of the 
cloth prepared from the husky material that envefopes the 
roots of the cocoa-nut, the strong fibres of which stand at 
right angles with each other. Such vegetable cloth pos- 
sesses great strength, and is often used in sails for canoes. 
, This jacket was purchased of the owner for a knife. As we 
passed many small dwellings by the way-side, the* people 
every where saluted us, offering pine-apples, cocoa-nut 
water, pr any dainty that they had, which might be accepta- 
ble to us. 



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CAKDIDAT£S FOB CHLTlCn-FELLOWsniP. 127 

Not. 29» In the forenoon we embarked on board of the 
General Gates, and sailed for Eimeo, where we landed, in 
the course of five hours, in Taloo harbor. This is one of the 
most secure, capacious, and beautiful ports in the world ; five 
hundred vessels might ride here in perfect safety, while wood 
and water might be obtained within a few yards of the an- 
chorage. In the evening we had an opportunity of witnessing 
with what circumspecti6n the missionaries admit natives to 
religious privileges. Two men and two women were exam- 
ined, previous to their being received as communicants, 
touching their knowledge of the nature of the Lord's Supper, 
the obligations of church-members one towards another, and 
the general, social and relative duties of professing Christians. 
The answers of the candidates were highly satisfactory, and 
the exhortations of their teachers were fervent, feithful, and 
authoritative, as became ministers of the gospel of truth, 
which requires purity of heart and holiness of life in all its 
subjects. We, ourselves, put several questions. To one 
man we said, " What are your reasons for supposing that 
you have experienced that change which is called ' being 
born again,' and without which ' a man cannot enter the 
kingdom of God V " He replied, " I feel a desire after good 
things^ and I hate the bad things in which I once delighted. 
I wish to be made holy, and free from sin. Therefore I 
hope my heart has been changed." — ^Of another, a second 
candidate (a female), we inquired, ''Since the scriptures 
lay it down, as an evidence of true religion, that we lore 
God and his people, what makes you think that you have 
this twofold affection ?" — Her answer was, " I want to serve 
God ; I have pleasure in attending the public and private 
meetings for religious instruction ; and I love to be in the 
company of good people." We asked the third (a man), 
" As it is indispensably necessary that you should constant- 
ly perform all your Christian and common duties, do you 
expect to be saved by your good deeds ?" " No," said he ; 
" though I think it right and necessary to do these duties, I 
depend for salvation on the merits of Jesus Christ alone." — 
To the fourth (another woman) we remarked, " As great and 
important duties belong to members of churches, we should 
be glad if you would name some of these, and tell us how 
you intend to discharge th€m ?" She answered, ** It is my 
duty to come regularly to the sacrament, to do good to other 
people, and to pray for them. I hope, therefore, to be found 



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128 PUBLIC FAST AND PRAYERS FOR THE RING. 

faithful in these, and all things else required of me," — ^Thesc 
examinations continued till a late hour ; yet as we were re- 
turning from Mr. Henry*s house, where they were held, in 
company with Mr. Piatt, we passed many persons who were 
still sitting by the road-side, waiting for the missionary, to 
obtain from him information on various points of scriptural 
knowledge ; so eager and yet so patient are these " babes " 
for the " sincere milk of the word." 

We find that the chiefs of Tahiti aiid Eimeo have sent 
messengers round the islands, to request that to*morrow 
may be observed as a. day of fasting and prayer for the res- 
toration of the king's health ; but, if it should be otherwise 
ordained, then directing supplication to be made that it 
would please God to prepare his soul for the kingdom of 
heaven. Accordingly, we found all the people here busily 
setting their household affairs in order, that the day might 
be kept holy as a Sabbath ; it liaving been also determined 
that, till after sunset, the inhabitants should abstain from 
food of all kinds. 

Nov. 30. Though fast-days had been partially held by 
those who were Christians here, on occasion of acti^al or 
apprehended war, yet this was the first national fast that had 
ever been observed in the islands since the gospel was 
planted in them. It was, therefore, solemnized with deep 
and peculiar feelings of awe and devotion. The services 
were commenced by a prayer-meeting at sunrise. In the 
forenoon, the public worship was introduced by hymns, 
successively given out, and prayers offered by three native 
chiefs ; afterwards, Mr. Henry read a portion of scripture, 
and delivered a suitable discourse. In the afternoon, the 
church-meeting was held, at which the four candidates, 
examined last night, were publicly admitted into church-fol- 
lowship, by a show of hands in their favor ; when an affec- 
tionate charge was addressed to them by the missionary. 
The public service followed, as in the former part of the 
day, Mr. Piatt conducting it, and exhorting the congre- 
gation. 

Dec. 1. We have just received letters firom the missiona- 
ries, Messrs. Threlkeld, Williams, Ellis, Orsmond, and 
Barff, in the leeward islands, cordially inviting us over, and 
offering to send a boat for us ; but as we are dready on our 
way thither, by the American ship, this will be unnecessary. 
These letters contain much gratifying intelligence concern 



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ANECDOTE OF AFFECTION TOWARDS A MISSIONARY. 129 

ing the progress of the gospel <m those stations. The 
following circumstance deserves honorable record: — Mr. 
Orsmond says, '* Once, at Raiatea, on my arrival, the king, 
the chiefs, and great numbers of the people, ran into the 
water, laid ^old of my little boat, and carried it, including 
myself and all my cargo, upon their shoulders, about a fur- 
long 'inland, into the royal, yard, with masts, sails, and rig- 
ging all displayed ; the bearers and the accompanying 
mulUtude shouting as they went, 'God bless our teacher, 
Otomonil' (Orsmond, as iSoftened down in the delicate 
Pacific tongue)." A circumstance nearly similar occurred 
to the same missionary at Borabora. 

To-day, we agreed to give captain Riggs, of the General 
Gates, nine hogs, the remaining part of Pomare's present to 
us when we were here last, for o^r passage in his ship to 
the leeward islands. On our walk, in the afternoon, we 
were amused by observing the process of shaving here. The 
operator was sitting on the ground, holding between his legs 
the head of the patient, who lay most resolutely on his back 
€[uring the infliction ; and it was difficult to award the meed 
of praise between them — the barber for his skill and perse^ 
verance in clearing away a week's growth of harsh bushy 
beard, with a razor little better than an iron hoop, and with- 
out either water or soap to facilitate its progress; or the 
Tictim of his bad tool, but dexterous management, for the 
patience and good nature with which he bore the torture to 
the last bristle of his chin. « 

On the beach, near the king's house, we found a small 
but curious crab, which is common here. These creatures 
bury themselves in the moist sand or mud to the depth of a 
hand-breadth or more. One of the largest which we dug 
up was three-quarters of an inch in length, of a dark-brown 
color ; others, however, are marked with blue spots. The 
pecuKarity of this little animal is, that one of its fore-claws is 
disproportionately large, being sometimes the size of its whole 
body, and of a bright fck! tint ; while the corresponding claw 
is of the same color with its legs, and so small as scarcely 
to be perceptible without being sought out. The eyes stand 
at the extremity of two projections, each half an inch in 
length. When the crab enters its hole, these flexible instru- 
ments, which can be moved in all directions, turn downwards 
into grooves of the under shell, where they are sheathed in 
perft^t security. On the approach of danger, these helf^es^ 



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130 NATIVE GENEROSITY. 

creatures burrow into the sand with surprising celerity ; but 
the sagacious hogs as quickly grub them up with their 
snouts, and greedily devour the delicate morsels. The na- 
tives call this species ohitimataroa, the big-eyed crab. 

In the evening, a person brought us a very fine mat for 
sale, and requested to have a shirt in exchange. He said 
that the reason why he came so late was, that he wished to 
appear becomingly dressed on the morrow, the Sabbath. 
Some friends of his, who had arrived from the leeward islands, 
being poorly and scantily clad, he had generously given 
them the best clothes he had, leaving himself without suitable 
covering for the public assembly. It is an ancient custom to 
give to a friend whatever he asks for, whether food or rai-^ 
ment, and however the owner may want it himself To refuse 
a request of this kind would be deemed suph a breach of hos- 
pitality as to bring upon the person the reproach of being a 
churl, a character held in abhorrence by these people, who, in 
some respects, live as if they were all of one family, and had 
every thing in common. It was formerly so imperative to 
divide their morsel one with another that when a man killed 
a hog, it was baked whole, and all his neighbors who chose 
came to partake of it ; he himself having only as much as he 
could eat, and the entire carcass being devoured at a meal. 
Customs of this kind, which suited the lazy and the sensual 
in their heathen state, are now fast falling, as they ought, 
into disuse ; while Christian charity, the principle of the pur- 
est benevolence, makes them ready to communicate of their 
good things to those that are in need, without reckless waste 
or unnecessary impoverishment of themselves for worthless 
vagabonds, of whom, formerly, there were multitudes consum- 
ing the fruits of the soil, and the produce of industry, with- 
out cultivating the one or contributing to the other. 

Dec. 1. On a visit to Mrs. BickneU, we had much conver- 
sation with her respecting the death of her husband, which 
toqk place about a year ago. She mentioned, that she had 
once received a letter from him on one of his preaching tours 
through Tahiti, before the gospel was received, there, in 
irhich he complained that there were stills in operation every 
where, and the people were given up to drunkenness and 
debauchery, in consequence of the excessive use of spirituous 
liquors, the fatal secret of preparing which they had been 
taught by strangers bearing and disgracing the name of 
Christians. It is melancholy to think how apt barbarians 



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TAEO PLANTING. 131 

are to learn what is evil from civilized visitors, and how slow 
to receive that which is good ; — alas ! we may add, how much 
more apt are visitors from civilized nations to communicate 
evil than good to ignorant savages, hoth by teaching and 
example ! We have already recorded that Pomare, on em- 
bracing Christianity, abolished the stills throughout his 
dominions; and (though himself, unhappily, addicted to 
strong drink, when he had it by purchase from ships touch- 
ing upon his coast) he never permitted it to be prepared at 
home, even for his own gratification, lest he should " put an 
enemy " into the mouths of his subjects ** to steal away their 
senses." 

Dec. 3. Mr. Piatt, wishing to have a piece of ground ad- 
jacent to his house planted with taro (sweet potatoes), had 
mentioned it to the deacons, who assembled the congregation, 
last Saturday, to consider whether they would do the work 
for their minister. On the question being put, the people 
gladly offered their services, and this morning they came to 
frilfil their engagement. The ground for the cultivation of 
this root is low and wet, and here it was covered with rank 
and coarse vegetation. In a few hours, however, the whole 
plot was cleared and planted. The many hands made light 
work, by an easy division of the whole into small portions. 
Except two or three spades, short, pointed sticks were the 
only tools employed to root up the grass, dig the soil, and 
plant the taro. The laborers were very soon ludicrously be- 
spattered with mud ; yet nothing could exceed the good- 
humor with which they performed their disagreeable task ; 
many of them sat down in the mire to gather out the stones, 
^id put in the plants. One woman only was among them, 
with several boys. In one quarter the king's servants were 
employed, in another the queen's, and several bands else- 
where ; all keeping to their own departments. By noon, the 
whole was nearly completed, when the work^)eople were 
entertained with a baked hog and the usual vegetable fare, 
provided by Mr. Piatt. On the occasion, sundry chiefs 
headed their vassals, and toiled with their own hands as hard 
as any of them. This is always the case when any public 
service is to be done, the principal men deeming it their 
honor to be the ablest and busiest of the multitude, who, 
under such encouragement as well as superintendence, vie 
with each other who shall do the most and the best in accom- 
plishing the common object. The taro plants are placed 



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192 A COURT OF JUSTICE. 

something less than a yard apart ; this is necessary, both to 
allow their luxuriant growth, and that they may b^ regularly 
supplied with water. The roots arc fit for use in six months, 
hut both the bulk and quality are much improved if permitted 
to remain in the ground a year. Roasted or boiled, the 
taro is excellent food. 

Dec. 4. We have just witnessed the novel scene of a 
court of justice here. Hard by the chapel, there stands a 
magnificent purau-tree, round about and under the expand- 
ed shade of which long forms for seats were fixed, enclosing 
a square of about twenty-five feet across. No pains had 
been taken to clear the ground, which happened to be strewn 
with loose stones. The judges took their places on the 
benches. Most of these were secondary chiefs, the superior 
ones being with Pomare at Tahiti. They were handsomely 
robed in purau ma.ts and cloth tibutas, with straw hats, and 
made a most respectable appearance. There were nearly 
thirty of these ; among whom one, called Tapvni, having 
been previously appointed chairman of the tribunal, was dis- 
tinguished above the rest by a bunch of black feathers, 
gracefully surmounted with red, in his hat. Hundreds of 
people seated themselves on the outside of the square. Two 
young men were then introduced, who sat down quietly at 
the foot of the tree. -These were the culprits : they were 
charged with having stolen some bread-fruit. Silence and 
earnest attention prevailed. Tapuni now rose, and called 
upon the accused to stand up, which they immediately did. 
He then stated the offence for which they were arraigned, 
and as their guilt was clear, having been detected in the 
fact, he told them that they had committed rebellion, by 
breaking the law, outraging the authority of the king, and 
disgracing the character of their country. One of the young ■ 
men, hereupon, frankly confessed that he had perpetrated 
the thefl, and persuaded his comrade to share with him the 
crime and the plunder. Witnesses are seldom called in such 
cases, offenders generally acknowledging their misdeeds, and 
casting themselves on the justice of the court to deal with 
them accordingly. This is a remarkable circumstance, and 
we are assured that it is so common as to constitute a trait 
of national character. A brief conversation followed among 
the judges, respecting the tdua^ or punishment, to be inflict- 
ed on the youths, as they were ilm'a faahapa, or found guilty. 
The sentence was then delivered by the president ; this was, 



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FIRST DESTRUCTION OF IDOLS. 1B3 

that they should each build four fathoms of a wall, now erect- 
ing about a plot of taro ground, belonging to the king. In 
such cases, the condemned are allowed their own reasonaUe 
time to execute the task required, and it generally happens 
that their friends, by permission, lend them assistance. We 
have seen an aged father helping his son to perform hard 
labor of this kind, which must, nevertheless, be finished to 
the satisfaction of an authorized inspector. It is remarkable, 
in the administration of justice here, that, when the sentence 
is pronounced, the criminal is gravely asked whether he liim- 
sdf agrees to it, and he generally replies in the affirmative. 
There is something very primitive and patriarchal in this 
simple yet solemn form of conducting trials. 

A second cause now came on. The plaintiff had engaged 
certain persons to plant a quantity of land with tobacco, at a 
stipulated price. While these were at work, two fellows, not 
employed by the plaintiff, volunteered their assistance to the 
hired laborers. When the tobacco was ripe, these two came 
and took away a quantity of the crop, as a pompensation for 
their officious services. The action was, therefore, brought 
against them, to recover the tobacco, or damages to the value 
of it. When the case had been stated, much discussion 
arose ; but as it could not h^ found that the law had made 
express provision for such an anomalous offence, the consid- 
eration of the subject was deferred till another time. 

Near this missionary station, called Pq>etoai, the first 
destruction of idols took place. Mr. Henry, still resident 
there, was present. A chief, named Pati, having fully made 
up his mind to the perilous experiment, which should prove 
whether the objects of his fathers' worship and his own were 
gods or not, — he publicly announced, before Pomare and a 
great number of the natives, that he would bring the images 
from the marae in the adjacent valley, and bum them, before 
the sun, next day. Some of the missionaries, fearful of the 
consequences, advised him to consider well what he was 
about to do ;. but Mr. Henry, young and zealous for the Lord 
of Hosts, clapped the heroic chief on the back, and encour- 
aged him to lose no time in carrying his good purpose inta 
execution. Accordingly, on the morrow, Papi brought his 
family idob, three in number, upon his back, to the place of 
execution. There, throwing the lumber down ^ upon the 
ground, he took an axe, hewed away the wicker-work that 
encased them, and split the uncouth shq>es, to see what 
12 



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134 DEPARTt7R£ FOR THE I.EEWARD ISLANDS. 

might be within, when bones of fishes and men, that had 
been sacrificed, were found in the cavities. The dumb logs 
and stocks were then cast into the flames of a large fire, and 
presently consumed to ashes — the people gazing with horror 
and astonishment on the eacrilegious act, expecting that some 
signal vengeance would overtake the bold assailant of the 
' gods. The latter, however, could not help themselves ; and 
the spectators, witnessing such total impotence, felt their faith 
in the superstition of their ancestors not a little shaken. 
Their children will hardly know what that siiperstition was, 
so utterly, though gradually, have all traces of it been abolish- 
ed since that memorable conflagration. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Departure for the Leeward Islands — Huahine — Distinguished Natives 
— Speeches — ^eath of Pomare — ^Grounds on which the Effects pro- 
duced by Chnstian Missions in these Islands have been misrepre- 
sented — Last Injunctions and Dying Scene of Pomare. 

Dec. 5. Taking leave of our friends in Eimeo, we em- 
barked on board the General Gates, and were soon under 
weigh on our voyage to the leeward islands.. The breeze 
was slight, but towards evening we came to anchor off Titu- 
roa, eight leagues distant from Tahiti, captain Riggs having 
determined to land here, for the purpose of purchasing a fur- 
ther stock of provisions. 

Dec. 6. Glad to escape from our confined births in the 
ship, we rose early, A large shark being on the scout near 
the vessel, a hook well baited was let down, and in a few min- 
utes the voracious animal was floundering on the deck, 
where he was quickly dispatched, and the fins, of flippers, 
taken off, to be preserved for the China market, where such 
commodities fetch a good price. Mr. Tyerman accompanied 
captain Riggs in the boat, intending to land, which, howev- 
er, was a matter of no small difliculty, and some peril. Ti- 
turoa is, in fact, a group of coral islets, ten in number, com- 
prehended within one general reef, and separated from each 
other by interjacent lagoons. On the reef the surf breaks 
perpetually, with great violence; here the boat narrowly es- 
caped being wrecked in attempting to push into calm water. 
At length an entrance was found, where the captain got on 



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HUAHINE. 135 

shore, by sometimes waciing up to the loins, and sometimes 
being carried on men's shoulders. To his great disappoint- 
ment neither hogs nor fowls could be procured, and only a 
small quantity of fruit and fish. An effort to land on a sec* 
ond island proved ineffectual. 

This group of motus (as they are called) is about twenty 
miles in circuit. They are low, flat spots, beautifully cover- ' 
ed with cocoa-nut, vi-apple, and other trees; but the bread- 
fruit is not found growing here, nor, indeed, on any of the 
coral islands to which the salt water has access. On the 
contrary the cocoa frequently stands within the margin of 
the sea, and shoots up in stately luxuriance, with its shadow 
perpetually floating upon the brine. There are no mountain- 
plantains nor bananas here. The inhabitants of these com- 
parative solitudes are few and poor ; and, though they have 
acknowledged Christianity, are as yet less instructed in it 
than those of the more fertile and favored islands in the 
neighborhood. 

Dec. 7. Pursuing our course, about noon the island of 
Huahine hove in sight, at the distance of twenty-five miles 
over the lee-bow. At first the appearance was conical, blue, 
and dimly discernible; but, as we approached, the outline 
broke into distinct hills, and in the glow of sunset many 
sharp peaks were seen crowding through the evening sky. 

Dec. 8. At day-break we neared Huahine. The island, 
which i3 irregularly oval, much resembles Eimeo in its aspect 
to the eye, though the eminences are neither so high nor so 
peaked as those of the latter, and are wooded even to the 
summits ; their flanks, in some places rocky and steep, are 
hollowed into narrow fissures or deep ravines. Numerous 
valleys, descending from the*interior, open towards the beach. 
Many small islands studding the face of the sea, on all sides, 
add a variety of graceful objects, whether contemplated from 
the deck or from the shore. One of very peculiar form, 
standing apart, might have been taken for a Chinese temple, 
built upon the waves, when seen from the point where we 
first descried its tapering height against the horizon. It was 
covered with cocoa-nut and other trees. Soon afterwards, 
the missionary settlement, at the head of the bay, saluted oiir 
view, and was most welcome to our hearts. It has an im- 
posing appearance, and reminded us more of a large town 
' than any place we had lately seen, many of the houses being 
of considerable size, all white, and the chapel, a noble edi- 



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136 FARE HARBOft, HUAHINE. 

fice, in the centre. A lofty mountain rises in the hack- 
ground of this expanded picture, between the foot of which 
and the sea there runs a narrow border of low land, rich in 
tropical trees, pleasant to the eye and- good for food. 

Fronting this station, which is on Fare Harbor, where 
captain Cook formerly anchored, we could discern, towards 
the north-west, the adjacent islands of Raiatea, Tahaa, and 
Borabora, beautifully displayed between the level ocean and 
the bending sky, that seemed to enclose them behind and 
above. The morning was delightfully serene, and with a 
gentle breeze we were soon wafted through an opening of 
the reef into the calm and safe lagoon. This reef of coral 
es^ends across the bay, having two passages thrbugh which 
entrance or egress may be made, each about a quarter of a 
mile in breadth, with great depth of water ; while upon the 
rocky barrier itself the surge is for ever rolling and retreat- 
ing m foam and spray, through which no bark, however light 
or strong, can live to carry a crew or cargo. The bay here 
is a mile wide, and about as much inward from the reef to 
the shore ; and anchorage is so secure that vessels generally 
lie close upon the beach, and are moored to a tree, bead and 
stem. Two streams of fresh water, one at the south and the 
other at the north side, flow into the harbor, and fertilize the 
land round the settlement. 

Mr. Ellis and Mr. Barff, the missionaries here, s^it their 
boat to bring us on shore, and gave us a most cordial wel- 
come to Huahine, on which we were glad to set our feet, as 
on a field which the Lord had blessed. By the time when we 
had reached Mr. Barff 's house, hundreds of the natives had 
aflsemUed to greet us, whose laoranofi — ^* all good be with 
you "^— ran? in our ears ; but to shake hands wiUi all that of- 
fered was almost mate than our strength could endure ; many 
children were among them, and shouted for joy with the rest. 
With the first whom we saw came Mahine and Mahine Ya- 
hine, the king and queen of Maiaoite, who have great influ- 
ence in this island, where they usually reside. Mahine, 
when an idolater, was a mighty man of valor, and rendered 
essential service in raising Pomare to his dignity in Tahiti. 
In the last conflict, also, with tiro heathen insurgents, he had 
distingmshed himself pre-eminently. He commanded the 
third division in the order of march to battle, and when the 
first and second were compelled to M back, he firmly ad- 
vanced to charge the enemy, wlxMie chief leader was soon 



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aVEEN POMA&E YAHINE. ^ 137 

Afterwards slam by a shot from one of his men : totd discom- 
fiture soon followed. On Mahine's return to this island, a^ 
ter the war, as he leaped on shore, he exclaimed, "The 
idolaters were conquered by prayer." He seems about sixty 
years of age, a tall and venerable man, and generally dresses 
in European costume. He might at the time above mention- 
ed have obtained expensive dominions, with great civil power ; 
but he nobly resigned the whole into the hands of others, 
saying that he would have nothing to do thenceforward with 
political affairs, but should give himself to hearing the word, 
and obeying the wiH, of Grod during the remainder of his 
days. His consort is a woman of royal blood, and majestic 
presence, with coCuteou^ manners. Sh^ dresses in the Eng- 
lish ^hion. This exalted and good man htts lately sustained 
a severe stroke of affliction in the death of his son, by a for- 
iher wife, who, had he lived, would have been king 6f Hua- 
hine. He was cut off by rapid consumption in his twentieth 
year. To aggravate the grief of the aged parent and the 
community at large, who had a natidnal interest in his life, 
the youth was the last branch of bis fainily that had seen the 
light He left, however, a wife far advanced lin pregnancy ; 
and on the expected birth of a grandchild fthe poor Weaved 
ftither hangs his hope of r^uration of the i)ruin'6f)his house. 
In this prospective solaice all the people aflfecldohatc^y sympa- 
thize. His s(fn died about a month since, and was buried in 
the chapel-yard; on which occasion, close by ithe grave, Ma- 
hine had a little hut erected, wherein he remained, night and 
day, sorrowiiig and seeking resignation, till a few days ago, 
when he came fitHrth as one who could say, " Father, thy will 
be done." 

Our neitft visitor of rank was Pbmare ¥ahine, sister to Po- 
mare's queen, aiid herself the queen tof Huahine. Her robe 
was a long shirt which reached neaifly<to the ground. She is 
an agreeable woman in person and manners. Next came 
Hautia, another princely personage, with his wife, a helpmate 
worthy of him. He is prime minister to the queen — in fact 
•he is regent, and governs on her behalf. He was followed 
by a person who was once the chief of all the soothsayers, 
but who now appears a pious and exemplary Christian. The 
•deacons of the church, and many of the second rank of 
clnefi, who are the land-owners, also waited upon us with 
4heir dieef ful congratulations. This hearty reception ^of our- 
selves, as the representatives of the Parent Society, was the 
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136 CABAT CQMCHUBGATIOV^ 

ncNre? peculiarly gradfying to us becanae k proved ^ Ugh 
etteem in which the resideDt misaionariea aie h^ here. 
Bfr. Beiinet was inrited to take up his abode widi Mr. Barff, 
and Mr. Tyerman with BIr. Elhs. These excellent men, 
with thw amiable wives and fiunilies, occupy conybrtable 
dwdlings, built in the English style, surrounded by neat and 
well-stocked gardens ; ana, while tl^y alalously devote their 
talents to the service of man and the glory of God, they en- 
joy the filial affection of the people am<Hig whom they labor. 
Similar testimonies we can bear in reference to all the 
fiuthful missionaries whom we have yet seen on the other 
islands. 

Dec. 8. Being the Sabbadi, we went to the early pray^- 
meeting in the chapel, and were astonished to find not fewer 
than a thousand persons assembled to jmy their morning vow^s 
to God. These devout exercises, as in Tahiti and Eimeo, 
were conducted entirely by natives, and ommsted <^ singing, 
praying, and reading the scriptures. About twelve huinlr^ 
men, women, and children, afterwards constituted the con- 
gregation, at the puUic service in the forehbon: The chapel 
is very compact and commodious, and as many as sixteen 
hundred auditors have occasionally been crowded into it. 
The pulpit stands on one side of the square area. Around 
it are placed the pews of the royal family and those of the 
princi[Hd and secondary chiefe, acc<!H'dibig to their rank; be-, 
yond these are the forms on which the commonalty sit, an^ 
also the Sunday scholars, of whom there were four hundred 
present Among these were the ehtidren of the royal line, 
and of the great chiefs, prettily attirbd, as their only distinc- 
tion, in purau-mat tibutas. After the sermons, on both parts 
of the day, it was difficult for us to escape firom the good folks, 
who thronged around, us to express their gladness at Our ar- 
rival. But what pleased us inost v^as $. n<^ce, given out after 
service, that to-mon:ow there woutd be a public meeting of 
the islanders to arohd us! i|mong them. The word aroka 
strictly means to compassioiiMte/ out it is used also to signify 
love and delight, as well as earnest desire, towards an object. 
Here it implied, to give us a feifVent welcome-— a welcome in 
which the tenderness of afieciionate hearts should be mingled 
with the joy of grateful minds,' on seeing the representatives 
of those Christian friends, in a far country, who. did not neg- 
lect to iiroha th^m in their low estate, but sent the messen- 
gers of the everlasting gosi>el to raise tiiem from the dust. 



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MEETING TO WELCCMIE THE DEPUTATION. 139 

and set them amcHig the princes of the Lord's people, yea, 
to make them sit in heavenly places with Christ Jesus. 

Dec. 9. Agreeable to the notice yesterday, the people as- 
sembled in the chapel, at three o'clock this allernoon, to aroha 
us <Hi our arrival. The royal princes, chiefs, raatiras (land- 
owners), and other pertons, of Ix>th.a3xes, all ages, and divers 
classes, were present A beautiful,. heart-moving spectacle it 
was, to look upon a thousand human beings^ so changed, as' 
the adults dl were, from what they and their fathers had 
been, through untold generations, and especially to meet the 
lovely countenances and gazing eyes of four hundred chM^ 
dreo among them, now training up in the nurture and admo- 
nition of the Lord — ^who, had the go^l not ..found them on 
the •threshold of life, and rescued £em, would (for the most 
part at least) have been murdered, at their birth, by the pa- 
rents to wlMHn they owed their existencje, and from whose 
hands, perhaps (as idolaters, wallowing in all manner of 
abominations), death was the best ho0n they could have re- 
ceived.* After singing and prayer, we each addressed the as- 
sembly on what God had done for them^, in them, and by 
them ; exhorting these Christian professors, not only to hold 
fiidt that whereunto they ,had attained, but to go on ftp perfec- 
tion^ following after holiness with entire devotion of heart, 
soul, mind, and strength, to the Lord's servic^«^ W,e also ex- 
{^ained to them the purposes of our visit, as a deputation to 
these islands from the London Missionary Society. Several 
cqpeeches were then addressed to us ; our good brethren, the 
missionaries, acting as interpreters to both parties. We shall 
record specimens of these as translated for us on the spot. 

Ajona, one of the deaconspf the church, said : V Brethren, 
our. hearts rejoice exceedii^^^y on account of the great good- 
ness of God in bringing you among us this day. Our iiearts 
are filled nfith love and affection towards you, though we 
never saw your fiuies before yesterday. My tears of gladness 
almost prevent my saying more. You ccnne fro^i'a very far 
land, on an errand of good-will to us, and f^Ci desire that your 
visit should be such an one as that of Bairniibas to Antioch, 
who, when he had seen the grace of G6d, was glad, and ex- 
horted them all, that with purposei.of heart they should cleave 
nalo the Lord. We, here, werift' in darkness, without the 
knoidedge of God or iM i^Uf of life, when yon, in your 
country, turned your '4f6d towards us. But it was God who^ 
mdined you to think ^ us, and send teachers te instruct us 



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140 SPEECHES^ OF NARII AND BIAHINE. ' 

in the good word, and lead us into the way to heaven. We 
now, with you, look to that Savior who gives endless life to 
those who believe in his name; and we, as well as yoiu,}ove 
Him because He first loved us and sought us out when we 
were running dong the road to destruction^ We are pleased 
to find that you have received our little property, which we 
sent to the Society to help them in causing the word of God 
to grow in every country ; and we pray that we may never be 
weary in thus well-doing, but go on and increase in our en- 
deavors, that others may be made «s haippy as we ave. Pray 
you, dear friends, for us, that we tnay 4idd on to the end ; 
and, if at any time we faint in this work, may we remember 
the word of Him who hath said, *■ Come unto me, all ye that 
labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.* " - 

Narii, a church-member, next spoke : *' Friends, elder 
brethren, fathers ! Peace be unto you, on coming among us, 
from God and from Jesus Christ ! Our prayers liave iieen 
answered, and you have been brought hither in safety to the 
delight of our hearts. We long ago learnt that you were on 
your -way, but now we have heard your voices and seen your 
faces, in the midst of us and our teachers, in the house of 
our -heavenly Father, yours as well as ours. Our faith is 
confirmed, this day, by hearing firom you the same things 
which we hear from our teachers ; because we ^e that your 
word and theirs is one. Some of our brethreh, who had 
heard that you were coming, have died without seeing yon. 
It is the goodness of God which has lengthened our ^ath 
to bid you welcome. These children, on whom you love so 
mu^h to look, we also rejoice to behold alive at this time ; 
they are property given unto us of the Lord, which we dear- 
ly prize, and which we are determined to dedicate to him ; 
in former days they might have been all murdered! But 
they and we now meet you in tWa temple of Jtefeovah ! Ah J 
it was not so once. Pray, then, for us, that the Spirit of 
Christ may dwell in our hearts, and we will pray for you. If 
we never meet you again on earth, may we meet you, and all 
our friends lieyoi&d the sea, at the right hand of our Re- 
deemer, in the kingdom of God." J 

Mahine, king of Maiaoite, then rose and said : '' We were 
on the briiik of 'the 4ire of heU, when the first English captain 
found us ; ani, wlian <«he seoond -came, we were all leaping 
down the precipice of death. The ship Duff brought us the 
love of God, and the message xA mercy. And yet we coo- 



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teaua's speech. 141 

tinued in the same wicked way. That time, however, is 
past. The grace of God has turned our feet into the J3ath8 
of peace and endless life. We never thought of looking to 
Him ; we desired neither Him nor his sdvation ; but He 
Sought us. He called us, and He made us to hear his voice. 
We, old people,' well remember what we foriherly were. 
We hated, dnd hunted, and killed one another. We once 
fed on husks, but now we feast on the ripe bread-fruit bf the 
word of Christ. Through God's Ibve alone that word was 
brought to us, by our kind friends and teachers, who leaped 
hither over the tops of the breaking waves to help us. May 
we, then, be faithful and steadfast to the end ; never may you 
hear, after your return to Britain, that we have gone back to 
our evil ways ; never may you have cause to exclaim — >* Be- 
hold, the land which we so much rejoiced to see is become a 
land to be sbrrowed and wept over!' This is truly a harvest 
of joy. We have long waited for it, and it is come at length. 
I am an aged man, and I trust I am going to Jesus : had I 
died before I saw yonr feces^ I should not have died so hap- 
pily as I shall now." 

Teaua, one of the raatiras, made the following remarks : — 
" Friends, you have come from a very far country, out of love 
to our kings and chiefe, and to us, raatiras, and to all our 
people. By the goodness of God you are come. We did not 
love you; we did not send any body to you to show you kind- 
ness. We never had such friends before. The former king 
of Tahiti saw your former brethren and died. He is no 
more ; but we live to see you among us and our rulers ; and, 
having seen you, they and we rejoice and are happy together. 
Our kings are glad; our chie& are glad; our raatii^as are 
glad ; our people are glad ; and we all bid you, our two elder 
brethren, welcome to Huahine, with praise and thanksgiving 
to Jehovah, for conducting you safely hither." 

It may be observed, that these four persons addressed us 
in the name of the respective ranks which they represented. 
They all spoke with ease, animation and fluei^cy. No trans- 
lation can be expected to convey more than the sentiments 
that wete delivered, which, clothed in their native idioms, pos- 
sessed a grace and simplicity not easily transferable into the 
diction of a more polished tongue. After these addresses we 
ttgnified our willingness to give, to all who desired it, the 
right hand of fellowship, on TOhalf of the London Missionary 
Society, and in the name of the whole Christian world, which 



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142 DEATH ^P POMARE. 

was deeply interested in the extension of its borders over the 
isles of the Pacific Ocean. The kind and ingenuous people 
were delighted with this token of our friendship, and all the 
congregation, in classes, according to their standings in the 
church, down to the Sunday-school children, came in due or- 
der to take their share in this hearty testimonial of good will, 
which, however long and wearisome, under other circum- 
stances, it might have been, was truly gratifying to our purest 
feelings, and was evidently felt in the same way by all our 
Huahine brethren and sisters. 

We spent the evening with our missionary friends at the 
house of Mr. Ellis. Here a man and a woman came in, and, 
sitting down upon the floor, told us that they had enjoyed so 
much happiness at the public meeting that they could not go 
to rest, that night, without coming to tell us. We questioned 
them upon several passages of scripture, to prove their reli- 
gious knowledge, when their answers were not only generally 
correct, but showed that they had diligently read and consid- 
ered those portions of holy writ which have been rendered 
into their native tongue. 

Dec. 8. At six o'clock this morning we visited the 
schools, and were surprised to find two large rooms well fill- 
ed ; the one appropriated to men and boys, the other to wo- 
men and girls, all attentive to their teachers, and employed 
upoh their various branches of learning. Among the rest 
were the old king MahiuQ and his queen, who, with their 
class-fellows, were conning their scripture lessons verse by 
verse, and answering interrogatories which were put to them 
as they proceeded. This is the exercise of every morning in 
the week, except Saturday and Sunday. Some we're learn- 
ing their letters, others spelling, many reading, and several 
were writing. 

Mai, king of Borabora, has arrived here from Tahiti, with 
tidings of the death of Pomare, on Friday last. The island 
was in great sorrow and anxiety. Many rumors were afloat, 
and fears excited as to the result of this momentous event. 
The mission is in the hand of God, and we are content that 
He should do what seemeth Him good with his own work 
and his own servants. 

Dec. 10. To show how little confidence is to be placed 
in the reports of Worldly-minded strangers, who visit these 
islands, and are ill disposed towards the moral revolution 
which has taken place since the old licentious times, we state 



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SCANDALOUS REPORTS OF VISITORS. 143 

the following circumstances. Captain R. having given out 
that one of the principal chiefs here had asked him for rwm, 
which is a prohibited liquor, — on investigation of the fact, we 
found that the chief had inquired if he had any loine, the 
missionaries having advised him to obtain some, to take me- 
dicinally. The captain thereupon insidiously set before him 
a glass of rum, which the honest man, as soon as he perceived 
to be spirit, set down upon the table, and resolutely refused 
to taste it, notwithstanding the importunity of the captain* 
This makes us suspect the truth of the strange affair which 
was told us as having happened at Tituroa. — ^Too many sea- 
men, who touch at these islands, expecting to revel, as of 
old, in all manner of hnpurity, are ready, in their rage and 
disappointment, to propagate the most atrocious slanders 
against these islanders and their Christian instructors, through 
whose influence they are almost wlioUy prevented from allur- 
ing females on board their vessels. A captain P., of the ship 
W., was so horribly provoked, when he was off here, that he 
threatened to fire a broadside, at his departure, on the inno^ 
cent inhabitants, because they were more virtuous than him- 
self, impudently telling them, that if any of them were killed 
the missionaries must bear the blame. While this profligate 
fellow was lately atEimeo, he wrote a letter to a brother cap- 
tain, at Tahiti, at the foot of which was this postscript : 

" This is a desperately wicked island ; there is not a ^» 

to be had for love or money." These things would be too 
disgusting to record, but truth and justice require that the 
British ptf5/tc«hould know of what spirit those men are who 
bring home evil reports of these Christian converts, and. vilify 
the change of character and manners wrought by the gospel 
upon these quondam idolaters, who then were all that repro- 
bate visitors could desire, and now are all that. they hate. 

We took a walk this evening up the side of the mountain. 
Many traces of houses are scattered abroad, the foundations 
of which only remain. At a considerable height are the ru- 
ins of a marae. Here, as in Eimeo and Tahiti, we find sim- 
ilar proofs of a population, in former years, far more abun- 
dant than at present. Huahine was subjected to the same 
devastating system of superstition and licentiousness as the 
other islands. There was not, indeed, comparatively, so 
much of war, human sacrifice, and pestilent disease, but in- 
fanticide was awfully frequent. An old chief informs us, that 
his father told him this was a modern practice, resorted toby 



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144 pomare's last injunctions. 

the women to prolong a youthful and attractive appearance, 
which they supposed would be lost, if they suckled their off- 
spring; .and the innovation was sanctioned by the chiefs, in 
regard to t|ieir own children, the fruit of unequal marriages, 
to preserve a pure and legitimate lineage of aristocracy. The 
Areois destroyed their children, because they would not be 
encumbered with them in pursuing their migratory habits ; 
and girls were more especially made ^way with than boys, 
because it was very troublesome to rear them — ^the abomina- 
ble proscription of the female sex requiring that their food 
should be dressed in separate ovens from that of thehr fathers, 
and brothers, their husbands and male kindred. 

We have just learnt that Pomare, before his demise, nom- 
inated his son, an infant of eighteen months, to be his suc- 
cessor ; and also appointed the queen (the bo^'s mother), her 
sister, Pomare Yahine, and five principal chiefs of Tahiti to 
be a regency during the long minority to come ; he had fur- 
ther directed that the young king should be solemnly crowned 
in the European manner, and requested that all the mission- 
aries would attend, and take their part in the ceremony. 
Pomare's dying- charge Was, — " If my son grow up a good 
man, receive him as your king ; if a bad one, banish him to 
Huahine!'' He requested that his queen and her sister 
would continue to reside in Tahiti with his successor ; but if 
they should ever remove to Huahine (of which Pomare Ya- 
hine is queen) then that they would take his bones along with- 
them. These things he carefully settled with his chiefs the 
day before his death. He likewise ei^pressed ai|xious concern 
for the prosperity of the religion of the gospel among his peo>- 
ple, to the last ; enjoining all classes to give heed to the things 
that were spoken to them by their teachers. He gave a spe- 
cial charge concerning the cocoa-nut oil, which had been con- 
tributed by himself and. his subjects for the Missionary So- 
ciety, that it should be intrusted to a New Holland captain 
about to return thither, but be held at the disposal of the dep- 
utation. 

The contributions from the missionary association of this 
island (Huahine) in the {Nresent year, have been twelve balls 
of arrow-root, and six thousand three hundred and forty-nine 
bamboos of cocoa-nut oil, — ^At the anniversary meeting in 
Maylasty among the memorandums of addresses delivered, 
the following deserve notice. — ^Teaua, the secretary^ said*-- 
" Another master formerly was ours. Great was th& work we 



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MISSIONARY SPEECHES s OF NATITES. 145 

had then to do — ^to build canoes, and to make/au (dresses) 
and taumi (head-ornaments) for warriors. Much proper- 
ty we gave to our gods; our great hogs, and even men 
were sacrificed to idols. Those days are gone by ; let us 
now be active in doing the good work in which we are en- 
gaged ; let us do it with joy, and with all our hearts ; let us 
not be spiritless in this cause ; let us all be invincible heroes ; 
Ut us drink the bitter secHoater" (i. e. willingly suffer any 
privation in carrying it on). — Hautia said : " Our fathers 
are dead. They knew not the good word nor the good 
customs of the present days ; but through the grace of God 
we know these things, and we must not sit still. Solomon 
had work to do in his time : he built the house of Jehovah at 
Jerusalem. My friends, God has given work into our hands 
also that his house may be erected, and all the heathen 
enter in. Remember the words of Isaiah^ 'Enlarge the 
place of thy tent ; and let them stretch forth the curtains of 
thine habitation ; spare not, lengthen thy cords, strengthen 
thy stakes.' Well then, I say to you, let that place he en- 
larged ; let those curtains be stretched out ; and it will be 
well. I say also spare not; say not that it is a great work, 
but let us collect the oil again for next year." — Mahine 
said : " We have been in darkness, and had nearly died 
therein. We are a remnant left by Satan ; for if his reign 
had been lengthened, all the people would have been his, 
and they would all have been destroyed by him, for ever. 
We have lifted up our hands, all of us, even the eight divis- 
ions of Huahine ; but let not the hand only be lifted up ; 
my friends, we will lift up our hearts. Behold our contribu- 
tions ; they are less during the past than the former year ; 
like the ebbing tide they are falling off. It must not be so 
again.; let th& tide return, and let it always increase. Our 
fathers are dead. They perished, some by the club, some 
by the spear, some by the "stone from the sling, and some by 
quarrels concerning their wives. We are saved from all 
these evil things. Let ns then be diligent to do our duty. 
Like Caleb and Joshua, let us all follow the Lord fully. Let 
us not hear the good word of God with the outside of our 
hearts, but let us keep it in the middle of our hearts." 

The great chief and regent here, Hautia, speaking of the 
late king's death, said — "I could not sleep all night for 
thinking of Pomare. I was like a canoe rocking on the 
stormy waves, which cannot rest. I thought of his body, 

VOL. I. 13 



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146 THE LAST WORDS OF POMARE. 

and I said, in my heart, that is dead, and will soon be in the 
grave ; But his 50t</, where is it ?" 

Mr. Redfern, a surgeon from Port Jackson, and Mr. 
Crook, the missionary, were present with the king in his 
last hours. They found him in a very low, comatose state, 
with short lucid intervals. During one of these, Mr. Crook 
addressed a few brief words of exhortation to him ; and after- 
wards, seeing his end approaching, observed, " I would gladly 
do for you what I can, but I fear my best will be of little 
avail. You have, indeed, been a great sinner, but Christ is 
a great Savior, and none but Jesus can help you now." 
He replied, " None but Jesus !" These were his last ac- 
cents. He fell into a lethargy. The queen and her sister 
hung over him, weeping aloud. Aimata, his daughter, 
seemed but little affected ; but his cousin Manihinihi cried 
bitterly. Th& missionary held the young prince, at the foot 
of the bed, and sat mournfully watching the king's counte- 
nance. At eight o'clock, in the evening, Pomare ceased to 
breathe. Mr. Crook then kneeled down with his afflicted 
family, and prayed for them. Their anguish afterwards 
brake out in brief ejaculations : " Alas ! alas ! our king ! — 
He brought us hither ! — and now, alas, alas, for the chil- 
dren !" These were uttered in a singing tone, and were 
very loud and vehement at times. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Native Marriage — Missionary Settlement — Gradations of Society — 

Interesting Visit and Conversation — Shocking Practices of the old 

Idolaters — Strata — Coral-formations. 

« 

Dec. 11. We have had much conversation with Mahine 
Vahine, the old king's consort, on religious subjects. She 
spoke like a truly pious and intelligent woman. We made 
her a few slight presents ; among these was an engraved por- 
trait of Pomare, with which she was much pleased, and 
touched to the heart, saying, " Every time I look at this, it 
will make my affection to grow." 

A marriage has just been solemnized here. Mr. Barff 
officiated as minister. The bridegroom and the bride were 
of respectable rank, and several persons attended to witness 
the ceremony. This commenced with reading a portion of 



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NATIVE MARRIAGE. 147 

scripture, from St. Matthew's gospel, concerning marriage. 
The young couple, who had first taken their seats on a bench 
in front of the pulpit, the woman on the lefr hand of her 
intended husband, now stood up. The bridegroom was 
then directed to take the bride's right hand in his own, and 
answer the question, " Wilt thou take this woman to be thy 
wife, and be faithful to her till death ?" Having replied, " I 
will," the converse of the question was put to the bride, she, 
at the same time, taking his right hand into hers, and an- 
swering, " I will." The missionary then told the congre- 
gation that these two persons were man imd wife. A charge 
on their mutual duties was addressed to them, and the cere- 
mony was concluded with prayer. The names of the par- 
ties, with those of two witnesses, were tl^^n registered in a 
book kept for that purpose. — In all the islands marriages 
are performed in this simple manner, the bans having been 
once previously published in the congregation to which the 
families belong. — When we came out of chapel, we saw the 
provision made for the wedding dinner. It consisted of a 
large hog, baked whole ; about sixty baskets of bread-fruit 
and cocoa-nuts ; many fishes, of different kinds ; and several 
umities (wooden dishes) containing popoz, a kind of pudding, 
and other delicacies. The feast was laid out under an ex- 
tensive shed. Several hundred guests had been invited, 
and it was expected that all the provisions would be con- 
sumed. 

Dec. 12. A meeting of the baptized has been held in the 
chapel this afternoon. From six to seven hundred persons 
were present. After a brief discourse, by a missionary, 
several of the congregation stated their Christian experience ; 
they also quoted portions of scripture on which they had 
been meditating, and asked questions on these and other 
religious topics, which were answered by the minister. In- 
terrogatories were likewise put to them ; and in their replies, 
as well as in the narratives which they gave concerning their 
past lives, great ingenuousness was manifested by all. 

Here, as elsewhere, old things are passing swiftly away, 
and, behold, all things are becoming new. Though the 
gospel had been introduced before Mr. Ellis and Mr. Barff 
came hither, it had made little progress. These able and 
diligent missionaries, having fixed their abode at this place, 
itinerated from hence through the whole island, preaching 
every where, and instructing all classes of the population 



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148 MISSIONARY SETTLEMENT. 

that they should forsake dumb idols, and turn to the living 
God. This laborious and inconvenient system was con- 
tinued till last year, when, at a public meeting expressly 
c<Mivened, it was proposed that the people should come to 
their teachers, and settle in their immediate neighborhood, 
for the purpose of more frequently and fully hearing the 
words whereby they might be saved. A large majority of 
the inhabitants acceded to this proposition, and, flocking 
from all quarters, they soon began to erect their humble, 
but neat, dwellings, about this beautiful bay ; the families 
of each of the eight districts, into which the island is 
divided, voluntarily choosing to associate, and build near to 
each other. Thus was the camp of this little Israel distin- 
guished by its several tribes, occupying their adjacent tents. 
This plan was productive of immediate and permanent 
benefit. The former residents here were indolent and slov- 
enly, careless of comfort, and equally unconcerned about 
spiritual improvement,* in fact, there was not a decent 
dwelling in the whole place. Other portions of the island 
were much in the same situation ; but, since the new settle- 
ment has been begun, the character and manners of the 
people have been rapidly and happily changed ; they are 
becoming more and more industrious, orderly, and cleanly, 
as well as more intelligent, atid willing to be instructed in 
the things that pertain to godliness, finding it profitable to 
this life, in addition to the promise of the life to come. 
Many well-framed and plastered houses have been Ibuilt, 
and domestic accommodations, unknown to their ancestors, 
are found under every roof. The inhabitants still continue 
to keep and cultivate the lands from which they removed, in 
the distant mataimaas, or districts, where much timber is 
grown, suitable for all general purposes. Thirteen or four- 
teen saw-pits are constantly occupied by workmen, who 
manage the pit-saw far better than might be expected ; and 
now the same sized tree from which they could formerly (by 
splitting the bole, and hewing each part thin) produce only 
two planks, is handsomely cut into nine-or ten good boards, 
at less expense of time and labor. Those who have plastered 
their habitations are much delighted with the security which 
they afford them. They say, also, that they are cooler in 
warm, and warmer in cold weather (being, indeed, less 
affected by atmospheric changes), than their old ones were, 
which they now consider as only fit for pig-^tyes and lumber- 



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GRADiVTIONS OF RANK. 149 

Stores. One of the chiefs was observing, the other day, 
that he and his family could now sleep in comfort, in the 
night time, when wind and rain are beating against 
the walls, or pouring down upon the roof; whereas, while 
he- lived in his old wattled shed, on such occasions, he 
was disturbed by thinking-^Is such a piece of cloth out 
of the way of the wet ? Where are the books ? — won't they 
all be spoiled ? The provision, too, is it safe ? 

While these village-erections are thus' carrying forward, 
a new form of society is growing up with them. -The 
advantages of neighborly intercourse and religious' instruc- 
tion, tend to localize the settlers, and to wea^ ' them from 
their vagrant habits of strolling from . place to place, and 
eating idle bread wherever they could get it. The gospel 
may be said to have first taught them the calm, enduring, 
and endearmg sweets of home, which their vagabond fore- 
fathers, and many of themselves, hardly knew to exist, till 
the religion of Him who had not where to lay his head, 
taught them how good and how pleasant a thing it is for 
brethren to dwell together in unity, instead of roving like 
fishes, or littering like swine. 

We also observe, with gr^M satisfaction, that Christianity, 
so far from destroying thosp distinctions in social life, which 
a wise Providence has made so' necessary to human happi- 
ness, that no barbarians are totirely without them, has both 
sanctioned and sanctified them here. The kings and chiefs 
were never held in higher esteem by their subjects and de- 
pendants than they are now; nor are the gradations of rank 
in any part of Europe more easily recognized than in these 
uttermost parts of the sea. High birUi is observable, not 
only in the cpuntenances, speech, and personal carriage of 
the magnates, but even in Uie manner, or rather- the order, 
in which they walk. Though a causeway has been made 
firom the houses of the missionaries to the dhfli|^l, protected 
by cocoa-nut trees, laid along the sides, the ihiddle part 
being covered with pebbles, and wide enough for several 
persons to walk abreast ; yet the people continue one to 
follow another in line, as formerly, in the narrow tracks. 
If both be of the same rank, the wife tomes afler the hus- 
band ; but if the wife be a Woman of rank, and the husband 
of an inferior class, she goes first, and he, without ever im- 
agining himself degraded, treads in her steps. A curious 
instance of this kind occurred to-day. Mahine, the king 
13 • 



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150 VISIT TO MAHINE AND HAUTIA. 

of Maiaoiti, and Hautia, the regent of Huahine, had hither- 
to received us in their character as members only of the 
Christian church; but though they had paid us the most 
grateful attention at the public Aroha, this was not enough 
for their dignity as royal personages. They, therefore, de- 
termined on giving us a token of their esteem in their politi- 
cal capacity, as heads of the government. 

To-day being appointed for our visit and audience, at the 
house of Hautia, we set off, in the aflernoon, from the chapel, 
accompanied by Mr. Ellis and Mr. Barff. As we approach- 
ed, we passed between two rows of soldiers, with their fire- 
locks shouldered, and beyond these, drawn up in like man- 
ner, all the raatiras, or land-proprietors, with their war-spears 
grasped in their hands. On entering the house, we found 
there Mahine and Hautia, with their wives ; who were pres- 
ently joined by all the Hui Arii, or royal family of this 
island, — eleven persons, of princely rank, in the whole. The 
wife of one of these being an Arii by birth and her husband 
of inferior blood, he would not enter the house until she 
had gone in before him, though all the others, as a matter 
of course, took precedence of their partners. As soon as 
we were all seated,— on a signal given — the soldiers fired 
their muskets, and then retired, along with the raatiras, to 
a shed which had been prepared for their reception. 

Hautia and Mahine occupied a very large Arioi stool, 
at the upper end of the room. Mr. Tyerman first addressed 
them, expressing our high sense of gratitude for the honor 
which they had done us by this signal mark of their atten- 
tion. He briefly stated ,the objects which the deputation 
contemplated, and the Christian purposes of the London 
Society in sending us so far. Ours, he said, was a visit 
of love to the missionaries, and of high respect to the kings 
and chiefs of the various islands. The deputation rejoiced 
to see what God was doing here, both in advancing the 
cause of religion and of civilization. He added the heart- 
felt thanks of the deputation to the sovereigns and their 
principal officers, for the great kindness which had hereto- 
fore been shown to the missionaries, and our hope that such 
protection would never be withdrawn. — Mr. Ellis interpret- 
ed. Hautia replied with much fervor ; alluding to the for- 
mer reprobate condition of the people with abhorrence, and 
then with delight acknowledging the blessedness to which 
they had been called by the gospel, and led by the missiona- 



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ROYAL BNTERTAmUENT. 151 

ries. Mr. Bennet afterwards enforced similar sentiments; 
Mr^ Barff interpreted, and Mahine retm'ned a pious and ani- 
mated answer. There was a natural air of dignity and 
grace, both in the speech and conduct of these two not less 
excellent than exalted men, on the occasion. Command 
and condescension alike became them. 

Wine, pine-ai^les, bananas, and other fruit, were then 
{^aced upon the table, and we were invited to partake. 
Wine-glasses being deficient, tea-cups and tumblers were 
put in requisition, and served very well, where all was 
done and taken in good part. All the ladies were dressed 
in the English costume, excepting shoes and stockings, 
which were worn by Hautia Vahine alone. The most 
unaffected and cordial friendship was displayed by our 
royal hosts towards us, and we returned their kindness 
with the gratitude of the heart ; while, on both sides, the 
only language intelligible to all was that of the countenance 
lighted up with smiles and looks of reciprocal esteem. The 
heat of the weather, at this season (being near Christmas), 
reminded us of the reverse in our native climate ; and this 
introduced an amusing conversation respecting snow, ice, 
6lc,, phenomena which they had never seen. One present 
observed, — " Perhaps it is on account of there being so much 
snow in your country that your skins are so white.'' 

After sitting some time, we walked out with some of the 
company up the side of the mountain, on the slope of which 
Hautia's house is built. It is very steep, rocky, and covered 
with fern, grass, 6Lt. Having reached a considerable eleva- 
tion, we enjoyed superb views of the harbor, the reefe, the ad- 
jacent islets, the sea in its boundless magnificence, on the one 
hand ; and on the other, rich tropical prospects of hill, and 
dale, and woods of ample breadth, engirdled by the winding 
shore, or leaning against the dark-blue heaven, where distant 
uplands, with their green declivities, and craggy summits, 
looked down from the very firmament upon the puny emi- 
nence on which we had taken our stand, and where we 
felt ourselves at a giddy height,^ so little were we, individual- * 
ly, amidst grandeur and beauty so overwhelming. In the 
scene beneath, the coral barrier, rising from unfathomable 
darkness, to " the warm precincts of the cheerful day," and 
stretching across the harbor, formed a conspicuous object. 
On this, the ocean-billows broke in foaming light, while 
smooth within, the bright lagoon lay calm and exquisitely 



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15/2 CORAL FORMATIONS. 

pictured with* patches of landscape, shapes of floating clouds, 
broad paths of sunshine, and clear depths of downward 
sky reflected from its surface. Our companions told us 
that, in their days of ignorance, they believed the long rough 
corai reef to be a rib of one of the gods, but how it 'came 
there, they did not pretend to know. We explained to 
them, as well as we could, how these marvellous structures 
are formed by multitudes on multitudes of the feeblest things 
that have life, through ages working together^ and in suc- 
cession, one mighty onward purpose of the eternal God; 
while each •■ poor worm, among the millions which perhaps 
an angel could not count, is merely performing the common 
functions 6f its brief existence, and adding, perhaps, but a 
grain to a mass of materials which, in process of time, may 
fill up the bed of the Pacific Ocean, and convert it into a 
habitable continent. We showed them how thus the motus 
had been gradually raised above the flood, and bei^ome 
lovely spots of verdure, capable of maintaining both animds 
and men ; producing tre^Bsr for food and for building; as well 
as plants to nourish hogs and fowls, or sheep and cattle, such 
as had been introduced into Eimeo, and might hereafter 
be bred in all the fertile islands of this southern hemisphere. 
This turn of the conversation led us to speak of our wells, 
and the depth to which we must oflen> pkietrate to obtain 
water; al^o of bur mines, and coal-pits, which sometimes 
were extended even under the sea, as well as sunk info 
stupendous caverns, in the hearts and beneath the founda- 
tions of the highest hills. They listened with patient but 
gratified curiosity ; and informed us that when our country- 
men first visited their shores, they thought that England 
must be a poor hungry place, since the people sailed so far 
to obtain their abundant and delicious food : nay, they used 
to wonder much that king George had not long .ago come 
hither himself, as he must have tasted or been told of their fine 
pork. 

On our return to the house, the raatiras were again 
drawn up to honor our entrance, holding their war-spears, 
as ensigns of dignity, in their hands, there being happily 
now noiie but holy day use for such barbarous weapons here. 
These persons are the possessors of landed estates in capite. 
They are an important class of the community, and well 
aware of their importance, in their public speeches they 
coRipisirethe island to a' canoe upon the ocean. The king 



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PIOUS PRACTICES OF CHRISTIAN NATIVES. 153 

is the mast, and they (the raatiras) are the ropes by which 
it is supported and the sails are managed. While the ropes 
continue good the mast is strong, and winds and waves 
in vain would overset the vessel of the state. Tea was now 
served to us, in the English manner, with all the complete 
apparatus of cups and saucers, teapot, caddy, tray, spoons, 
die, all which had been purchased from ships touching on 
the coast. Fried bananas and sea-biscuits were handed 
round, and nothing that hospitality, in such a place, could 
offer was withheld from us. After tedi^a prayer-meeting 
was proposed and gladly acceded to. It was a heart-hum- 
bling and heart-cheering sight to behold all these ruling per- 
sonages joining' in such an act of devotion, and pouring out 
their souls in fervent supplication before the King of kings. 
Nor let it be imagined that these are insignificant barbari- 
ans vested with a little brief authority. No European poten- 
tate possesses the despotic sway which they once exercised ; 
and, in their evangelized state, their conduct and demeanor, 
as rulers and ministers of secular government, becomes them 
well, and would adorn more polished and splendid courts 
in all that constitutes simple dignity and honest courtesy. 
King Mahine, being first called upon to engage in prayer, 
requested his nephew to give out a hymn and read a' chapter 
in one of the gospels, which the youth did with great modesty 
and seriousness. Mahine then offered up an extemporane- 
ous prayer with natural fluency and deep pathos. A hymn, 
in English, and a chapter in the same, were afterwards sung 
and read, when Mr. Tyerman prayed in his native tongue, 
for all blessings, spiritual and temporal, according to their 
wants, upon the sovereigns and their subjects here and 
through all the groups of isles adjacent. The domestics 
were all present at this family service. Wherever the 
Christian native of these newly-enlightened lands builds an 
house, like Abraham of old he raises an altar there, and, 
with his household, calls upon the name of the Lord. — 
After much interesting conversation, at the close of the even- 
ing we retired, equally edified and charmed with our visit. 
The soldiers and raatiras had remained at their posts all 
the while, and so soon as we had reached the foot of the 
hill, a farewell volley of musketry was fired. 

Dec. 14. The more we consider it, the more marvellous in 
our eyes becomes the change which the gospel — the great 
power of God indeed ! — ^has wrought in the hearts and minds 



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154 CHANGES WROUGHT BT THE GOSPEL. 

of these people. Meekness, gentleness, generosity, are their 
leading characteristics. They seem incapable of a cruel 
deed, owing to principles engrailed upon the once harsh but 
now regenerated stock of nature, which forbid every act 
of injustice, and are favorable only to kindness, forbear- 
ance, and forgiveness of wrong. It is hard, perhaps impossi- 
ble, for British Christians to divest themselves entirely of 
those feelings of horror with which they are wont to look 
upon murderers, adulterers, and criminals of the foulest die 
in their own country, when they judge of heathen and sav- 
ages, who formerly were all these, and worse than may be 
named in the ear — ^however holy, harmless, and exemplary 
may be the lives they now are leading in the fear of God and 
in charity with all mankind. Though such converts give 
every testimony, that men can give, of" being born again of 
water and the Spirit," yet even experienced "masters of 
Israel," when they hear the report thereof, are ready to 
exclaim, with Nicodemus, " How can these things he ?" We 
answer, they are ; and " the day will declare it." A man 
called upon us to offer a small present. In conversation 
with him we were struck with the humility, kindness, and 
devotional spirit which he manifested. On inquiry, after- 
wards, it appeared that this very person had been one of the 
most savage and remorseless of his species so long as he re- 
mained an idolater and a warrior. On one occasion, having 
been sent by Pomare to destroy an enemy, he went, surprised 
his victim, ripped him up alive, and actually lefl the wretch- 
ed man on the spot afler his bowels had been torn out — the 
assassin not having mercy enough to put him out of torture 
by another stroke. Afler their ferocious conflicts were over, 
the conquerors were wont to pile the &dain in heaps, with 
their heads towards the mountains and their feet towards 
the sea. Next morning they would visit the carcasses to 
wreak the impotence of an unappeasable vengeance upon 
them, by mangling and polluting them in the most shocking 
ways that brute cruelty or demoniac frenzy could devise. 
One would turn up the face of a slaughtered enemy, and, 
grinning with fiend-like malice at it, would exclaim, " Aha ! 
you killed my father at such a place ; now , I will punish 
you!" Another would say to a putrefying corpse, " You 
robbed me of my wife ; and now I will have my revenge." 
Then they would mutilate the limbs and trample them in 
the dust, cut off the head, pound it to pulp, dry it in the 



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FUNERAL SERMONS FOR POMARE. 155 

sun, and when converted to powder, scatter it on the wind : 
sometimes even, we have been assured, they would prepare 
the body itself in such manner that it became parched up 
like leather, and they then would wear it over their own shoul- 
ders, in the manner of one of their tibutas, thrusting their 
head through a hole made for the purpose, the arms and 
legs dangling down, before and behind, till the loathsome 
envelope dropped, piecemeal, from their backs. Their out- 
rages upon the women and children, both living and dead, 
of their vanquished foes, when they sacked their dwellings, 
cannot be described. If the enlightened Greeks and the 
heroic Romans, in their heathen state, were " without natu- 
ral affection, implacable, unmerciful," what better could be 
the ignorant barbarians of the South Seas, insulated as they 
had been, till our own times, from all communication with 
civilized nations ? And if some of those Romans, afterwards, 
through " obedience to the faith," were " called of Jesus 
Christ," and " beloved of God ;" and if many of those 
Greeks were " sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints," 
who shall doubt that these " Gentiles in the flesh," " aliens 
from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the 
covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in 
the world ;" — who shall doubt that these may be " brought 
nigh by the blood of Christ," and be " no more strangers 
and foreigners, but follow-citizens with the saints and of the 
household of Grod?" For ourselves, after what we have 
seen and heard, we cannot doubt that these things ma^ be ; 
— nay, we believe, and are sure, that they are ; the gospel 
being here, as elsewhere, " the power of God unto salvation 
to every one that believeth."* 

Dec. 15. Being Lord's day, at the several public services 
the recent death of Pomare was commemorated, and lessons 
of warning, instruction, encouragement, and correction, 
were drawn by the preachers from the several portions of 
divine truth which they chose for the themes of their ser- 
mons. Mr. Ellis, from Ecdes. xii. 7, " Then shall the dust 
return to the earth as it was ; and the spirit shall return to 
God who gave it;"— Mr. Barff, fr^m Isa. xlii. 3, "I will 
pour my Spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine 
offspring ;"— Mr. Tyerman, from 2 Cor. i. 3, " The Father 
of mercies." The missionaries, of course, addressed the 
native congregations in their own language ; and Mr. Tyer 
man discoursed to his British audience in theirs. 



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156 MOUNTAIN-STRATA. 

Dec. 16. We walked, this morning, northward of the 
settlement. About the centre point of the head of this 
harbor, and a hundred yards from the shore, the rocks 
project, and form a bold feature of scenery. On examining 
these, we found that they were composed of alternate strata 
of blue stone and coarse breccia, each layer about two feet 
thick, and all dipping towards the north-west, at an angle 
of 25® with the horizon. The blue stone is much honey- 
combed, abounding with cavities. Most of the rocks of this 
and the other islands have the same character, which, with 
their black sur&ces, seems to prove that they have been sub- 
jected to volcanic action. In the neighboring mountains a 
firm blue clay abounds, which contains great quantities of 
nodules, resembling charcoal; and the rocks themselves 
appear to be of the same material, only differing from the 
clay in hardness. 

A little further to the north, the dip of the strata inclines 
more towards the plane of the horizon, and the blue stone 
has been removed from the incumbent breccia, so as to di- 
vide it beneath. On one side of the breccia are pefpendicu- 
lar strata of rag-stone, of a slaty structure, furrowed at the 
edges, where they cross-cut. From these run two thinner 
strata, of the same kind, about three inches in thickness, 
and three inches apart, athwart the breccia. A soil earthy 
substance fills up the interstice, in which are fragments of 
shells ; and among these a specimen of the genus turbini, 
nearly perfect, was found. These parts of the rock, from the 
presence of such remains, must be presumed not to have 
been subjected to the fusing and consuming violence of fire. 

We proceeded along the level ground, between the abrupt 
ascent of the mountains and the sea. This fertile border is 
in some places a mile in breadth, and forms the valuable 
district of Puooa. That the tide formerly flowed here, even 
to the mountain-foot, cannot be doubted, the soil consisting 
of earth, intermingled with marine relics, shells, coral, sand, 
dziC. Much of this champaign tract is planted with bananas, 
sweet potatoes, d^c. ; bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, and Chinese 
paper mulberry-trees, also thrive upon it. On one part 
stands an exceedingly remarkable tree, of the aoa, or aro 
species (the banyan of India), from the bark of which the 
cloth of that name is manufactured. This grotesque tree 
grows upon bne side of a rock, nearly perpendicular, over the 
front of which (being from thirty to forty feet high, and as 



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AN EXTRAORDINART TREE. 157 

many broad) hundreds of its roots descend, singularly impli-' 
cated, and forming a kind of net-work. The stems of the 
tree above rise up thirty feet at least from the rock, being 
supported by multitudes of roots, which find their sustenance 
in the soil below. These occupy a space nearly a hundred 
feet in compass, and display various arches and recesses, of 
most curious appearance. On one side, the impending 
branches have sent down a root of forty feet, which, having 
-got footing in the ground, has given birth to a young tree. 
Multitudes of other long fibrous shoots, of a black color, are 
growing downward from the horizontal branches above, 
which, though dangling wildly in the air now, will strike 
root as soon as they reach the ground, and add their antic 
columns to " the pillared shade." The natives have a tradi- 
tion that the seed of this gigantic plant was brought by a bird 
from the moon. 

Part of the rock which supports this tree is of a light 
colored sand-stone, and the sest of a micaceous schistus, 
very hard and sparkling in the fracture. The adjacent emi- 
nences are principally of a similar material, many fragments 
of which, from three to four inches thick, lie scattered below. 
With these flat stones the natives sometimes pave their floors 
and court-yards. Large blocks of olive-colored chert are 
also occasionally found here. 

Further onward, we came to a beautiful lagoon, seven 
miles long by three wide, connected with another yet more 
to the north, of nearly equal extent. They both communi- 
cate with the sea, and contain great quantities of fine fish 
of the salmon species. The eastern side of this lake is 
bounded by a narrow margin of low ground, from which 
the mountains rise precipitously, decorated with small aito- 
trees all the way upwards to their summits ; on the other, 
wde, the land is also flat, reaching to the shore. Here the 
cocoa-nut flourishes in luxuriance, this noble tree delighting in 
a soil that gives it the ^tness of the earth, and the fi-eshness 
of the sea, to nourish its growth and perfect its fruit. 

In calling at several houses, we found two dreadfully 
afflicted persons sitting upon the floor. The complaint is 
called fee-fee, a species of elephantiasis, the direst plague, 
in the shape of a disease, of these islands. The legs and 
thighs of ona of these were swollen to a prodigious size ; the 
bulk and weight of the lower part of the body of the other 
prevented the poor patient from rising up. He was a young 

VOL. I. 14 



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158 LAND ABANDONED BY THE SEA. 

man, about twenty-five years of age, and had not been more 
than three years under the oppression of this cruel and invet- 
erate malady. He bore his hard lot with exemplary pa^ 
tience. 

In the beds of the rivers and elsewhere, as we rambled 
along, we observed many basaltic fi'agments. These are 
angular, having three, four, and five sides ; the sides and 
angles of the same stone being all different, and varying in 
breadth fiom two to nine inches. These pieces are of sun- 
dry lengths and sizes, as well as texture ; some hard and 
blue, others highly impregnated with mica. 

The cause why the sea has abandoned so much ground, 
now constituting the low borders of this and other islands, 
may be sought in the extraordinary formation of the coral 
reefs which encircle them. Before these had attained suf- 
ficient extent and elevation the tide must have had full 
access to the, foot of the mountains ; and the many high 
cliffs which rise abruptly from the inland side of these level 
tracts seem to indicate that the islands themselves were once 
much larger than they now are ; and, consequently, that the 
sea has removed all the ground which lay between the pres- 
ent steep faces of the mountains and their original bounda- 
ry. At a very remote period, no doubt, the coral-worms 
began their labors, and these minute but wonderful artificers 
probably laid the foundations of their stupendous structures 
upon the rocks, from which the washing of the sea had 
cleared the earth and looser strata. As the reefe grew 
beneath the fiood, the force of the ocean against the land 
would be gradually diminished ; and, when the former 
reached the surface of the water, they would afford (as they 
do now) protection to the shore from all fiirther encroach- 
ment on the part of the tide. Depositions from the sea, and 
earth brought by rains from the high lands, would gradually 
fill- up the space lefi: between the reefs and the mountains. 
This has been done to a considerable extent, xmd the soil so 
accumulated is now covered with the richest vegetation. 
Thus those immense basins (called lagoons, so far as they 
are occupied by water) were formed, of which the coral 
ramparts on the one side, and the tall cliffs on the other, 
are the boundaries. In some cases, the reefs run to the foot 
of the mountains ; but, in general, they rise at some distance 
— from a few yards to two or three miles. Upon these rug- 
ged circumvallations the waves beat with perpetual violence ; 



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ENGAGEMENTS OF A WEEK. 159 

while, in those hollows between them and the low flat coast, 
the lagoon is diflused in blue tranquillity, and, except when 
lashed into turbulence by the winds, scarcely a breaker is 
seen on the beach. Under the direction of a wise and be- 
neficent Providence, how much are these islands indebted to 
the poor and slender coral insect, for the construction of 
those mighty moles that curb the fury of the mightier deep, 
and, by their happy interference, have occasioned those 
fruitful lines of level soil to spread between the hills and floods, 
which furnish the inhabitants with the principal part both of 
their food and raiment ! 



CHAPTER X. 

Engagements of a Week— Plan for an Insurrection — ^Native Carpen- 
V — The Bread-fruit Tree — Aromatic Grass — Mountain Prospect — 
he Cocoa-nut Tree. 



^e 



Dec. 17. The following weekly course of public and 
private services here, will show the great pains which are 
taken by the missionaries for the improvement of their con- 
gregations. — On the Sabbath there is an early prayer-meeting, 
conducted by the natives themselves ; and in the fore and 
afternoon sermons are preached by the missionaries. The 
Sunday-schools for both sexes are opened twice in the inter- 
vals of public worship. All the children attend the latter, 
and sit in the chapel, in a quarter specially allotted to them, 
under the superintendence of their teachers. They are also 
regularly catechised. — Every other morning (except Satur- 
day, provision-day), at sunrise, and again at noon, schools 
are held for an hour, which are attended by adults as well 
as children. In these, which are under the immediate di- 
rection of the missionaries, reading, writing, arithmetic, dz^c, 
are taught. — On Monday afternoon is a meeting, at the 
chapel, for free conversation on all kinds of useful topics, 
connected with religion and the means of ameliorating the 
condition of the people at large. The missionaries attend to 
answer such questions as may be put by all who desire in- 
formation on these subjects ; and there are seldom fower than 
from four to five hundred present. — On Tuesday afternoon 
the female communicants and candidates for the communion 
flsaemble for instruction, alternately at the houses of Mr. 



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160 DAILY OCCUPATIONS. 

Ellis and Ifr. Barff. The pious and iiitelligent wives of the 
missionaries preside over these class-meetings; in which 
several native women pray extemporaneously, as well as 
devoutly read the scriptures to the rest. — On Wednesday 
afternoon Mr. Ellis or Mr. Barff delivers a lecture or homily 
in the chapel to audiences of from seven to eight hundred 
persons. — On Thursday afternoon the baptized and candi- 
dates for baptism are convened to receive admonition and 
exhortation by the missionaries on their respective duties 
and privileges. — On Friday there is a catechetical meeting, 
for both children and adults, which is found to be exceed* 
ingly beneficial as well to those who ask as those who an^ 
swer inqsdries. The kings and chiefs come to these various 
services, without parade of rank, as humble hearers and 
diligent learners.-— On the first Tuesday* in every month a 
missionary jHrayer-meetiag is held for the spread of the gos- 
pel throughout all the world; and on the last Friday, previous 
to the sacramental Sunday, there is a preparation-meeting 
for the communicants. 

The daily occupations of these islanders are household 
affairs, providing food, building their houses, constructing 
canoes, sailing, fishing, planting their grounds, making 
fences, manufiusturing doth, bats, bonnets, alL kinds of ap- 
parel, d&c. Before Christianity found them, the principal 
part of their time was spent in eating, sleeping, and profli*- 
gacy ; but now their hours are generdly employed in honest 
and profitable labor, or useful and pleasant engagements, 
among which school-learning apd tasks at home are highly 
prized. Few indulge themselves in unnecessary sleep, 
even in the middle of the day. The kings, queens, and 
chiefe, of both sexes, take the lead, and love to excel in all 
sorts of work. Though they have many persons at their 
command, and ready to execute all their wishes, they are 
not ashamed to labor with their own hands, both for exai&- 
I^e's sake, and for the delight they take in doing every thing 
well — ^yea, better than others. If any of their dependents 
should leave them behind in carpentry, boatrbuilding, or 
other handicraft, the highest among them would be mortified. 
In the same spirit, if any of the female servants of a princ^ 
pal woman could make finer cfoth, or devise more elegant 

* Their J\tesday corresponds to our Monday. See p. 50. EtL 



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PLAN FOR AN INSURRECTION. 161 

patterns wherewith to ornament it, than she, the mistress 
would feel herself humbled. 

Dec. 18. About half a year ago, a spirit of insubordina- 
tion manifested itself in Huahine. There were upwards of a 
hundred of the most headstrong young men in the island, 
who, being dissatisfied with the strictness of Christian disci- 
pline, determined to restore — or at least among themselves 
to practise — the old habits of licentiousness. They had con- • 
spired to take away the life of Hautia, the regent ; and 
hoping that the raatiras would join them against the Bue 
Arii (royal family) and the Christians, they actually took up 
arms, — ^though their array was not very formidable, a few 
muskets, clubs, and spears being all the weapons Ihey could 
collect. The civil authority mustered its forces promptly, 
and coming suddenly upon the rebels, demanded their imme- 
diate, unconditional surrender. They acquiesced, and the 
ringleaders were brought to justice. It was found that they 
had tatooed themselves, which, though harmless in itself, is 
DOW contrary to law, as associated with obsolete abomina- 
tions ; by them it was used as a symbol of their dissatisfac- 
tion with the better order of things, and a signal for revolt 
against the existing government. Many of these mal-conteQts 
proved to be refugees from other islands, who had resorted 
hither that they might return to their heathan freedom from 
religious restraint These aliens were all sent home, and 
the natives were condemned to hard labor on the public 
works, such as roads, piers, &c. Their chief, a youth of 
high rank, was equally degraded and punished with the rest. 
It is remarkable that, about the same time, there were simi- 
lar insurrections in Tahiti and Raiatea, but in both those 
islands the projects of the factions were detected and frus- 
trated. 

The Bue Arii here, having just now received a commu- 
nication from Tahiti, requesting their attendance at that 
metropolitan station, to consent to the young Pomare's 
accession to his late father's sovereignty, Mahine came to 
consult the missionaries ; for the confidence which all ranks 
place in their teachers leads them to ask their advice on 
any thing of importance ; and truly these excellent men are 
worthy of the esteem and confidence reposed in them. Ma- 
hine, being king of Eimeo, and chief of a large district in 
Tahiti, it was necessary that he at least should make the 
^ 14* 



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IBSt HATIVB CAKPENTRT. 

voyage. Bat murk the active piety of this venerable man. 
Recollecting that his other island, Maidti, viras not yet folly 
supplied with cqpies of all the translated portions of the 
acriptores, he requested to have a hundred copies of the 
gospel of St John, which is only just printed, that he might 
call and distribute them among his subjects there, on his way. 

Dec. 19. The deputaticm agreed to address a letter of 
condolence to the queen of Tahiti, on the death of her 
husband, Pomare, which was done, and intrusted to the 
care of Mahine, at whose house we spent a pleasant after- 
noon. In the evening he and several chiefs, with their suite, 
between seventy and eighty persons in all, embarked in a 
large boat, with a favorable breeze, hoping to reach Tahiti in 
twenty-four hours. 

We took the dimensions of the chapel here, and found 
them a hundred feet by sixty. One end of this spacious 
structure was built by king Mahine, the other by Hautia, 
the regent, and the middle by the raatiras. The pews were 
put up by the different x^hie^, according to their respective 
taste and fancy, yet following a general plan laid down for 
them. The workmanship was executed by hand& which had 
never done any thing of the kind before. When this is con- 
sidered, and also that they had scarcely any tools (those 
which they had being indifferent ones), it must be confessed 
that the result of their labors was very creditable to their 
skill and industry ; though, being unaccustomed to square 
and line, some parts lean one way and some another ; while 
the whole, of course, is more compact than symmetrical. 
The pulpit, however, is a fair piece of carpentry. One in- 
genious workman, who had made a sofa for his seat in the 
chapel, to his utter astonishment, when he placed it there, 
discovered that it would not stand upon its legs, though it 
had six substantial ones. When he sat down at one end, 
the other tilted up no small height in the air, and when he 
rose, down came that which had been in the ascendant, ac- 
cording to the laws of gravitation. Not discouraged by this 
ill-omened beginning, he addressed himself to construct 
another, on more geometrical principles. This perfectly 
answered his hopes, and very quietly bears both its own 
weight and his. Such pieces of furniture are now made 
with great neatness and accurate adjustment, for private 
houses. 



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THfi BAEAD-FBDIT nEB. 163 

Dec. 21. The bread-fruit trees are at this season in foil 
bearing, and grow to the highest perfection in this island. 
The Linnsan name is artocarpus. This tree being well 
known to voyagers, and through them, by name, to the pub- 
lic, a popular, rather than a scientific, description of it may 
be acceptable here. It grows to the size of an ash in Eng- 
land, and is not unlike that tree in form and the color of its 
bark. The branches affect an upright position. The leaves 
are much like those of the fig, but more deeply indented, 
besides growing to a far greater size, some being a foot and 
a^ half long. Its appearance is very stately and luxuriant. 
The frait is egg-shaped, and sometimes measures twenty- 
two inches in its shortest, and twenty-five in its largest, 
circumference. The rind is smooth, green, and marked 
with hexagonal specks. Under this skin lies Uie pulp which 
is eaten, and within that a fibrous core, containing the seeds. 
The tree is propagated by scions springing from the root of 
the old stock. These are either suffered to remain and grow 
up in a clump, or are transplanted singly. They require 
to be carefully attended to ; the ground must be kept clear 
from weeds for some time, and also well fenced from the hogs, 
who^ devour the plants greedily wherever they can light 
upon such dainties. They are cultivated almost entirely on 
the low grounds, rarely thriving on the mountain sides, or 
very near the sea. The trees retain perennial verdure, 
and bear four crops of fruit in the year. The manifold 
bounty of Providence is remarkably manifested in giving 
this valuable product of a soil (not cqpious in variety of 
plants) to the people of these islands. It supplies them with 
food, raiment, and timber-— each in its kind abundant and 
excellent. Their canoes are hollowed out of its trunk, or 
framed from its planks ; the beams, rafters, and flooring of 
their houses are hewn out of its substance; and it also 
furnishes a good pitch, in the gum which exudes from 
holes bored into its stem. Of the bark a very useful de- 
scription of cloth is prepared, and with this, indeed, they 
would want no other. The fruit is a delicate and whole- 
some substitute for bread ; being very nutritious, and of a 
sweet and pleasant flavor. Various modes of dreibsing this 
food are in use among the natives. The skin being pared 
away, the pulp is most generally i^t and roasted, or rather 
baked, in earthen ovens, upon aiul under hot stones; and 
H is ohesi thus cooked with part of a hog, a fowl, or a fish. 



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164 THE TABIOUS'VSES OF THE BREAD«FRUIT TREE* 

When taken out, it is soft and mealy, much resembling, in 
color and taste, fine spunge biscuit. The natives frequenO* 
ly beat or squeeze it in their hands, and dip the pieces in 
"salt water, when they eat it. This fruit, in fact, is the prin- 

^ cipal support of the people, who seldom make a meal with- 
out a large proportion of it. They call it miory. Though 
there are. about thirty varieties of this tree, which come in 
contemporaneously, or in close succession, each bringing four 
crops in the year, yet there are more than three months out 
of the twelve when the fruit is either not to be obtained 

. or very scarce. To compensate this inconvenience, the in- 
habitants preserve great quantities of that which is quite 
ripe, in pits, about four feet deep, and of the same width. 
These pits are carefully lined with grass, and then with the 
leaves of the tii-plant, which give an agreeable flavor to the 
preserved fruit. The latter, being cleared of the green 
coating, and split, is thrown together on a heap, and covered 
with leaves, for from twenty-four to forty-eight hours, as the 
state of the weather may be. The pile is then opened, and 
the cores of all the split pieces being extracted, these are again 
laid together ; after which the whole undergoes a process of 
fermentation, and becomes soft. It is then stowed in the 
pit, covered with grass, and the grass pressed down with 
stones. The bread-fruit thus cured is taken out of these 
store-pits from time to- time, as it may be wanted, in the 
state of a sour paste, when it is dressed according to every 
man's taste. Though the natives^ from habit, are fond of it 
in this way, the food is diflicult of digestion, and by no 
means wholesome. 

Dec. 22. We walked up the valley, this afternoon, that 
we might reach, if practicable, the summit of the right-hand 
mountain, and examine the rocks which crown it. Having 
tracked the stream for some distance, we began to climb the 

' steep acclivity through a forest so tangled with underwood 
that it was often difficult to thread or force our way. Many 
of the trees grow to a prodigious bulk, especially the mape, 
a species of large chestnut, the fruit of which the natives 
roast, and reckon delicious. This tree writhes itself into 
most fantastic shapes, and attains an enormous breadth as 
well as height. The trunk is singularly indented, like a 
deeply and irregularly fluted pillar, leaving in some places 
scarcely more than the thickness of a plank in the middle. 
Some specimens were evidently of incomputable age, measr 



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EXUBERANT VEGETATION. 165 

uring from forty to fifty feet in girtji.— Higher up the 
mountain we found traces of ancient but long-forsaken 
dwellings, and contiguous to them groves of bread-fruit 
trees that once had fed the generations gone by, A great 
variety of parasitical plants, especially ferns, clothed the 
stems and branches of the old trees to the very top. One 
fern displayed leaves from three and a half to fourteen feet 
in length. It was growing on the side of a deep ravine, 
and was of that kind which the natives, in times of great 
scarcity, are constrained to eat ; but it is very indifferent 
food even to their taste. We observed another curious 
fern, the seeds of which were formed on the tips of its thin 
and slender leaves. 

We passed several veins of reddish earth, and of clayey 
consistence, adjacent to which were strata of rocks, hard 
and blue. Many of the loose stones, in our track, were 
angular, and seemed to have been so formed by crystalliza- 
tion, not by contact with each other. After ascending the 
side of the mountain to a considerable height with great 
"difficulty and fatigue, finding ourselves apparently little 
nearer the object of our aim, with the danger of being be- 
nighted in the wilderness if we proceeded much further, we 
abandoned our enterprise and returned. While contemplat- 
ing the ex3iberance of vegetation here, and recollecting that 
thus it n^ust have been poured with unceasing prodigality 
fi-om the lap of the earth and returned thither, season by sea- 
son, without having answered any proportionate end, as pro^ 
vision for brute or human life — few vestiges of either being 
any where discernible — we were ready to inquire, " Where- 
fore all this waste?" But He, without whose will not a 
sparrow falls to the ground, can have made nothing in vain. 
And here we may rationally believe that the perpetual re- 
Qewal and decomposition of vegetable matter, in all its curious 
and exquisite forms of Made and stalk, of leaf, fiower, seed, 
from the moss on the crag to the cocoa-nut and bread-fruit tree 
»-<-*has been preparing, through ages past, a soil in the desert, 
of which the produce, through ages to come, shall nourish a 
numerous and happy population, whose industry and wants, 
as they multiply on the earth, shall lead them alike to culti- 
vate the deep declivities of the mountains, and clear the im- 
pervious fastnesses of the forests for food sMid for rooni to 
dwell in. 



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1G6 AROMATIC GRASS. 

Dec. 523. (Lord's day.) In the afternoon Mr. Ellis 
preached a sermon from the text, Prov. xiv. 32, "The 
wicked is driven away in his wickedness, but the righteous 
hath hope in his death :" — and he took occasion from these 
words to impress a powerful sense of the peril of living in 
sin, upon the hearts of his hearers, in consequence of the 
recent and awful end of a young man, who, though he fre- 
quented public worship, was a scoffer at Christianity, and 
had been suddenly " driven away," it was to be feared, " in 
his wickedness.'' 

The profession of religion is universal here, and the 
people's ideas of its importance are so exalted that, though 
many are strangers to its power, very few treat it other- 
wise than with reverence. They seefn horror-struck at the 
fearful end of the reprobate young man alluded to, and it is 
hoped that what they deem a judgment upon him may be a 
profitable warning to themselves. 

Dec. 24. We scaled the mountain Aridi, on the south 
of Mr. Ellis's house. The sides are very steep, and it was 
a laborious effort to gain the top, which is computed to be 
three thousand feet above the lagoon. Red and blue clay, 
and stone of the same colors, compose this mountain. 
Among other plants we observed many tufls of a short kind 
of grass, which the natives call More tohe noanoa on ac- 
count of its strong aromatic scent, which is most rank in the 
tohe^ or part above ground : in the blade there is nothing 
remarkable. From the crest of this eminence the panorama 
of land and sea is truly sublime ; and the mind is expanded 
and elevated as the eye expatiates over its various and 
richly-contrasted features. There are but two points of land 
so high as to interrupt the sight from losing itself within a 
ring of horizon, immeasurably spread. At the head of the 
bay, and the foot of the hill, lies the missionary settlement, 
with its multitude of small buildings, in every stage of erec- 
tion. Northward, a gracefully curved tongue of land, green 
and flourishing, with tropical fruit-trees, runs several miles 
into the sea. North-east appear the sharp ridges which, 
rising abruptly, tier above tier, accumulate into the great 
mountain already mentioned as the loftiest in the island. 
This may be five thousand feet above the sea ; and, from the 
champaign below even to the peak, it is clad with copses 
and woods covering the fissures and ravines which descend 



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SCENERT OP HUAHINE, 167 

along its sides towards a deep valley, that opens to the har- 
bor, and pours into the lagoon its perpetual stream of clear, 
firesh water. A little below the summit of this mountain juts 
out the broad face of an immense rock, striped with various 
strata, some nearly horizontal and others dipping towards 
the north-west, at an angle of about 45°. The extremity of 
the subjacent valley forms a vast amphitheatre, crowded with 
majestic trees. The chain of heights appears continuous 
with this paramount one, quite round the south to south- 
west ; and, over the hollows of the undulated outline, the 
sea gleams blue and crystalline beyond. The harbor of 
Haapape lies at the foot of the hill on which we stood, and 
which, on this flank, is nearly perpendicular. The basin is 
deep to the very shores, which are coral-reefs, where ships 
may lie close and perfectly secure. South-west of this la- 
goon an eminence, loftier than that which we now occupied, 
rises, with imposing grandeur of form and ruggedness of 
character. Instead of being clothed from head to foot,^ 
like the former and superior one, on the opposite quarter, 
with tall groves and verdant thickets^ — this sterner mass is 
composed of rocks, of which the abrupt edges and diversified 
strata, at various degrees of obliquity, break out, at frequent 
intervals of space, from the top to the bottom. Turning our 
eyes seaward, the islands of Raiatea and Tahaa, at the 
distance of thirty miles, lay in miniature-beauty ; yet filling 
the mind with the idea of remote magnificence by the bold- 
ness of their contour ; while the pyramidal peaks of Borabora, 
at thrice the breadth of intervening water, were distinctly 
visible. But words cannot paint images with sufficient ac- 
curacy to justify lengthened description ; on no subject is 
the iirpotence of language so perplexingly felt, by those who 
best know its utmost capabilities of delineating natural 
scenery, as when one man, from personal knowledge, en- 
deavors to convey to the apprehension of another the color, 
form, arrangement, and effect of fixed and definite objects. 

Dec. 25. Being Christmas-day, we were in spirit at home, 
among our English friends and kindred ; and trusted that 
they would also — ^though unknowing where toe were — re- 
member us, at " the ends of the earth," or " afar off upon 
the sea." *^ 

Next to the bread-fruit, already described, the cocoa-nut 
tree, cocos nucifera, is the most valuable product of the soil, 
in these islands. It grows to the height of seventy or eighty 



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168 THE COCOA-NUT TRfifi. 

feet. The stem tapers from the bottom gradually to the top, 
without branch or off-set ; but at the summit it shoots forth 
from twenty to thirty vast leaves, some of which are six or 
seven yards in length. These hang in a graceful tuft all 
round the crown of the trunk. When ybung and small the 
leaves are entire, but as they lengthen they divide into nar- 
row slips, each of which has a wiry rib running up the middle, 
and diverging from the spinal stalk of the leaf— as it may be 
called. Though strong at the point of contact with the tree, 
the weight of this enormous foliage would soon break it off, 
but, where it branches out, a clothJike substance, called Aa, 
whose fibres run at right angles with each other, is formed, 
and invests the tree with its strong and needful intertexture, 
running also about twenty-four inches up the leaf, and afford- 
ing it complete support. From among the junctures of 
these leaves with the head of the stock spring branches of 
tendrils, on which grows the fruit, a nut enveloped with a 
husk about two and a half inches thick, green on the out- 
side, and composed of close, tough fibres, which run longi- 
tudinally firom end to end, presenting an ovaT shape, rather 
angular at the sides. The shell is hard and black, the 
kernel white, lining the shell, and containing the milky 
water within ; but the nut being often brought to England, 
no minute description can be necessary in this place. Some 
trees will produce, at the same time, a hundred nuts, each 
containing from half a pint to a wine-quart of the liquor ; 
and these noble fruits closely encircle the top of the stem, 
like a beaded belt, or coronet, beneath the pendent crest of 
plume-like leaves. 

The trunk of this remarkable tree is a bundle of fibres, 
closely connected by a cementing matter. Within two or 
three feet of the ground, these fibres spread forth into thou- 
sands of ^mall roots, which insinuate themselves through the 
^superficial earth, and spread horizontally twelve or fourteen 
feet from the bole, in all directions. This cordage must be 
amazingly strong, for it supports the whole tree, with all its 
bulk and weight of stem, foliage, and fruit. The bark 
seems to be of little use in this species, as it generally t-ots 
off towards the ground, at an early stage. We have seen 
cocoa-stocks decayed through the heart, and others of which 
large portions of the outside had been cut away, to a con- 
siderable depth, which yet continued to thrive and bear 
leaves and nuts. The timber (if these live fagots of well- 



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COCOA-NUT OIL, &C. 169 

packed fibres can be called timber) is of some value, being 
used for rafters in sh^ds and cut into short lengths for fences ; 
spears were formerly made of it. The leaves are turned 
to better account, being platted into mats, shaped into bas- 
kets, and occasionally manufactured into bonnets. — The 
fibres of the husks are twisted into ropes and lines of vari- 
ous sizes, which are exceedingly strong. — The shell of the 
nut is converted into drinking-cups, lamps, and other small 
vessels. — The water is a delicious beverage, always cool and 
refreshing ; those who have only tasted it in England have 
no idea what a luxury it is between the tropics. — ^The kernel, 
when scraped out of the shell, is either eaten raw, or, being 
squeezed through the fibres of the husk, yields a pleasant 
and nutritious milk, which is sometimes mixed with arrow- 
root, and a kind of pudding is compounded of both. The 
kernel also produces the oil, now so abundantly made here, 
by a process formerly described in this journal. — Thus tim- 
ber, fuel, mats, baskets, ropes, drinking-vessels, a wholesome 
beverage, good food, liquor strainers, bonnets, oil, and bowls 
for lamps — are produced firom this convenient tree ; which, 
with the bread-fi*uit, — were there no other sources of supply, 
— would nearly ^eet all the necessities of the people. 

The natives distinguish the cocoa-nut by various names 
according to its various stages of growth. — ^When young, 
and before the kernel is formed, they call it orio; when it 
has only a thin jelly within, it is called rdna ; when the ker- 
nel becomes more palpable, nimaha; when harder still, 
ofooto ; when quite ripe, opcia ; afterwards, when the whole 
interior is filled up with a kernel, firom which the young 
leaves spring, it is called uto ; at this time the outside turns 
brown, and it is from the fi-uit in this state that the oil is 
drained. When the nuts are intended for propagation, they 
are hung, being quite ripe, upon a tree. In about six 
montjis a green leaf shoots out of one of the three holes at 
the smaller end! The nut is then put into the ground, to 
the depth of the shell, with the sprout upwards, when, firom 
the other two holes, a pair of roots strike downward, and the 
plant is nourished by the decay of the nut till it can draw its 
entire, sustenance firom the soil ; and such is its fi'eedom of 
growth that there is scarcely a spot, however otherwise 
barren and unpropitious to vegetation, from which this 
stately plant will not spring up, with its diadem of beauty 
and girdle of fertility. In about six years it begins to bear ; 

VOL. I. 15 



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170 ROCKING-STONE. 

the fruit is nearly twelve months in coming to perfection. 
Thoagh the cocoa-trees rise to such amazing height, the 
natives climb them with the facility of cats. This they do, 
sometimes, by what may be called walking up the stems, the 
motion of the leg following that of the hand ; but more 
generally they effect their purpose by fastening their legs 
together, about twenty-four inches apart, with a rope ; when, 
placing a foot on each side of the tree, they draw up their 
bodies by the action of their arms, without difficulty. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Coastingr-tour round Huahine — ^Rockingr-stone — Hunricane by Night 
— Manabu Harbor — ^Matara — Sea-sioe Meal — Native Saymgs — 
Large Marae — Converted Priest of Oro — Picture of a Party asleep 
— Converted Shark-worshipper — A Shark-marae — ^Accident-bird — 
Value of a Nail. 



Pec. 26. Accompanied by Mr. Ellis and Mr. Barff, to- 
gether with the queen of Hautia, several of the royal family, 
and many people, we set off, about noon, to make a tour of 
this island. The day was favorable, and a gentJe breeze 
wafted us out of the harbor. As we sailed along the coast, 
we admired the mountain precipices, starting upright from 
the beach, and the gradual slopes beyond towering into 
wooded knolls or piked pinnacles, that sharpened into van- 
ishing points amidst the immensity of heaven above. The 
nether rocks were generally dark-colored ; the strata diverse 
in dip and material ; in one instance, the layer appeared 
slaty and horizontal. On the summit of a high cliff, to the 
south, stands a huge rocking-stone, shaped like a bishop's 
mitre, which moves to and fro on the application of a very 
small force. Expanding from their serpentine recesses 
between the inland mountains to the shore, valley after 
valley saluted our view, and gladdened our hearts with the 
exuberance of their vegetable riches, promising — ^yea, pro- 
ducing, day by day, inexhaustible provisions for all that live 
around their precincts. At three o'clock we reached the 
island of Papeorea, on the south-west extremity of Huahine. 
This little spot, which seems but a hillock amidst the sea, 
stands about sixty feet above high-water mark, and is ex- 
quisitely adorned with the trees common to the climate. 



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HURRICANE BY NIGHT. 171 

The rock is of the same black stone as prevails throughout 
the adjacent islands, intersected with breccia ; though in one 
part we discovered a hard blue vein, in a contrary direction 
to the other strata, and nearly vertical. This is divided into 
fragments of various shapes, but all approaching to rude 
regularity of figure, — square, triangular, &c. In another 
place the formation is very singular, one portion being bent 
and pointed, like horns, and another rounded like cylinders ; 
the exterior of this stone is yellow, the interior slate-blue ; 
and all these rocks are much impregnated with ferruginous 
matter. We are not aware, however, that iron, or indeed 
any other metallic ore, has been traced in any of these 
islands. 

Having perambulated the whole of this petty domain, won: 
from the deep in some far distant age, we dined and supped 
in one meal, had family prayer in the Tahitian language, and 
made arrangements, at an early hour, to bivouac for the 
night. Our company, including the queen and her retinue 
(who met us here), consisted of a hundred persons. Our 
four small beds were put up in a native house, open at one 
side. This we contrived to partition with sails and blankets, 
and deemed ourselves very sufficiently sequestered in our 
tent-like chambers. The people without found no difficul- 
ty, consistently with their simple habits and few wants, in 
accommodating themselves on the ground, partly under 
another shed, and partly in the open air arouitd it. We had 
not long composed our little camp to rest, when we were 
suddenly assailed by a violent shower of rain, accompanied 
with a tempestuous wind, which had nearly dislodged us all. 
The natives awoke immediately ; those under the shed were 
driven out, by the crazy roof coming down in frsigments, 
though with no very heavy ruin, upon them. The out-o^ 
door sleepers, of course, were soon roused by the pelting of 
the storm, and ran in all directions to the trees and bushes 
for refuge. A strange scene of confusion followed; the 
hogs were screaming, the goats bleating, and forcing their 
way into our bed-room for shelter, from whence it was not 
easy to repulse them ; mep, women, and children were hur- 
rying to and fro, and mingling their voices of surprise and 
consternation. But the uproar so<ni subsided; the people 
cowering under cover, wherever they could find it, presently 
resumed their characteristic good humor, and, afier talking and 



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172 HUAHINE-ITI. 

laughing for several hours, while the turmoil of elements con- 
tinued, they gradually sunk with the wind and the rain to rest. 

Dec. 27. ^hougl^ there were some showers this morning, 
we got under weigh at an early hour. East of the island on 
which we had lodged Huahine presents a spacious harbor, 
surrounded on the landward by hills and mountains, of in- 
describable beauty^ and singularly contrasted, yet richly har- 
monized. The slopes are verdant to the water's edge; 
while above, height over height, clad in different colored 
foliage, and ridge beyond ridge, gray, and black, and crag- 
ged, present successive scenes of landscape, which pen can- 
not trace, nor pencil follow, through their ever-varying, yet 
always pleasing, combinations, as the lights and shadows 
change upon their surface, or the beholder changes the place 
whence he contemplates them. We sailed nearly round this 
ample basin, which is about three miles across, and of which 
the shores, though irregularly winding, are as gracefully 
curved as the convolutions of a shell. Making our exit at 
the southern outlet, on our right lay Papeorea, which we had 
lately quitted ; and on the left, Huahine-iti, or Huahine the 
less — a vision of enchantment to the eye. Nothing in na- 
ture can exceed in picturesque unity of subject (if the 
phrase may be allowed) the spectacle of one of these modern 
Hesperides, having its mountains, woods, and waters, all 
lovely and lighted with sunshine, reposing on the flood, 
and doubling its image beneath : nor can any thing ideal 
exceed in romantic effect the bewildering illusion produced 
by looking upon it askance, with the head inclined down- 
ward, when the reality and the reflection are so identified as 
to make both appear one — an islaud, alone in the midst of a 
sea, as deep as the firmament— or, as fancy might easily 
feign, an entire little world (a satellite to this) invisibly sus- 
pended ** 'twixt upper, nether, and surrounding " sky. 

Opposite Papeorea a vast rock rises out of the water with 
great majesty. This mass is generally composed of alter- 
nate strata of bine rag and breccia. There is a remarkable 
vein, about two feet in thickness, which runs aslant, and in 
a contrary direction to all the rest. Strong marks of the 
action o^ fire are visible on the surface, and in one side we 
found a hole, which may have been a volcanic crater. Here 
and there, also, there are strata of black stone, which, when 
brpken, has a pitchy appearance. 



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UAHABU HARBOR. 173 

We next reached the harbor of Mahabu, on the north- 
west side of Huahine-iti. There is no passage between the 
coral-reefs into this lagoon, which is of an oval shap^, and 
of capacity to accommodate all the war-ships of Europe with 
safe anchorage. Like the former bays which we have visit- 
ed, this is overlooked by craggy cliffs, between which and 
the water, there is a breadth of fertile low-land. In the 
middle appears a single small coral-mqtu, with a tuft of cocoa- 
nut trees waving upon its circlet of rock. We landed at the 
head of the bay, where a place of worship has been erected. 
Near it stands an old native house, which had been cleaned 
and strewn with grass for our accommodation. Here we 
put up our beds, and after dining a raatira said he had a 
little speech to say to us, if we would accompany him. We 
went, and lo ! he presented each of us with a hog. Other 
presents of fruit were brought to us in the course of the 
day. In the evening divine service was held in the adja- 
cent chapel, wherein about a hundred persons assembled. 
This is a* very rich district, and the produce might well 
maintain ten thousand inhabitants round the margin of the 
lagoon. The late population have all removed to the mis- 
sionary settlement at Fare, and only visit their old neigh- 
borhood occasionally, to gather the fruits which the bounty 
of Providence causes to grow here without their care or 
culture. 

Dec. 28. We spent many hours in exploring the valleys, 
declivities, and remoter elevations, which every where pre- 
sented similar objects for curiosity in the productions of the 
soil, and for admiration in the sections of sea and land 
scenery,, on which the sight was never weary of dwelling, or 
rather roving from point to point ; finding at once action and 
repose in expatiating as freely as the wind that breathed over 
the mountains and rippled the ocean. 

In the afternoon we proceeded on our cruise, keeping 
within the reefs, which are two miles from the shore, and 
afford perfect security ftom the breakers on the side of the 
sea. A high rock, projecting from the flank of One of the 
mountains, was pointed but to us, over the brow of which a 
man once leaped, to escape the spear of his pursuer, from 
whom he had stolen some property. Happily the fugitive 
alighted on a quantity of loose earth, which had been thrown 
up only the day before, and missed being dashed to pieces 
on the spot. We soon afterwards passed by one of the two 
15* 



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174 YIIXAOE OF UATARA. 

districti^ whose inhabitants declined to emigrate to the mis- 
sionary settlement, to be nearer the means of Christian in- 
struction, of which, at that time, they thought more lightly 
than the bulk of their countrymen. They come, however, 
occasionally to Fare, to hear. the gospel, and their teachers 
in turn visit them when opportunity offers. In the evening 
we landed at Matara, where there is a small native village, 
' and a chapel. A beautiful motu stretches across the mouth 
of the bay here, and presents a complete specimen of a coral- 
island, where the rude structure of thousands of millions of 
minute worms, growing up, through successive ages, into a- 
barren reef, has gradusdly been invested with soil, and now 
is as ** a field which the Lord hath blessed." Our sleeping 
quarters had been comfortably arranged, and we passed a 
quiet night, in a large native dwelling, divided into three 
apartments, of which we occupied one end ; the queen, with 
her attendants, the other ; and the middle space served for 
a common eating-room. 

Dec. 29. After an early breakfast and family prayer, we 
visited the aforementioned motu. A beach, composed of 
fragments of shells and other marine exuvisB, surrounds the 
island, which is nearly two miles in circumference. The 
coral-rocks — ^themselves incorrigibly sterile, but over which 
nature has spread prolific tillage— -at several points jut out 
into the sea, and again disappear in the sand. Even in the 
centre and highest part of this new-made land, coral is 
every where visible, as the substratum of the whole. In ad- 
dition to the trees and plants commonly found on such spots, 
we collected eleven which were new to us. 

Having caught a sufficient number of fishes, we ordered 
them to be dressed. Immediately a fire was kindled on the 
beach, and the repast was served up in so primitive a style 
that we could not but be reminded of that scene, by the 
lake of Tiberias, where the risen Redeemer showed himself 
to his disciples, and condescended to sit down with them by 
''a fire of coals" on the shore, and fish laid thereon, and 
bread, of which He gave to them with his own hands, ^s 
He was wont to do, in the character of their Lord and Mas- 
ter, before his passion. Ah ! who can remember the sequel 
— for ** when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, 
Son of Jonas, lovest thou me ? " — without " being grieved," 
less because of- the thrice-repeated question, than because he 
who has most experienced a Savior's love — his pardoning 



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NATIVB SAYINGS. 175 

love — ^is most sensible how imperfectly he can answer, 
<' Lord, Thou knowest all things ,* Thou knowest that I Iotc 
Thee." 

On this occasion, a trifling circumstance occurred which 
is only ivortb notice as exemplifying the style of conversa- 
tion in this remote corner of the world, where great plain- 
ness of speech is quite consistent with good manners. Mr. 
Barfl*, not having observed the fire which had been lighted, 
asked a native where it was. "You are a strange-eyed 
man," was the reply that he received, and this was 
given in perfect good humor, meaning no more than that 
if you will use your eyes you cannot help seeing it before 
your face. Such abrupt and significant answers are com- 
mon among these people, who, though loquacious, strive to 
make their remarks in the fewest possible words ; and often 
both matter and manner are equally pithy. — One evening 
the queen was amusing herself with peeping through a small 
opera-glass, belonging to one of our party. Having never 
seen any thing of the kind before, she was delighted with 
trying its powers, as she imagined, first on one and then 
another of the company, seated in different and distant 
parts of the spacious room. At length she exclaimed, 
" This is a short way of getting at a person!" The sur- 
prise of children in such a case is the reverse ; they think 
the glass brings the objects near to themselves ; she seemed 
to imagine that it carried her to the object. 

Towards evening we walked to the great marae of Oro, 
which is within a mile of this bay. The queen and her 
friends accompanied us. Near "the high place" of this 
" abomination " of Huahine we called upon an aged man, 
who was the last priest here at the murderous shrine of the 
god of war. In youth he must have been uncommonly 
large and powerful. His face was singularly tatooed, wMch 
is in itself remarkable (indeed only the second instance that 
we have seen), as the vainest among the one sex, and the 
fiercest of the other, were not wont thus either to adorn or 
disfigure their countenances. And herein these Pacific 
islanders differed entirely fi'om other savages who practise 
the same fanciful method of marking themselves. The 
North American Indians, the New Zesdanders, ^^c, glory 
in the characteristic imagery which they depict on their fore- 
heads, cheeks, and chins, by this barbarous species of em- 
broidery. The gray hair of the patriarch before us was cut 



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176 CONVERTED PRIEST OF ORO. 

short, except one thin lock, which was allowed to grow long 
behind. But what gave peculiar interest to his person and 
character was the circumstance of his being blind, the 
occasion of his blindness, and its effect upon his future life. 
The dark idolater had long withstood the gospel, and refused 
to acknowledge the sanctity of the Sabbath, after the former 
was received, and the latter commanded by authority, to be 
observed in these islands. One Sabbath morning, in con- 
tempt of the day, he went out to work in his garden. On 
returning to his house, he became blind in a moment. 
Dreadfully alarmed, he cried out, " I am a dead man ! — a 
dead man ! " His neighbors, in amazement, came running 
to his assistance ; — but vain was human help ; an invisible 
hand was upon him, and had closed up his eyes for ever 
from seeing the sun. But the same hand, we may believe, 
opened the eyes of his understanding by the stroke which 
destroyed the light of the body ; he immediately concluded 
that this affliction was a judgment upon him for disobeying 
(probably against strong, though long-resih-ied, internal con- 
victions) the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. His country- 
men were under the same impression. He humbled himself 
in the dust, mourned over his sins, confessed them, abjured 
idolatry, and embraced that religion which had already 
triumphed over almost every other heart in the island except 
his own. To this day he has continued in that renovated 
state of mind, and his conduct has been conformable to his 
profession. 

After some conversation with him respecting what he had 
been, and what he is now, we informed him whither we were 
going ; he then got up, and accompanied us, finding his way 
without difficulty by the aid of a long stick. We were soon 
at the marae. This measured a hundred and forty-six feet 
in length, by eighteen in width, and was in a tolerably com- 
plete state, only a few of the great stones having been dis- 
placed. It is built of large flags of coral-rock, placed upon 
their edges in the ground, and forming an . inclosure, which 
is filled up with earth. On this a second smaller inclosure 
had been raised in the, same manner, leaving a platform all 
around, four feet wide. Within this upper story were 
interred the bones of the miserable victims, human and 
brute, which from time to time had been sacrificed to the 
demon-idol worshipped here. One of the large flag stones 
measured nine feet by ten. The labor of heaving such 



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CONSCIENTIOUSNESS OF A CO^ERTED P|UEST. 177 

blocks from the bottom of the sea, bringing them so far, 
and building them up here, must have been immense. 

Tar^ no Oro, or Oro's house, stood behind this long range 
of earth and stones, about the middle of the farther wall. It 
was a small structure, only eight feet long by six in width. 
About three yards beyond, and upon the ground, lay a flat 
stone, twelve or fourteen inches square, on which the priest 
of Oro formerly was accustomed to stand, when he offered 
his prayers and practised his enchantments. Close to this, 
rising behind it, was another stone, sufficiently broad and 
elevated to form a seat for him when weary, or when the du- 
ty of his office required him to assume th^ posture of repose. 

Without due consideration, we requested the old priest to 
take his stand, and show us in what manner he prayed to 
Oro, and delivered oracles to the people. With undisguised 
reluctance, he consented, and stepped upon the accursed 
spot, from which he had so often, in times past, acted the 
part both of the deceiver and the deceived. But when he 
was about to repeat one of the prayers to Oro — as though he 
had come within the grasp of the power of darkness, and felt 
himself in the act of apostasy — " fear came upon him, and 
trembling, that made all his bones to shake ;" and down from 
his station he leaped with precipitancy, crying out, ** I dare 
not do it — I dare not do it.'' He was so troubled that he 
left the scene as hastily as he could, dreading a second 
judgment, and declaring that, if he did such a thing, he 
should die immediately. We were much affected, and re- 
gretted having inadvertently brought him into such terror 
and peril, whUe we could not but admire his conscientious- 
ness. At the further end of this huge mass stood a small 
marae, twelve feet by seven, long and broad. This, we were 
told, had been built on the occasion of making an arii, that 
is, adopting into the royal family a person of inferior birth. 
Ceremonies were then observed, which the worst words in 
our language would be abused in describing. 

When the house of Oro had been erected, several human 
sacrifices were slain, and every pillar that supported the roof 
was, as it were, planted in the Ixxly of such a victim, having 
been driven, like a stake, through it into the ground. There 
had been fourteen grand occasions, when human sacrifices 
had been thus offered, within the remembrance of the old 
priest. As he enumerated these, he took a piece of taro 



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178 IMAGE OF ORO. 

leaf in his hand, a shred of which he tore off and threw upon 
the ground, to mark each, when he mentioned it in order. 
In surveying this wreck of Satan's throne, melancholy 

.retrospection carried our spirits through the dark ages which 
had passed over these lands, while they were full of the hab- 
itations of cruelty and wickedness; when one generation 
went, and another came, without change, or hope, or possi- 
bility of deliverance, till the messengers of mercy, with their 
lives in their hands, and the love of Christ and the souls for 
whom He died in their hearts, appeared upon their shores to 
preach liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison- 
doors to them that were bound. The idols, the temples, the 
bloody rites, the detestable profligacy, the gross ignorance, 
the spiritual slavery, and the personal abasement, of the people, 
have all disappeared ; and, however imperfect yet, society is 
advancing in genuine civilization ; and, however deficient, 
still the church of God is growing in grace, and in the 
knowledge, practice, and enjoyment of pure and undefiled 
religion. Those of the natives whose habits were formed 
under the old atrocious system, in contemplating the trans- 
formation, not in themselves only, but in all things around 

' them, scarcely know how to reconcile the former and the 
present state of things ; it is to them as though the one or 
the other must be a dream ; yet, by bitter remembrance and 
happy experience, "the wormwood and the gall" not less 
certainly were their portion onee, than " the milk and honey" 
are now. In their prayers and discourses, they love to con- 
trast the two states. They compare the presfent to peace, 
afler long and murderous wars — to an abundant fruit-har- ' 
vest, afler famine and .drought — ^to undisturbed, refreshing 
sle6p, afler days and nights of toil, and watching, and dis-. 
tress. 

When the altars were overthrown, and the idols burnt, 
the image of Oro, which made this place hideous, was also 
demanded by the regenerators of their country, that execu- 
tion might be done upon it. The old priest, seeing hie crafl 
in danger, but determined to cleave to the hope of reviving 
it till the last, hid his god — a shapeless log of timber — in a 
cave among the rocks. Hautia, however, was not to be 
trifled with, nor could such a nuisance as the pestilent stock, 
to which human beings 'had been sacrificed, be permitted to 
exist any longer on the face of the earth, lest the plague of 



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PICTURE OP A PARTY ASLEEP. 179 

idolatry should again break out among its reclaimed follow- 
ers. He insisted upon its being brought forth, and commit- 
ted to the flames, in the presence of the people, who had but 
the day before trembled and fallen- down before it. Thisi 
was done ; but still the priest himself held to the superstition 
of" his fathers, though he had seen their god consumed to 
ashes by mortal man with impunity ; and he ceased not to 
spurn at the feligion of the strangers till the signal event al^ 
ready mentioned, when blindness fell upon his outward, and 
light upon his inward, vision. One of the largest stones of 
this dilapidated marae was taken away, a few weeks ago, to 
Tare, and there placed over the grave of the young heir to 
the kingdom of these islands, the son of Mahine, formerly 
mentioned. Near this marae there are two stones, one upright, 
the other prostrate, the only remains of a very ancient struc- 
ture of a similar kind. They are both basaltic fragment^, of 
irregular angular shape ; but whence they were brought we 
could not learn. To these dumb blocks divine honors were 
accustomed to be paid, and prayers offered, by the fanatic 
priests and the deluded multitude. 

The night-quarters, in the house where our servants, and 
those who accompanied us of their own accord, were lodged, 
presented a singularly grotesque spectacle after they were all 
laid down to sleep. Each spread his mat on the ground, and 
threw himself upon it, apparently at random, but perfectly at 
ease ; heads and feet lying in all directions. Some made 
pillows of their mats, some made pillows of their neighbors, 
and some did without pillows at all. If it had rained down 
sleepers through the roof upon the floor, they could hardly 
have fallen more unpremeditatedly, or been more whimsical- 
ly disposed ; yet all slept soundly, as though, having nothing 
to do but to 'sleep, each was making the best use of his 
time ; their coverings were the native mantles which they 
wore in the day : yet ludicrous as the spectacle at first view 
appeared, there was not the slightest indecorum observable 
among the group. Sir Joshua Reynolds has remarked, that 
all the positions of children are graceful, because they are 
unconstrained ; the same may be said of the unconscious 
acts and attitudes, sleeping or waking, of people like these, 
who follow simple instinct in whatever they do. Nature her- 
self might have put her children to bed here, having given 
them such pliancy of limbs, and healthiness of frame, that, 



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180 A SHARK-MARAE. 

as they sunk down, so they lay, in sweet, untroubled, and 
profound repose. 

Dec. 30. Being Lord's day, the usual services, in Tahi- 
tian and English, were duly performed, and devouUy attend- 
ed. At our evening prayers, we could not but observe how 
differently the very ground on which we were kneeling, sing- 
ing, and offering supplications at a throne of grace, had been 
but lately occupied. Our house stands upon part of a marae, 
which was dedicated to the worship of the shark — a fit repre- 
sentative of Am who is the prototype of all idols — the devour- 
er, the destroyer ! This was a family marae, and the owner, 
who had oflen prayed and sacrificed here to the most vora- 
cious of things that swim, was present with us at the worship 
of the Father of all mercies. He informed us that, accord- 
ing to the traditions of his fathers, a horrible monster once 
worked its way upwards through the solid ground. As it ap- 
proached the surface, the people were alarmed at the con- 
vulsion of the earth beneath their feet; and while they were 
flying on all sides, a huge shark reared its head, and opened 
its jaws, through the clefl soil, on this very spot. In com- 
memoration of so great a prodigy, the ancestors of our in- 
formant had built the marae, which came into his possession 
by inheritance. He had, however, desecrated the shrine, or 
rather consecrated it to a better purpose, having converted it 
into a dwelling for himself and his family, now acknowledg- 
ing the true God. 

Sharks are numerous about this coast, and they were 
formerly worshipped from fear ; indeed, the fear that hath 
torment was the mother of devotion here, as it is in every 
other heathen land. Large oblations were frequently offered 
to them by the priests who served at their altars. We are 
assured that numbers of these ravenous animals were so far 
tamed in this bay, that they came regularly to the beach to 
be fed with fish and pork, which were provided- for them in 
large quantities. This marae being situated very near the 
lagoon, a shark once worked his way through the sand, and 
took personal possession of his temple, the water flowing in 
with him ; whereupon, the reservoir thus formed being prop- 
erly dammed up, and from time to time replenished, he luxu- 
riated in his sanctuary, and daily received his food from the 
devotees who flocked thither. Whenever the natives, in 
their canoes, encountered a shark at sea, they endeavored to 



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NAMES OF DEIFIED SHARKS. 181 

propitiate him by throwing out some of the fish which they 
might have caught ; and such offerings were so acceptable to 
these divinities, that the latter would follow the boats to the 
shore, and gradually becaipe familiar enough to wait till 
their portion was dealt forth to them. Nevertheless, the un- 
grateful sharks, having a god of their own — " their belly " — 
never failed to sacrifice even their worshippers to that idol, 
when they could catch a stray man, woman or child, in the 
water, or on the beach, near enough to be seized and car- 
ried into the deep. 

Dec. 31. To-day we explored the neighborhood of this 
bay. About a furlong fix)m the head of k is a cliff, nearly 
perpendicular, seven hundred feet high, according to our 
calculation, and extending a quarter of a mile laterally. It 
consists of one enormous mass of very black chert. Many 
huge fragments lie at the foot, which are, for the most part, 
overrun with grass and low shrubs. From the upper face of 
the precipice itself, spring scattered tufts of ito and purau 
plants. We walked upwards of three miles into the valley, 
from whence the inland mountains tower away to an eleva- 
tion which gives the sense of toil to the eye that climbs them, 
siage by stage, over thick forests and interrupting crags, fol- 
lowing their sinuosities, and marking their slopes, as they 
diminish in distance. One of these acclivities we ascended, 
to visit a marae, situated in a solitude of woods and rocks 
which gave more than ordinary eolemnky of horror to the 
idolatrous temple. Here, again, sharks were the tutelary 
deities, or rather the hostile fiends whose fury was sought to 
be appeased by the superstitious reverence paid to them. 
Several of these sea-monsters were distinguished above the 
nameless multitude that prowl for prey throughout the 
boundless ocean. One, named Tuaribono^ had the pre- 
eminence, because he was a foreigner, and came fron^ the 
island of Maupiti. It is a remarkable fact, that the natives 
here were always more prone to think highly of what was 
brought fi'om a strange country, than what belonged to their 
own. A second was called Teabua, a third Teariihioroa, a 
fourth Teareaumuay &c. How many others were thus dis- 
tinctly recognized, we could not ascertain. Indeed, almost 
every family had its particular shark, to which it vowed and 
made oblations here, or at other maraes. They always gave 
a name to these savage creatures, when they numbered them 
among the gods, by some circumstance connected with the 

VOL. I. 16 * 



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182 A BIRD-DIVINITY. 

fish itself, the place where it appeared, its size, color, &c. ; 
but all the appellations were magnificent and funding, it 
being understood that \h^ sharks would be offended with 
paltry and vulgar ones. On this spot, the raatiras, or land- 
owners, used to meet to practise the sacred exercise of the 
bow and arrow, which, being tabued^ were never employed 
as weapons in war. In the course of our excursion this day, 
we visited another marae, on the beach, larger than either 
of the former, but learnt nothing particular in reference to 
its history. A white bird, with a long blue bill, and web- 
footed, about the size of a dove, was brought to us. The 
natives call it |wrai ; and this harmless creature was also 
one of "the lords many, and gods many," worshipped here. 
It was supposed to preside over accidents, and, being often 
found sitting in the bread-fruit trees, its protection against 
falls in climbing them was sought. It was believed that, 
when this bird perceived any one thus precipitated by an 
unlucky slip, it would immediately fly beneath his body, as 
if to rescue him before he reached the ground, or, at least, 
lighten his descent. The chief who gave us this curious in- 
formation, assured us that he had proved it to be true by 
personal experience ; for, on a certain occasion, when he 
was dislodged from a bread-fruit tree, one of these compas- 
sionate birds glanced under him so closely as to touch his 
neck with the flapping of its wings, and he sustained no in- 
jury (as he presumed) in consequence of this happy inter- 
ference of one of the gods ; whereupon he immediately cut a 
large bunch of bananas, and went and offered them to his 
deliverer at the marae. This day, in the course of our 
ramble, we caught a vivi, a giant of a grasshopper, which 
measured nearly five inches in length. The body was green, 
the wings red. 

We have been told that the first nail ever seen in this 
island was taken from a boat at Raiatea. It was a spike- 
nail, and brought hither by its fortunate possessor as some- 
thing of rare value. And so it proved, for he made no small 
gain by lending it out for hire, to canoe-builders, to bore 
holes in the sides of their planks. Aflerwards, another lucky 
fellow got hold of a nail, and not knowing how such a thing 
came into existence, he shrewdly conjectured that it must 
have been formed by a process of vegetation. Wherefore, 
to propagate so valuable an exotic, he planted his nail in the 
ground, but waited in vain for the blade, the bud, the blos- 



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MOTLEY DINNER COMPANY. 183 

som, and the fruit. This man is still living, and has not 
heard the last of his speculation ; being often reminded, to 
his no small chagrin, of the folly by which he acquired at 
least one piece of knowledge. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Lizard-God — ^Motley Dinner Company — Traditions — Dog-Marae~^ 
Rock Scenery — District of Hiro, God of Thieves — Puerile Preroga- 
tive of Areois — Cascade — Fern-leaf Printing — Memorial Trees plant- 
ed — Columnar Rock— ComfortljBss Plight of the Coasting Party — Cu- 
rious Species of Lobster — Marae of l^ni — Idol-Festival — Extensive 
Lagoon — Extraordinary Aoa Tree — Royal Burying-place — Native 
Contributions to Missionary Society — ^Gross Notions formerly enter- 
tained concerning a Future State. 

1822. Jan. 1. Proceeding on our circumnavigation of 
the island, along the north-east coast, we landed about two 
'miles from our last quarters to visit a ravine which has been 
opened, by some unrecorded convulsion, to a great depth, 
through a solid rock of chert and breccia. This singular 
fissure is a quarter of a mile in length, from twelve to fifteen 
feet wide, near the entrance, but narrowing to eight or uine 
towards the upper end. A strange tradition existed con- 
cerning this place : in a remote age a lizard was born of a 
human mother, and immediately translated into a god when 
it saw the light. Here was its retreat and its temple ; and 
here divine honors have been paid to the four-footed reptiles 
of that species ever since. From thence we walked along 
the beach, though it was hard to pick our steps among the 
protruding rocks and sharp prickly corals that interrupted 
our path in many places. We rested at a native house 
whither the queen and her retinue had gone last night, and 
where they had now prepared a sumptuous entertainment, of 
the usual country viands, for us and our attendants, and all 
that chose to partake of it. The house was a miserable 
shed, though spacious, the roof bein^ rent into sky-lights, 
and the walls into breaches. The dmner-party was more 
numerous and hearty, than either select or congenial — ^the 
queen and her friends, ourselves and our servants, with sun- 
dry hangers-on of the natives ; also a rabble of dogs, cats, 
hogs, and fowls, eagerly and unceremoniously putting in their 
claims for a share of the feast. Good humor, however, pre- 



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184 DOG-MARAE. 

vailed, and there was abundant fare, both for man, and beast, 
and winged fowl. In addition to our portion of this social 
meal, we each received a present of a live hog. 

Near at hand was the ruin of a marae, out of which we 
picked several human skulls, being those of victims who had 
been here offered to Oro. An intelligent native, of high 
rank, now a Christian, formerly an Areoi, told us, in answer 
tba question, that the belief of these vagabonds (the Areois) 
respecting a future state, was this — The spirits of themselves 
and their friends went into some place far away, where they 
enjoyed happiness, in the tenth degree, or of the highest 
kind. They lived at large, in the midst of an immense 
plain, Tound which stood all the gods, joining hands, with 
interlocked fingers, and forming an impregnable protection ; 
while those within the circle revelled in aJl manner of sen- 
sual delights. We have heard other traditions on the same 
subject ; little dependence can be placed on any as being 
universal ; one was believed here, and another there, and 
'they had only one common quality — that of being equally 
preposterous in mass and abominable in detail. 

We afterwards took to our boat again, sailing between the 
land and a coral islet, overshadowed with trees, nearly two 
miles in length and half a mile in breadth. At the further 
point of this motu, a scene of startling peculiarity and gran- 
deur burst upon our view. Immediately before us, a vast 
conical mountain stood up from the shore to the heavens, 
having on its peak the faded crown of a perishing marae, 
once held in profound veneration, having been dedicated to 
the worship of the dog. On either side of the straits, be- 
tween Huahine and Huahine-iti, craggy precipices crowd 
one upon the back of another, to the height of three thousand 
feet. Over the top of one of these hangs a huge rock, as 
though it were disrupted from its seat and falling idstantly 
upon the valley beneath. On the contrary shore, gigantic 
masses, of the same character, rear their weather-beaten but 
immovable ridges, as in defiance of earthquakes or storods, 
passively maintaining their ground till they shall be crumbled 
into dust, under the perpetual foot of time, on the very spot 
where they were first fixed at the creation, lefl bare by the 
retiring waters of the deluge, or heaved from the bottom of 
the abyss by the volcanic throes that gave birth to the islands 
of which they are at once th^ ornaments and the stability. 
These stupendous eminences are mouldered into many sin- 



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TUE HOLE IN THE WIND. 185 

gular but not mis-shapen forms, for grandeur and grace are 
distinguishable among all their variations ; while, through 
the thick verdure that generally arrays them, break forth 
denuded crags, black, crimson, and gray, and frequent fis- 
sures open into their recesses, yet conceal what they dis- 
close, their borders being curiously curtained with foliage 
that seems to live in the air as its element, and scarcely to be 
indebted to the -stone cliff, whence its springs, either for 
nourishment or support. Even the perpendicular fkces of 
the rocks are often overgrown, in this genial climate, with 
rank and luxuriant vegetation. 

Crossing over the district called Apoomatai, or the hole in 
the wind, the meaning of which we have not been happy 
enough to learn, we took up our quarters for the night at a 
preaching-place, where there is a small chapel, and a house 
for the use of the missionaries when they come hither. We 
had evening service in 'the former, attended by about fifty 
persons, and in the latter we prepared our beds, but expected 
no sleep, on account of the multitudes of mosquitoes. The 
natives, however, to our no small surprise and pleasure — 
though it was hard to believe such good news — told us that 
the pestilent swarms would retire at the close of day. And 
so they did : — this place has somehow become tabued, from 
their vii^ts, during the night, for, every where else, the mat- 
ins, the vespers, and the vigils of these everlasting tormentors 
of flesh and blood, are little less annoying than their noon- 
day inflictions. 

Near this privileged spot, and before we enjoyed the un- 
hoped-for comfort of undisturbed repose, we visited a lofty 
mountain, rising just behind our lodging. We estimated the 
elevation at three thousand feet. A spring spouts from its 
flanks, at two-thirds of the way, which the traveller finds 
very refreshing in the toilsome ascent. From the summit, 
as- from every other, the views were sublime and enchanting 
— loveliness of color, and grace of form, marking every fea- 
ture of land and sea scenery ; combined with amazing height 
of interior mountains, winding irregularity of coast, smooth 
water within the lagoons, rough breakers on the reefs with- 
outi coral islands here and there ; all compassed with the 
infinity of sea beyond and of sky above. Here is the ex- 
treme verge of Huabine. An insulated rock projects from 
the head of this mountain, presenting a panorama-stand by 
day, and a point on which star after star may be seen by 
16* 



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186 HIRO, THE GOD OF THIEVES. 

\ 

night, from the depth below, lingering over its pinnacle, and 
cresting it with their beams, as they pass in their courses. 
The strata of this rock are irregular, and consist of volcanic 
rubble and basaltes,- both quite black. — We remarked a sec- 
ond spring trickling from the under stratum of this pile, 
notwithstanding its great elevation. The same plants were 
also found in this superior region as on the lower slopes. 
The cotton-plant was abundant, and an uncommon kind of 
stone-crop. But the most curious was a species of mimosa, 
or sensitive plant, with a white blossom, like that of the pea, 
but very minute. It rises to the height of fourteen inches, 
and is called by the natives hora. The sweet-scented grass, 
formerly mentioned, grows exuberantly here, and is now in 
full blow and fragrance. Ferns and reeds also flourish in 
every crevice and hollow. The structure of the middle part 
of this mountain, so far as the soil was laid bare, is the same 
red loam which is traced every where in the high lands here, 
and which appears to be decomposed lava, containing many 
fragments of honey-combed stones, of the same color. This 
is a royal domain, and formerly was a favorite haunt of those 
human harpies — the Areois, in whose character and : habits 
all that is most loathsome — " earthly, sensual, devilish " — was 
combined. The low land between the beach and the loot of 
the- mountains is little more than a hundred yards in breadth, 
but exceedingly fertile. Towards the south, however, it ex- 
pands gradually into a spacious and beautifiil valley— a lap 
into which the horn of plenty h^ts been unsparingly poured. 
Anna, who was formerly one of his most zealous and favored 
votaries, informs us that Hiro, the patron divinity of thieves, 
was devoutly worshipped here and throughout these islands, 
though he was a god of but recent creation. He is said to 
have been a native of Raiatea, and so far from being born 
an immortal that (if the ambiguity may be allowed) he did 
not even die one^ — his skull having been preserved at Opoa, 
in that island, and seen by persons now living there, though 
it has recently disappeared with the other relics of idolatry. 
This Hiro was so subtle and audacious a robber that even 
the altars and maraes of the gods were not safe from hi» 
sacrilegious fingers, To his skill in thieving were added all 
those other accomplishments for which heathen deities in all 
countries, from Greece and Rome to Tahiti and Raiatea, 
have been celebrated, — lying, murder, debauchery, &c. &c. 
Nor was he less famous for managing a canoe, and playing 



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PREROGATIVE OF THE AREOIS. 187 

the pirate by sea, than the burglar and bandit on shore. 
After his death, when enrolled among the gods for his atroci- 
ties, he was reverenced even above Oro, to whom he proved 
himself superior by throwing him down and lying upon him. 
His skull, as already mentibned, was deposited in a large 
marae, which he had himself erected, and his hair was put 
into the body of Oro's image and committed to the flames at 
Maeoa. The*" devotees of this idol were all persons of more 
than vulgar rank ; our friend Anna, being of royal kindred, 
was admitted to that honor. Indeed, it was not to be ex- 
pected, even in such a state of savage society as then existed, 
that any except the great should be permitted to seize their 
neighbors goods with impunity. 

I'he fraternity of AreoisTiad some customs and practices 
which they affected to reserve to themselves, and which it 
would have been at the peril of others to adopt. These 
were either exceedingly gross or exceedingly puerile. Of 
the latter we are assured that the following was a favorite 
one, which it might have been death for an uninitiated person 
to imitate. When they sat on the ground ^ or on a low stool, 
they put one foot on the other thigh, and continued giving 
the toes a particular motion, while in the one hand they 
wavtd at arm's length a fan, made of the white hairs of a 
dog's tail, to drive away the mosquitoes ; and in the other 
held a nasal flute, on which they occasionally made a flour- 
ish of notes, by blowing into it through one of the nostrils. 
It is remarkable that this little musical pipe is shaped like 
a German flute or fife, and is sounded as above, through a 
hole in the side, near the uj^r end, wJnch is plugged. 
^ Jan. 2. After we had each planted a cocoa-nut, in front 
of the house where we had lodged, in memorial of our visit, 
we proceeded in the boat to reconnoitre the straits which 
separate the greater and lesser of the Huahines. The open- 
ing between the two islands is about a mile in width, with 
steep declivities on either shore. This narrow channel ex- 
pands into a capacious basin and fine harbor, round which 
the most romantic scenery extends along the coast, and rises 
inland to the loftiest elevations. Indeed, this is the character 
of all these scattered islands, throughout the Southern Pacific, 
— they are mountains in the midst of the sea, whether seen 
from afar or at hand ; — from afar, nothing more exquisite in 
aerial perspective can be imagined than their slim and unsub- 
Ktanliil forms first peering above the horizon, but gradually 



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188 MAGNIFICENT CASCADE. 

growing in bulk, in clearness, and in beauty, on approach- 
ing them ; till, at hand, the richest coloring and the most 
harmonious combinations of the contrasted elements of- love- 
liness and magnificence that constitute picturesque landscape 
are found, in a degree of diversity at once inexhaustible, and 
unexhausting to the eye, the imagination, the intelligence, 
and even the heart of the beholder — associated, as these 
"fortunate islands'* now are, with all the "blessings" which 
the dying Jacob prayed might be the portion of his beloved 
Joseph — " blessings of the heaven above, blessings of the 
deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the 
womb ; blessings — »»»»•»" which " have prevailed 
above the blessings of (their) progenitors unto the utmost 
bound of the everlasting hills." Gen. xlix. 25, 26. How 
literally, how locally, how spiritually, these have been verified 
in reference to Tahiti, Huahine, and their adjacencies, must 
be manifest to every one who has heard or read what God 
hath wrought for them, by the gospel of his Son, within the 
last ten years : how much more evident must it be to us, 
whose eyes have seen all these things, and whose hearts have 
thrilled with delight at the contemplation of so much bliss 
where so much misery lately reigned 1 Here, truly, " where 
sin hath abounded, grace doth much more abound." So be 
it, tilf the end of days ! 

The queen was in the boat with us as we sailed into this 
harbor, and, part of the district belonging to her, we deter- 
mined to rest a few hours for refreshment. While, dinner 
was preparing, on shore, we proceeded along the coast to- 
wards the western side of the bay to examine the site of a 
cascade, whose waters we had, for some time, observed 
flowing down a steep channel. When we had approached it 
at the nearest point, the stream appeared to fall fi-om the 
height of little more than a hundred feet ; but what much 
more powerfully arrested our curiosity was the columnar for- 
mation of the face of the rock over a section of which the 
water was precipitated. We landed, and were detained a 
'considerable time by a heavy shower of rain. We gathered 
some small oysters^ of a very delicate flavor, on the beach here ; 
they were attached to the stones and trees which were at 
the edge of the water. In ascending the mountain w© ®^" 
perienced great difficulty on account of the steepness and 
slipperiness of the ground ; the latter inconvenience being 
much increased by the recent shower, which had saturated 



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PRINTING WITH LEAVES OP PLANTS. 189 

the herbage, and made the clay (a red loam) like mortar 
under our feet. The sides of this eminence were overrun 
with forests of tall fern and dwarf ito shrubs. When we 
reached the top, which may be calculatted at two thousand 
feet, we had to descend into a glen beyond, where the stream 
that supplies the fall has its source. The spring is strong, 
and sallies out of the earth at all times abundantly, but in 
consequence of the late rains it was unusually swollen and 
vigorous when we were there. The water thus projected 
pours at once over the verge of a precipice of chert-stone, to 
look over which makes the head swim, and the nerves in- 
stinctively recoil with horror, the abyss v being so profound, 
when contemplated from this point, that the whole height of 
the mountain itself seems to be the leap of the cataract from 
its summit to the sea. The actual fall we ascertained to be 
three hundred and fifty feet. Of course, in its headlong 
career, the rounded volume, that rolls over the verge like 
molten crystal, expands into azur6 sheets or darts in silver 
streams on its middle passage, tumbles into foam a little lower, 
and resolves into spray towards the bottom, so widely scatter- 
ed that a bath may be taken under the affusion without any 
inconvenience. The face of the crags down which it rushes, 
and leaps, and spreads, and sparkles in the sun-beams, being 
quite black, gives intensity of brilliance to the many-colored 
waters, under all their changes of form, from the torrent 
above to the shower of dew-drops below. Here we gathered 
specimens of the elegant small ferns, with which the native 
women impress figures, in divers colors, upon their cloth, — 
literally a method of printing, which is but one remove below 
the boasted, invention of the Chinese by means of engraven 
blocks, before the art was discovered in Europe. It is true 
that the delicate patterns of leaves and flowers, taken from 
living plants, upon their apparel, may be said to teach these 
ingenious females only so many letters of the alphabet of na- • 
ture ; yet, though incapable of instructing them in any thing 
else, they do always remind them of some of her most ex- 
quisite pii'oductions ; and may often revive in recollection the 
places where such are to^ be found, as well as the circum- 
stances under which particular specimens were gathered upon 
the spot — the weather, the company, the pleasures, or the 
disappointments of the day on which they were sought. — 
Here each of us left a memorial of our visit, by planting a 
cocoa-nut ; and though the future trees may not, indeed can- 



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190 COLUMNAR ROCK. 

not, tell " the story of their birth," to those wlio sit under 
their shadow, and find their fruit sweet to their taste, yet, to 
ourselves, they will be mnemonics of the mind ; and, when 
in distant regions we picture the scenery of this sequestered 
spot, we shall add to the beautiful objects which we saw here 
the images of those which .we lefl, though but in their germs ; 
and these will be endeared by the thought that they are our 
representatives, flourishing and fulfilling, in solitude, the pur- 
poses for which the Lord God caused them to grow out of 
tlie ground. Would that we were ever doing the same, in our 
emigrations ! Mr. Ellis and Mr. Barff planted two on the 
one side of the stream, and we (the deputation) two on the 
other. 

But, as we have intimated, it was the columnar structure 
of the face of the rock itself that excited our most curious 
attention. The stone is chert and not basalt, being in this 
respect essentially different from the singular specimen of 
the latter in Matavaii valle/. The columns here are gener- 
ally large ; in form a great part are pentagonal, in a few 
instances they are only quadrate, some again approach to 
the triangle, while others are nearly hexagons. One of them 
measured four feet four inches. Those of the four-sided pil- 
lars varied from a foot and a half to thirty inches. The 
same shafts also differ oflen in diameter, in their several 
parts, as much as they do from each other. The divisions of 
the pentagons and the hexagons are also much at variance ; 
a side, in some cases, being not more than an inch or two, 
in others upwards of a foot, wide. The whole colonnade de- 
clinoB from the perpendicular towards the east, at an angle 
of seventy-five degrees with the horizon. The height of this 
naked front of rock is three hundred and fifty feet, and the 
length a quarter of a mile. But, from small denuded patches 
on other parts of the mountain, where similar phenomena 
are discernible, it is probable that the whole mass is of the 
same formation. The lower extremities of many of the col- 
umns, near the waterfall, having been broken off, the stumps 
above jut out and show their respective shapes. , When wet 
the stones are deep black, but when dry a light blue, ex- 
ceedingly agreeable to the eye. 

Reluctantly descending from this secluded spot, so inter- 
esting to the traveller in search of rarities, and the philoso- 
pher in quest of geological data, we arrived at our boat. It 
was then near six o'clock in the evening. We had previ* 



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VIOLENT THUNDER-STOBM. 191 

ously heard distant thunder, and now, in the course of a few 
minutes, we were thoroughly drenched with rain, from which 
neither umbrellas nor wrapping could protect us. The tor- 
rents continued to fall till we had reached our party on 
shore. Here, having changed our 'Clothes and dined, the 
house being very dirty and uncomfortable, we resolved to pro- 
ceed to our next station at the foot of the Sacred Mountain, 
called Mow, about four miles off. We accordingly set out 
for the desired haven some time after sunset, the glimpses of 
the moon affi>rding us precarious but welcome assistance in 
exploring our way. Incessant lightnings and the perturbed 
state of the clouds, meanwhile, excited apprehensions which ^ 
were soon realized. On our passage the utmost caution was 
requisite in steering the boat, the sea, to the distance of two 
,miles from the shore, being so covered with coral-rocks and 
their spiky ramifications, as, in many places, to be unnaviga- 
ble, and in all very shallow ; hence we were, every few min- 
utes, aground and afloat alternately ; nor was this to be won- 
dered at, for our boat having on board, in all, sixty persons, 
was much too heavily laden for such a perilous cruise, espe- 
cially afler nightfall, when the depths and shoals could not 
be distinguished. Thus, when we struck upon the reef, all 
the native men were obliged to jump out into the water to 
lighten the vessel and heave her over the obsfruction. But 
they were invariably cheerful, and worked with all their 
might, so that by fits and starts, as it were, we at length landed 
at the destined point. Before, however, we could reach shel- 
ter, the long-threatening clouds poured down all their ven- 
geance upon us, and we were a second time soaked through 
all our apparel, as though we had been dragged through the 
sea. Our female companions, with their infants, suffered 
much from the pitiless pelting of this storm, there being vio- 
lent wind as well as rain, while, in the midst of all, they were 
compelled to be carried on shore upon the backs of our men, 
and afterwards had to run to the distance of a quarter of a 
mile before they could get under cover. 

The place provided for our reception was a large chapel 
built in the native style, on pillars, and open on all sides. 
Here, then, we were at last — threescore of us ! — comfortless 
enough, but having nothing to do but to make the best we 
could of our quarters. It was midnight when we landed : 
the lights in the place had all been put out by those of our 
.party who had previously arrived there, and who, never ex- 



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192 CUKI0U8 SPECIES OF LOBSTER. 

pecting that we would venture to follow them over such a 
sea of sunken rocks and shallows, in the dark, had retired to 
rest. With wet clothing, wet bedding, and nothing ready 
to dry either, we were loudly welcomed with the laaranas 
(may you be blessed !) tfour fiends, whose slumbers we had 
disturbed. Presently, however, a fire was kindled at one 
end of the chapel, and we found ourselves in a noble place 
of worship, open, indeed; on every side, to all the elements 
in all their moods, but having a sound roof to ward off some 
of the deluging rain, at this time, and in other respects 
afibrding plenty of room for the accommodation of most of 
our clan. Notwithstanding the noise, the bustle, and appa- 
rent confusion, among so numerous and heterogeneous a 
party, we composed ourselves for rest without much difficulty, 
each in his own way ; and, sooner than could have been ex- 
pected, silence and general tranquillity prevailed throughout 
the spacious and well-occupied tenement. 

While we were exploring the neighborhood of the cascade, 
this day, some of the men, whom we. had lefl at the landing- 
place, caught two very curious fishes of the lobster-species. 
The native name of this animal is Varoo. The general 
form is that of the lobster ; the length nine inches ; the body 
is covered with a delicate shell, of which the jointed com- 
partments, nine in number, beside the tail-piece, admit of 
freedom of motion. Under the five central ones there are 
fringes, like fins, and to that which lies between these five 
and the tail are attached two flappers, on either side, pro- 
jecting outward and backward. Under each of these there 
is a strong, bony, sharp-pointed weapon, with which the crea- 
ture can defend itself, and probably secure its prey, by clasp- 
ing the latter beneath its belly, when the forks must pierce 
whatever comes between them. These are said to be veno- 
mous, and the natives are much afraid of being wounded by 
them. To each of the three plates of the shell, next the 
head, are fitted two legs, one on either side. The head is 
an inch and three quarters long, and narrowing in width 
from an inch and a half, at the hinder part, to three quarters 
of an inch at the frontage. Towards the middle are the 
eyes, the mouth, and four antennae, with a kind of fin on 
each side. But the most singular and novel characteristics 
of this animal are its large claws, which grow from the upper 
part of the body and the neck. These have four joints each, 
that at the extremity being a fine and almost transparent 



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THE SACRED MOUNTAIN, v 193 

bone, with ten sharp rays shooting outwards, longer and 
longer, and stronger also in proportion to the outermost. 
This ten-toothed appendage closes down into a -correspond- 
ing groove, or slit, of the inner joint, which exactly fits it as 
a sheath — ^the whole resembling a common pocket-comb that 
shuts into a case. The mouth and adjacent organs are like 
those of the lobster. The color, when alive, is pale yellow 
with nkc and black spots. This also was one of the divini- 
ties of these benighted regions, where men " changed the 
glory of the uncorruptible God into an image, made like to 
corruptible man, and to birds, and to four-footed beasts, and 
to creeping things." 

Jan. 3. We are now in the district of Aruri, a royal 
domain, where parties of pleasure, or for war, were wont to 
assemble. The land being exceedingly fertile, abundant 
food was always to be found for such occasions, when the 
consumption was great indeed. The chapel, built on the 
site of a demolished marae, is eighty feet long by thirty wide. 
It has a pulpit, but no fixed benches nor pews ; and was, 
therefore, better suited, in some respects, for our nocturnal 
encampment than if it had been more completely furnished. 
Near it stands a large hous^, twice as spacious as the chapel, 
formerly the haunt of the Areois, a " sty of Epicurus' herd," 
rendered abhorrent to every pure feeling by the bloody and 
obscene rites of those "unclean spirits" that once pos- 
sessed it. Within this no longer desecrated enclosure, a 
number of our fellow-travellers had been lodged; and we 
were awakened, soon after day-break, by the songs of Zion, 
which they were singing at their morning worship; and 
sweeter minstrelsy we never heard. A few years ago our 
brethren, the missionary servants of Jehovah, dwelt here like 
men in exile, if not in captivity; and when the heathen 
mocked theiii, and required of them mirth, saying, " Sing us 
one of the songs of Zion !" they might have indeed replied, 
in bitterness of spirit, " How shall we sing the Lord's song 
in a strange land ?" 

There are various other houses in this district; but few 
are tenanted, the former inhabitants having removed to the 
missionary settlement, and only visiting their lands here 
occasionally. The beach is low and marshy; three exten- 
sive valleys open upon it fi-om the interior. On the west 
stands the Sacred Mountain, rising in great majesty, and 
almost perpendicularly, on every side; hence the summit 

VOL, I. 17 



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194 MARAE OF TANI. 

cannot be reached, even by the natives, in wet weather. Ito 
trees run all the way up its steep decliFities, and flourish 
superbly on the top, which is broad and flat. Some crags 
jut out on the south side. In times of war this was a strong 
hold to which the vanquished fled, and where they^could not 
be successfully assailed ; for, when once they had ascended 
the precipices, they could hurl down stones, like thunderbolts, 
upon their pursuers below ; and throw back their besiegers 
themselves, like stones, whenever they attempted to scale 
those impregnable ramparts. On this proud eminence stood 
a marae, devoted to the worship of the dog. 

From the. west to the south are seen vast ranges of hills, 
wi^h sunny valleys, or dark ravines, intersecting ; the flanks 
of these are generally clad with verdure, though oflen em- 
bossed with towering rocks or overhanging crags. Between 
the south and east are the straits through which we sailed ; 
and there we distinguished the termination of the motu, and 
the commencement of a further range of low islands, to the 
extent often miles, a very narrow line of sea separating be- 
tween them and the main land. An opening into the broad 
ocean beyond, a mile in width, with a reef over which the 
surf continually breaks, divides this chain into two parts, of 
which each motu is a link. The rain continued to fall heavily 
all this day, so that we could scarcely leave our abode. At 
night the storm came down with hitherto unprecedented vio- 
lence, and we seemed to be in the midst of a land-flood, so 
vehemently did the stream beat, and the winds blow, about 
our frail yet stable tenement. 

Jan. 4. The weather not permitting us to resume our 
journey, we made an excursion to the neighboring motu, to 
visit the marae of Tani, the chief god of Huahine in the age 
of idolatry. It stands about a hundred yards from the shore, 
embosomed among trees of many kinds, which wholly ob- 
scure the edifice till the spectator arrives upon the spot. 
Like most erections of the kind, it consists of two stories, of 
oblong shape ; the lower, a hundred and twenty-four feet by 
sixteen, and the upper diminished proportionately, with a 
small wing at the back. The basement is about ten feet in 
height, and fronted with coral blocks, placed on their edges, 
some of which are as high as the story itself; these form the 
walls of an enclosure, which is filled up with earth. The 
superior but smaller part is faced with coral, and filled with 
earth, in like manner, but not more than three feet high. 



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TRADITION CONCERNING TANI. 195 

having at each end an upright stone of twice that elevation, 
lu the centre of the principal front stands the bed of Tani, a 
stone-framed pile, eighteen inches above ground, but twenty- 
four feet long by thirteen wide ! Hard by is another and 
lesser inclosure, not more than half the dimensions of Tani's 
bed, yet large enough to hold all the gods beside that be- 
longed to this celebrated grove and temple. All these vari- 
ous structures were exceedingly rude, but massy, in materials 
and masonry. Not a tool seems to have been lifted up upon 
any of the stones, the angles are ill-formed, nor are the walls 
in right lines ; but the whole pandemonium is in rare pres- 
ervation, scarcely a block having been dislodged from its 
place. Trees of centuries, judging from their venerable and 
magnificent appearance, overshadow this " dark place," with 
meeting arms, and foliage " star-proof" One of these an- 
cients measured fifteen yards in girth above the root. There 
is a tradition worthy of the superstition attached to this shrine 
of folly. Tani oflen wanted to fly away^ — from his bed here, 
we presume — ^but having a very long tail, like a boy's kite, 
that unlucky appendage always-caught in the boughs of this 
sacred tree; by which he was instantly dragged down to 
earth again. However, he has now escaped — escaped for 
ever-r-though not by flight, but by fire, having been burnt 
(in effigy, of course) in his own house, called Taumatai, in 
the year 1817, by those resolute image-destroyers, Hautia and 
Tiramano, in their zeal for the Lord of Hosts. The idol, a 
huge, mis-shapen block of wood, was about the height and 
bulk of a very tall and stout man ; but, like many of his fra- 
ternity here ("the gods made with hands"), by the bungling 
of the artist, he was one of those " whose heads do grow be- 
neath their shoulders," there being no separation of those 
parts above ; whilst below, the uncouth body terminated in a 
point (without legs) like a cone inverted. It had likewise 
the usual mockeries to represent eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and 
arms; but these were " most lame and impotent conclusions" 
of such matters. The whole was covered with cinet, or plat- 
ted twine, made from the fibres of the cocoa-nut husk. 

At this marae, once a year, when the kings and priests 
thought proper, there was what might be called a national 
assembly and festival held. Hither all the idols of Huahine 
were brought from their various temples to be clothed with 
new dresses and ornaments. On this occasion, Tani was 
laid on the middle of his bed, having the gods of four 



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196 FESTIVAL OF ALL THE I0OL8 OF HUAHINE. 

districts placed oa his right hand, and the gods of four other 
districts, into which the island was divided, on his left. 
The chiefs stood in rows opposite to their own divinities, 
and the priests round Tani, as lord over them all. Various 
antic ceremonies having been performed, and prayers offer- 
ed, the images were stripped of their old vestments. Many 
of these wooden s]tocks, being hollow, were filled with beau- 
tiful feathers, and other precious trinkets, which were also 
brought out, and either renewed or replaced. fJone but 
men were allowed to attend this anniversary. One who had 
often been present assured us that, on these occasions,- a 
quantity of ava, for the purpose of making a detestable in- 
toxicating liquor, nearly as large as the marae itself in bulk, 
used to be collected, besides provisions in an immense quan- 
tity ; eighty or a hundred hogs, also, were slaughtered and 
roasted to entertain the multitudes that were attracted hither 
by thefa: devotion to the gods and their love of good cheer. 
The feast lasted three days, and was a season of gluttony, 
drunkenness, and debauchery pf every kind. The priests 
themselves were often so intoxicated as to be unable to re- 
peat their devotional addresses in the required posture ; they 
would then grovel upon the ground, like swine, muttering 
and hiccuping their incantations. While this carnival last- 
ed, no fire was allowed to be lighted, nor labor to be per- 
formed, throughout the island. At the close of the ceremo- 
nies, a particular god, called Maavai, was brought forth, 
stripped and gutted like the rest, when im mediately j^ thet^ 
say, it began to rain tremendously. This was the signal for 
the removal of all the new-clad idols to their respective ma- 
raes. No female was permitted to approach one of these sa- 
cred edifices on pain of death, which was instantly inflicted 
by whoever witnessed the sacrilege. Nay, such was the 
cruel and remorseless proscription of the sex from religious 
rites or privileges, that if the wives or children of the priests 
themselves came within a certain distance, while they were 
engaged in some particular services, they were murdered on 
the spot, even by their husbands and fathers, with the most 
de^rate ferocity. 

Jan. 5. We proceeded on our coasting cruise, tonday, 
sailing through a strait, no wider than the Thames, which 
divides the motu from the main land. Though little more 
than a mile in length, the passage presented us with most 
gratifying prospects on either hand. On the right lay a 



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EXTENSIVE LAGOON. 197 

lovely low island overflowing (if we may use the expression) 
with verdure to the water's edge, and displaying a rich va- 
riety of the most kuturiant vegetation, from the gigantic 
cocoa-nut to the common grass, running riot in the fertility 
of its sea-formed soil. On our lefl the Sacred Mountain 
towered up to the firmament, of which, in some aspects, it 
seemed a pillar, so shapely, so stately, and lofty, were its 
proportions. The relics of maraes — the worst works of 
man — and some of the most beautiful, sublime, and benefi- 
cent of the works of God — ^the everlasting hills and the for- 
ests of fruit-trees, — ^presented their melancholy piles of tum- 
bled stones, at brief intervals, exciting horror in respect to 
the past, and gratitude for the present state of the people of 
these terrestrial paradises to the eye. Of these ruins we 
counted ten within the circuit of view from our boat, some 
on the flat shore, others on the declivities, and others in the 
recesses of the valleys. Several stone walls, of rough blocks, 
were built in this small channel, for the purpose of catching 
fish. These are composed of loose materials, broad at the 
base, narrowing towards the top, and even with the surface 
of the water. These rude dams are curved, and constitute 
inclosures, or pinfolds, into which the natives drive the fish 
from the open water, and there take them with facility. 

At the extremity, the strait, through which we had been 
delightfully sailing and singing hymns as we sailed, sudden- 
ly opened into a large oval lake, of which the motu formed 
one side, and the high cliff of Huahine the other. This 
splendid lagoon, now as smooth as a mirror, we ascertained 
to be five miles in length by one wide. The scenery around 
forbids description ; exemplifying all the varieties of natural 
grandeur and vegetable affluence to be found in these trop- 
ical climes and insular situations. A small village and 
chapel at length fixed our eyes, which nothing else but the 
traces of man (always pre-eminently interesting to us) oould 
long detain, where such bewildering glories of the inanimate 
creation met us, surrounded and pursued us, on every side. 
We were informed that this was the most renowned place in 
all Huahine, having been, from generation to generation, 
the abode of the kings, and, consequently, the metropolis of 
the kingdom. 

We landed to examine a famous marae, and also a far 
more famous tree, which may be regarded as the most extra- 
ordinary natural production of these islands ; indeed, we 
17* 



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198 EXTRAORDINARY AOA TREE. 

gazed upon it with overwhelming astonishment. This tree 
is called (wa by the natives. The trunk is composed of a 
multitude of stems grown together, and exhibiting a most 
fantastical appearance from the numerous grooves, which 
run vertically up the bole, and are of such depth that a 
transverse' section would rudely resemble the axle and spokes 
of a wheel without rim. The girth, near the foot, is seventy 
feet. From the height of eight feet, and onward to forty, 
immense branches proceed, in nearly horizontal lines, on 
every hand ; from which, as from similar trees which we 
have seen and already described, perpendicular shoots tend 
downward, till they reach the ground, take root, and become 
columns of the ** pillared shade." More than forty of these 
we counted, standing like a family of earth-born giants 
about their enormous parent. A circle drawn round all 
these auxiliary stems, measured a hundred and thirty-two 
feet in circumference ; while a circle embracing the utmost 
verge of their lateral ramifications, was not less than four 
hundred and twenty feet. The upper stories (if such we 
may call them) of this multiform tree, presented yet more 
singular combinations of intersecting and intertwisting 
boughs, like Gothic arches, oriels, and colonnades, propped, 
as by magic, in raid-air. These were occasionally massy or 
light, and every where richly embellished with foliage, 
through which the flickering sunshine gleamed in long rays, 
that lost themselves in the immensity of the interior laby- 
rinth, or danced in bright spots upon the ground, black with 
the shadows of hundreds of branches, rising tier above tier, 
and spreading range beyond range, aloft and around. The 
height of this tree (itself a forest) cannot be less than eighty 
feet. It stands so near the lagoon that some of its boughs 
overhang the waters. Not far from its site, there is a Chris- 
tian chapel, and a pagan marae hard by, where the sove- 
reigns of Huahine were buried — and where, indeed, they 
lay in more than oriental state, each one resting in his bed, 
at the foot of the Sacred Mountain, beneath the umbrage^f 
the magnificent aoa, and near the beach for ever washed by 
waters that roll round the world, and spend themselves here 
after visiting every other shore between the poles. The 
great marae itself was dedicated to Tani, the father of the 
gods here ; but the whole ground adjacent was marked with 
the vestiges of smaller maraes — ^private places for worship 
and family interment — while this was the capital of the 



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FREE-WILL MISSIONARY OFFERINGS. 199 

island, and the head-quarters of royalty and idolatry. On 
the limbs of the tree already described, there is reason to 
believe that thousands of human sacrifices have been hung. 
One low bough, of great length and bulk, was pointed out to 
us, as- having been the principal gibbet for such victims, 
century after century. The tree itself was sacred to Tani ; 
but he has been expelled hence, and for ages to come, under 
the shadow of this prodigy of vegetation, it is to be hoped 
that " incetise and a pure offering " — ^the incense of prayer, 
and the pure offering of bodies, presented as ^* living saciu- 
iices" — ^will continue to be made here to the true God, by 
more of his spiritual worshippers than Satan had of his de- 
luded votaries in all the times gone by. On this ground we 
could not help thinking how many bloody rites had been 
performed, and what wickedness had been wrought, without 
interruption fi'om one warning voice, or the overture of one 
embassy of peace, to a people destroying themselves and 
one another ; a people equally at war, in their atrocious 
practices, with nature and with God. But " the people that 
walked in darkness have seen a great light, and to them that 
sat in the shadow of death hath the glory of the Lord ap- 
peared/' It has been said to Huahine, ** Arise, shine ! for 
thy light is come ;" and she has arisen, and she does shine, 
in the garments of salvation and the beauty of hdiness. We 
have a&eady stated that this island contributes largely, ac- 
cording to its means, towards the support of the London 
Missionary Society. Silver and gold she has none, but what 
she hath — oil, and cotton, and arrow-root, and hogs — ^these 
she gives with a perfect heart and with a willing mind ; or, 
if her children grudge the sacrifices which they bring, she 
refuses to accept them for the service of the sanctuary. — 
' When a missionary association was first established here, 
and contributions were solicited, the people were explicitly 
informed that they should not be compelled to give any 
thing ; whatever they did, therefore, must be of their own 
free will. One day a native brought a hog to Hautia, who 
was the treasurer, and, throwing the animal down at his 
feet, said, in an angry tone, ** Here's a pig for your society." 
*^ Take it back again," replied Hautia, calmly ; " God does 
not accept angry pigs" He then explained to the man the 
objects of missionary institutions,, and the necessity of those 
who supported them doing so from right motives, especially 
enforcing the scripture words. " The Lord loveth a cheerful 



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200 GROSS IDEAS OF A FUTUBE STATE. 

giver." The man was obliged to take his hog home again ; 
for, though exceedingly chagrined to have it rejected — ^re- 
fusal being considered a great affront when a present is o^ 
fered — Hautia was too sternly conscientious to accept it. 
In Tahiti, on a similar occasion, a person brought a quanti- 
ty of cocoa-nut oil to Pomare, in a like bad spirit, exclaim- 
ing, " Here are five bamboos of oil ; take them for the socie- 
ty." "No," said the king, "I will not mix your angry 
bamboos with the missionary oil ; take them away." And 
he dismissed the reluctant contributor from his presence, 
with his gifts in his hands, bitterly mortified at having be- 
trayed his meanness, and exposed himself to such a rebuke 
before his neighbors. He would afterwards have been glad 
to redeem his character with twice the number of bamboos, 
but the reproach clave to him. 

. Our fi'iend Anna, this evening, gave us some further par- 
ticulars of the absurd notions held by the Areois concerning 
a future state. The land of graves around us naturally led 
to conversation on subjects which lie beyond the grave. 
Some of these dissolute reprobates believed that, when a 
father or a son died, and went to heaven — ^the heaven formerly 
described by Anna, as a great plain, amidst a circle of the 
gods — the survivor, at his decease, was met by the former, 
just on this side of the celestial barrier, who there seized the 
new comer, and having baked him whole in an earth-oven, 
as hogs are baked below, put his body, thus dressed, into a 
basket made of cocoa-nut leaves, and then presented him as 
a dainty offering to the god whom he had worshipped when • 
alive. By this cannibal divinity he was now eaten up ; after 
which, through, some inexplicable process, the dead and de- 
voured man emanated fi'om the body of the god, and became 
immortal. — If a father buried his son, or a son his father, in ' 
an unconsecrated place, it was said that the deceased would 
appear to the survivor the next day, and say, " You have 
buried me in common earth, and so long as I lie there I 
cannot go to heaven "—of course always meaning the sensual 
heaven of the Areois — " you must bury me with ceremonies, 
and in holy ground." The corpse was then taken up; the 
arms bound to the shoulders, and the knees up to the body ; 
it was then interred in a hole dug to fit its dimensions, in a 
sitting posture, but so shallow that the earth barely covered 
the head. This was the most honorable form of sepulture, 
and principally confined to high personages. But it was 



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TEBIFESTUOVB WBATSER. 201 

mc^e usual to keep the corpses of their friends above ground, 
on frames, or in the recesses of maraes, allowing them to pu- 
trefy and contaminate the air all round the depositories of 
such nuisances. When a person was dying, his relatives 
standing about him would say, '' Take care of your head" 
We have not been able to learn (he particular meaning of 
this figure of speech. It probably had been imagined, when 
the phrase first originated, that the head was the seat of the 
soul ; and that, on the death of the body, the soul came out 
of the mouth. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Tempestuous Weather — Case of Conscience — Rights of Fishery — Na- 
tive Frankness — ^Tani's Bed — Destruction of Tani's Idol — ^Tani's con- 
verted Priest — Ancient Forum — Fortified Eminence — Ludicrous Tra- 
dition — Meteors — Offerings to Tani — End of the Cruise round Hua- 
hine — Astronomical Notions of the Islanders — Divisions of the Day 
&c. — Prompt Justice — Singular Moth — Terms for the Winds — Ap- 
pointment of Deacons in the Church — Visit to Tiramano— Exotic and 
Naturalized Vegetahles. 

Jan. 6. (Lord's day.) We had tremendous weather last 
night — ^rain and wind^— which occasioned us no small incon- 
venience in our slight dwelling. Mr. Bennet complained on 
Friday of indisposition, firom cold taken in consequence of 
being incessantly exposed to rain and sea-spray, for upwards 
of twenty-four hours, and afterwards (having lent his blanket 
to accommodate a firiend) lying in his undried clothes, on a 
board, all night. — ^The usual services, includiiig prayer-meet^ 
ings and sermons, were performed in the chapel here; Not- 
withstanding the tempest and torrents of rain in the forenoon, 
the place was filled by an attentive audience, all seated on the 
floor (there being but one bench in the place), which, howev- 
er, had been comfortably strewn with grass for their accom- 
modation. As an example of the conscientiousness with 
which the Christian natives here honor the Sabbath, we may 
mention that a man came to us this evening, in some per- 
plexity, saying, *' I saw a great many fishes in the weir (one 
of the stone inclosures above mentioned), and, being afraid 
that they would escape before morning, I put a few large 
stones at the entrance, to prevent them from getting out- 
Have I done wickedly?" — ^Such nice inquiries the people 



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203 EIGHTS OF nSHEBT. 

often make, and they are sometimes of % nature so peculiarly 
delicate that it requires great discretion, and much acquaint- 
ance with their habits of thinking and feeling, to answer 
them satisfactorily. These questions, however, show that 
many keep their hearts with great diligence, and watch with 
a single eye over their conduct. 

Jan. 7. The violence of the weather prevented us from 
getting abroad to-day. — ^The lake here abounds with fine fish, 
of which large quantities have just been taken by the natives, 
the prevalence of the north wind having occasioned the shoals 
to emigrate from the upper end of the lake, and flock for shel- 
ter into the weirs. This lake is divided among several chiefs, 
who own the adjoining districts, and such kind of property is 
considered so valuable, that every superficial inch is claimed 
by one or another great man ; each of whom maintains his 
right as stanchly as game-preserves are held in England. 
The salmon caught here are remarkably delicate, and breed 
abundantly. 

In the afternoon, at the conversation-meeting (where all 
kinds of profitable questions are allowed to be asked by the 
natives, and are frankly answered by the missionaries), one 
of the raatiras said — " I have been thinking, this day, on that 
passage in the Psalms, ' Who will show us any good V and I 
said in myself, * Who will show us any. good?* My heart has 
been thinking evil against the king (Hautia), who is sitting 
there. I have been told that he intends to take my fishing- 
ground from me. I want to know whether it is so, because 
my heart has been fiill of bad thoughts against him for it." 
The missionaries very properly declined to interfere with 
such a case; indeed, they\iniformly forbear from meddling, 
without special necessity, with disputes among the natives, 
which are best settled by arbitrators chosen fi-om themselves. 
Their reply, on this occasion, in the presence of both parties, 
was that, so long as the bue raatiras acted with justice and 
due respect towards their chiefe, they might be assured, that 
these would deal justly and kindly with them. This little 
circumstance shows the Tahitian frankness and fearlessness 
of speaking all their mind, even before their highest. superi- 
ors ; and the patience with which Hautia permitted the affair > 
to pass, in public, equally exemplified the noble forbearance 
oi which such generous spirits as his — at once refined and 
elevated by Christianity — are capable. 

Near the chapel there is a stone, on which the idol Tani 



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DESTRUCTION OF TANl's IDOL. 303 

was wont to be set down, that he might rest himself after the 
fatigue of being carried in a man's arms (whose peculiar- 
office it was) down the steep hill adjacent, from his grand ma- 
rae above, when, on certain extraordinary public occasions, 
it was necessary that he should be removed. The stone is a 
rough flag, as it was separated from the rock, four feet long, 
one and a half broad, and nine inches thick. It is placed 
horizontally on the edge of the lake, about half a mile from 
the sacred tree. While we were looking at this relic of pue- 
rile idolatry, 'one of the hue raatiras came up. He is now a 
pious, inoffensive man ; but he long and stoutly stood against 
the gospel in this neighborhood, and was one of the ring- 
leaders of the rebel-party who opposed the chiefs when they 
renounced idolatry. Being asked when the idol Tani was last 
brought down hither, he replied, " It was when the servants 
of the true God came to attack us for going to war with them 
because of their new religion. Tani was brought down by 
us, and laid upon that stone. The two bodies of warriors 
stood, face to face, so near together as to be ready to begin 
the battle. Hautia, one of our friends who is now with us, 
and Tiramano, the chief woman, were at the head of the 
Christians — for you must know that the chief women here 
buckle on the cartouch-box, and bear the musket before their 
troops, as well as the chief men. When both sides were 
about to strike the first blow, Hautia and Tiramano made an 
offer of peace. They said, * You must soon fall into our 
hands, or we must soon fall into yours ; but, if you will lay 
down your arms now, we will be friends with you.' Theti 
the true God caused the desire of peace to grow in our hearts, 
and we answered, * We will have peace ; we will not fight 
for those false gods anymore; we will submit to the true 
God !' And so it ended ; peace was made between us ; a fire 
was lighted just here, Tani's image was thrown into the 
flames, and burnt to ashes, before the eyes of both parties. 
Immediately afterwards we consumed his house and destroyed 
his.marae^ We, who had been rebels on account of our 
idols, turned to the true God. And then a great feast was 
made, and the men and the women ate together, in proof that 
we had all embraced the gospel in our hearts. It was never so 
before ; if a woman had sat down on this stone, or even touch- 
ed it with her finger, she would have been instantly mur- 
dered." We congratulated Hautia on having been made the 
Lord's instrument in accomplishing so great a deliverance of 



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204 CONVERTED PRIEST OF TANI. 

his nation from the thraldom of Satan. He replied, with 
much emotion, " All my forefathers worshipped Tani — ^where 
are they now ? It is my mercy to live in better days." 

Jan. 8. We visited several maraes, accompanied by Mr. 
' Ellis and a native, named Toumata, who formerly held the 
illustrious office of te amo atua, or bearer of the god Tani. 
He belonged to the order of priests, and was a personage of 
such superhuman sanctity that every thing tvhich he touched 
became sacred ; he was, therefore, not suffered to marry, as 
the honpr of being his wife was too much for any mortal 
woman. But this was not all ; he would himself be so defiled 
by such a connection that he would be disqualified for his 
office, and must immediately resign it ; nay, if he did not re- 
pent, and return with a great peace-offering to Tani's house, 
he might expect to be first l^truck blind, and afterwards 
strangled in his sleep. He was not allowed to climb a co- 
coa tree, because, if he did, it would be so hallowed that no- 
body else durst afterwards ascend it. He was the only man 
living who had a right to handle the god Tani ; and it was 
his special prerogative to carry the idol when it was annually 
removed to the neighboring motu to be stripped and new 
dressed, as already described ; and though the latter ceremo- 
ny was permitted to be performed by the priests, he alone 
could carry back the image to its marae on the mountain 
side. To do this, and re-instate it in its upper chamber, he 
had to climb a post of Tani's house, twenty-five feet high, 
with the unwieldy block on his shoulders. This office he 
voluntarily resigned, with all its privileges and emoluments, 
and embraced Christianity, on the day and at the place where 
Tani was burnt by Hautia and the zealous warriors who 
overthrew their country's idols with violence, but subdued 
thefr pagan adversaries with meekness, as stated in yester- 
day's journal. Toumata is a stout man, about thirty-five 
years of age, and very well versed in the traditions of his 
heathen forefathers, which enabled him to give us much in- 
formation concerning the objects that attracted our curiosity 
in this day's excursion. 

The first marae that we visited was the sepulchral one of 
the kings of Huahine, for many generations. It was an ob- 
long inclosure, forty-five feet long by twenty broad, fenced 
with a strong stone wall. Here the bodies of the deceased, 
according to the manner of the country, being bound up, 
with the arms doubled to their shoulders, the legs bent under 



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ANCIENT FORUM. ~ 205 

their thighs, and both forced upwards against the abdomen, 
were let down, without coffins, into a hole prepared for their 
reception, and just deep enough to allow the earth to cover 
their heads. 

Close behind this was another inclosure, thrice the length 
and twice the width of this ; the whole raised tf> the height 
of five feet above the ground ; the walls , of oblong, and 
the pavement of flat, stones, forming a pretty level platform. 
On this were held the national councils, when the kings, 
priests, chiefs, and land-owners assembled to determine 
questions respecting peace, war, or other great public con- 
cerns. On such occasions this stage was crowded with the 
great actors in those scenes of violence which used to con- 
vulse the island with civil strife ; while thousands of the 
people, the sufferers in such tragedies, thronged around it, 
to hear the issue of consultations which were to relieve them 
from hostilities already raging, or to break tranquillity then 
reigning, by letting loose man against man, family against 
family, and district against district, till rapine, murder, and 
devastation had done all but their worst, by stopping short 
only of utter extermination in their progress. The political 
and priestly orators who were wont, at such times, to ha- 
rangue the multitude, oflen displayed no mean powers of sav- 
age eloquence. 

Close upon the margin of the lagoon, and under the 
shadow of the sacred tree, stands a marae, dedicated to the 
departed spirits of the kings whose bodies are interred in 
the adjacent one. This, like the rest, is composed of rough 
coral blocks for walls, and raised to a second story by small 
flags and stones. A third, belonging to a family of the Bue 
Raatera, built in like fanner, is seen in the same vicinity. 
Others appear on the lower slope of the hill, which are 
respectively dedicated to TWni, Raa, and Oro, the principal 
idols of Huahine. Above these there has been constructed, 
at some barbarous period, a vast wall ten feet high and six 
thick. This rampart consists of rough masses of stone from 
the crags above, or coral-reef from the sea, piled and attached 
without cement, with great labor and no small art. It was 
raised for the purpose of obstructing the course of a- pursu- 
ing or invading enemy up the steep side of the mountain, 
which it engirdles to the length of two miles, and only 
breaks off at points of interruption where the precipice itself 
precludes all possibility of assault. The ufjper regions of 

VOL. I. 18 



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306 FORTIFIED EBUNENCE. 

this acclivity were considered almost impregnable; and they 
not only afforded security to fugitives who gained them,«but 
the fertility of the soil, which was thick-planted with cocoa- 
nut and bread-fruit trees, nearly to the top, and the perpetu- 
al springs of fresh water abounding there, furnished provis- 
ion for the occupants as long as they were likely to be be- 
sieged by a baffled army below. Behind this fortified 
eminence, and with a small valley only between, the moua 
tabu, or Sacred Mountain, already described, rises about 
three thousand feet ; from the summit of which, as a last 
retreat, defiance might be hurled, not in words only, but in 
the enormous missiles of disrupted rocks, and the smaller 
ammunition of loose stones, with which the surface was 
abundantly strewn. — On the lower mountain are many ma- 
raes, of which particular notice is unnecessary. The whole 
hill and subjacent beach seem to have been holy ground, 
in the unhallowed sense in which men consecrate, upon 
the face of God's earth, temples and altars to idols and 
devils. — The great marae, so dedicated to Tani, stands 
superior among all these, being nearly a hundred feet by 
eighty in length and breadth, with walls in some parts nine 
feet thick. In the centre of this rude edifice, Tani's bed 
is seen, on which his idol was laid when prayers were offered 
to it, and near that another platform, which the dumb stock 
occupied on special occasions. 

At the distance of thirty feet, in front of the marae, is the 
usual raised seat for the priest when he performed his devo- 
tions ; and, near the same, what may be called the altar, 
consisting of a flat flag-stone and an upright one, on which 
the animals, offered in sacrifice, were formerly slaughtered ; 
these were swine and fowls. But the altar on which the 
bodies of the victims, when slain, were presented, was a 
frame of wooden piles and plonks, sixteen feet long, six 
wide, and ten high. On these occasions the fowls of the air 
had plenteous feasting. Near the spot were two large heaps 
of bones, principally the skuUs of hogs. On the declivity, 
immediately below the marae, are two small terraces, raised 
to the height of twelve inches each fi-om the ground, and 
on the lower side of these are stationed eight insulated 
stones, set up at some distance firom one another, designat- 
ing, by their position in reference to the temple, that part 
of it which particularly belonged to each of the eight districts 
of the island.; and round which the inhabitants of the same. 



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TANl's ipOUSE. 207 

on public solemnities, congregated in tribes, as we were 
given to understand. On the north of the marae was Tani's 
house (now destroyed), a little wooden chamber, built on 
posts, twenty-five feet high, and to which there was no ac- 
cess except by climbing one of them. This was the sanctu- 
ary where the image was usually kept, and from and to which 
. it was always carried by our companion, Toumata, till the day 
when the idol, the sanctuary, and the worship of Tani were 
destroyed. We are told that when the people saw the 
flames aseending from the pile on which Tani was laid, by 
Hautia and his Christian warriors, they were powerfully 
affected — some with joy, others with sorrow, and not a few 
with apprehension that the god would speedily arise and 
inflict summary vengeance on his enemies, if not destroy 
the whole island and its inhabitants, for the indignity offered 
to his wooden proxy. It ought to have been mentioned that 
on one side of Tani's house there is a remarkable stone, set on 
end, which (like the tree on the motu, formerly mentioned) 
is said to have caught his long tail, when, from the top of 
it, he attempted to mount into the air on a journey of mischief. 
This tail, it seems, was a grievous drawback to Tani, and 
various trees, in the boughs of which it had been entangled 
when he was taking his flight, have become sacred in con- 
sequence of being touched by it, though to his own bitter 
disappointment, when they caught him and prevented his 
aerial flight. The old people say that meteors were former- 
ly much ofiener seen from these islands than they are now. 
These, as well as comets, they imagined to be the tails of 
the gods, and, therefore, when they saw them streaming 
through the atmosphere, they immediately threw off their up- 
per garments and exclaimed, " a god ! a god !" Tani's un- 
lucky appendage, probably, was of celestial origin, in this re- 
spect ; and, instead of being translated to the skies, like Ber- 
enice's locks, was attached to the popular image of his person, 
in commemoration of some magnificent meteor, whose train, 
in its flight, measured ninety or a hundred degrees. 

Toumata tells us that, wheti he was a boy, the whole of 
this, hill was covered with dwellings and gardens. ISow 
there are but three houses standing upon it, of which one 
only is inhabited. Similar evidences of decay and devasta- 
tion meet our eyes every where on this tour. So fatal, in' 
deed; were the effects of war, licentiousness, infanticide, and 



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206 - SACRIFICES TO TANI. 

idolatry, towards the close of their reign, that the population 
of Huahine, in the course of a few years, was reduced from 
at least ten, some say twenty, thousand, to little more 
than as many hundreds. 

^hen living animals were brought to be sacrificed te 
Tani, no blood was shed. They were laid upon the stone, 
and most cruelly, because most clumsily, strangled by the 
pressure of their necks between two pieces of wood. Not 
hogs and fowls only, but fishes, fruits, and intoxicating 
spirits were offered at this altar. Of these good things — 
though presented on the frame, before described, for Tani 
to feast upon, or rather to be consumed by the birds or 
perish by putrefaction — it was shrewdly suspected that few 
were consumed by so slow a process, the priests having 
found a much more convenient way of disposing of them. 
It is remarkable that among the contributions to Tani's 
service were Jirst-fruits, according to the season of the year; 
a poor person was expected to bring two of the earliest 
gathered, of whatever kind, a raatira ten, and the chiefs 
and princes more, according to their rank and riches. These 
were thrown down upon the ground, at the marae, with the 
expression, ** Here, Tani, I have brought you something 
to eat." In general, when hogs were presented, the 
heads only were laid upon his altar, the remainder being 
baked and devoured by the worshippers and the priests. 
Many kinds of fish, but neither sharks nor turtles, were 
thus offered. Human sacrifices were never slain or exposed 
here; these were all gibeted at the enormous aoa tree, on 
the beach below. For Tani's bearer (our friend Toumata) 
there was set apart, out of these gifts, a certain portion of 
food, which even the kings dared not to take away or touch. 
At Sr marae, on the beach, we were shown a precious relic. 
This was said to be a fragment of Tani's canoe, which, 
though a stone, could swim as well as if it had been timber. 
To prove this a man threw it into the water, and it actually float- 
ed ! The fact and the solution of the puzzle were equally ap- 
parent ; it was a large piece of pumice-stone. Whence this 
specimen came the people could not inform us, but they 
said that there were more pieces of the same substance at 
other places on the island, which, according to an old tra- 
dition, had been collected by some devout person, fonncd 
into a canoe, and presented to Tani. The priests, no 



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RAIN'^SWOLLEN WATERFALLS. 209 

doubt, knew well how to avail themselves of a natural cir- 
cumstance to hold aA ignorant and credulous people in de- 
lusion by the semblance of a miracle. 

Jan. 9. This day we proceeded on our voyage in Hautia's 
double canoe. Along the coast we counted nine maraes in 
the space of a mile. Most of these were curiously, and, 
indeed, picturesquely,, placed, on tongues of land projecting 
into the lagoon, and were ** monuments of piled stones," 
nearly as they came out of the quarry, which an earthquake 
may have made in the rifled rocks on shore, or as they had 
been broken, by the fury of the surge, from the coral-reefs 
that shut out the main sea from beating upon these well- 
defended coasts. This chain of Moloch's posts, as they may 
be termed, extended to the foot of the Sacred Mountain, 
which, at this quarter, rises immediately from the water's 
edge with awfUl grandeur. We intended to have ascended 
its flanks, but the steepness and slipperiness of the ridges 
forbade the attempt. The scenery along this neighbor- 
hood is of the boldest character, excelling, at once, in every 
feature of beauty and sublimity which can be found else- 
where. Description, after what we have already attempted, 
would be mere verbiage here. What roost peculiarly strikes 
the eyes of European beholders, accustomed to associate 
nakedness and sterility with mountains of the highest order, 
is that the loftiest mountains of these islands are verdant to 
the very peaks, as though they were themselves masses of 
gigantic vegetation, springing, budding, branching, flower- 
ing, and bearing fruit, from the sea-beach upward to the 
firmament. Great quantities of rain having descended 
during the last few days, the waterfalls that came tumbling, 
in white volumes of foam, from the clifls and through the 
ravines, added much of splendor and animation to the re- 
posing magnificence of surrounding objects, which, from 
their nature, were for ever at rest. Motion is so intimately 
connected with life, that the presence of wate)*, even when 
not seeming to Aiove, yet being known to be never entirely 
quiescent, is always exhilarating to the spirits as well as 
gratefiil to the eye. But in no form is this vital element 
more visibly and audibly aUve than when it assumes the 
Protean character of cascades, perpetually changing shape, 
and breadth, and color, and action, as they glide towards 
the verge, roll over the precipice, leap down the rocks, 
shopt the gulf below, and rebound through the atmosphere 



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5210 . ENB OP TBS CRtntSS ttOUND HtAfilNl!. 

in vapor and spray, while the quivering rainbow, overarch' 
ing the scene of turbulence, rises and fallS| and bright^lis or 
fades, in air above, as the waters, in their ebullience, swell 
or subside, and the sun, in full splendor, or gleaming through 
mists, calls out of invisible space that apparition of beauty 
and emblem of petLce. 

At the foot of the amphitheatre of mountains are number- 
less trees, scattered and in groups, which, when viewed 
from the track of our voyage, appeared like diminutive shrubs 
in comparison with the stupendous eminences behind them ; 
but as we came near the coast, which they greatly adorn 
by overshadowing land and water with their boughs, they 
resumed the style and dignity that belonged to them as 
giants of the forest in stature, and patriarchs in antiquity. 
The water in most parts of the lagoon is shallow, and our 
canoe was frequently pushed forward by two men with long 
poles. In the afternoon we disembarked, and, having taken 
some refreshment, proceeded homewards to the missionary 
station at Fare harbor, by land. The distance was not 
more than three miles, but the floods, in consequence of the 
late heavy rains, being out in many places, the path was 
overflowed, and made very uncomfortable for foot-passen- 
gers. Had not Mr. Bennet been much refreshed and re- 
invigorated with change of air, and agreeable motion, on 
our cruise along shore of the lagoon, he would not have 
been able, in consequence of his late severe indisposition, 
to make his way with the rest of us. Thanks be to God, 
however, he was mercifully supported, and we all arrived in 
safety, and with grateful hearts, at the comfortable abodes 
of our friends. The natives thronged to welcome their teach- 
ers and ourselves among them again. 

Jan. 10. The inhabitants of these islands, during their 
sequestration from the rest of the world, had very scanty 
ideas of astronomy, and were very defective in their calcu- 
lations of time. They had some notion of a year by observ- 
ing the return of the Pleiades, which they called Matarii, 
The six months during which that cluster of stars appeared 
above the horizon, at the going down of the sun, they called 
Matarii inia, or above ; and the remaining six, during which 
they are not seen after sunset, they called Matarii troro, 
or Mow, Though the common people do not seem to have 
known any other constellations by special names, there 
were among the priests and chiefs some who distinguished 



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NATIVE A8TBONOMICAL NOTIONS. 211 

Gemini, Ursa Major, Orion, &c., by particular appellatives; 
but we found none Who could give us any satisfactory ac- 
count of them. We learned, however, that they had noticed 
the wandering tracks of the planets, and had names for each 
of them. The morning star (whether Jupiter or Venus) 
was called Horo poi poi, or Tauroa. Having observed that 
the rest of the stars were fixed in their relative stations, they 
imagined that the sky was a substantial dome, the concave 
side (like a cocoa-nut cup turned upside down) being spread 
over the sea, and held in its place by the stars, answering 
the purpose of fasteners, ^r nails with shining heads. The 
latter idea they must have got since their intercourse with 
Europeans, as previously they had nothing in their car- 
pentry work resembling nails ; the planks of their canoes 
being all attached with fibrous cordage, in the manner of 
sewing. When a strange ship arrived firom a great dis- 
tance, they supposed it had come fi'om under another 
inverted cone of sky, through a hole in the lower part of 
their own ; the perpetual expansion of space, every where 
presenting the same hemispheric appearance, had not 
entered into their conceptions. 

Having no Sabbath, they had no division of time corre-v 
sponding with a week, nothing in external nature pointing 
out such an artificial arrangement to a barbarous people; 
the moon, of course, attracted their attention, and they 
marked the number of days which elapsed from one lunation 
to another, and had a separate and significant name for 
each. The gradations and sections of day and night were 
very accurately ascertained, as will be seen by the following 
curious table : — 

Eao — ^Is a day, or the time firom dawn to dark. 

Hoe mahauar---One day, or the time firom sunrise to sunset. 

Maruao — ^The very earliest indication of approaching day. 

^h^^f^ \ "^^^ ^^^^ breaking of the clouds previous to 

Tlhiata} the dawn of day. 

Arekurehuroa — The dawn of day, or the time when objects 
just begin to appear, though but indistinctly. 

t^eraorao — ^When objects appear a little more distinct, and 
when birds, flies, &.C., begin to move. 

Poipoi — Morning, when the faces of people are distinguish- 
able ; also the time from full day-Jight to noon. 



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212 DIVISIONS OF THE BAT* 

> Aa — ^Day-light. 
Hiti raaotara — San-rising. 

Ua tdtii ti ra — ^When the sun is high, or forenoon. 
Avatea — ^Noon, when the rays of the sun fall on the crown 

of the head. 
ToMbu te ra — ^When the rays fall a little on one side of the 

head. 
Taupe te ra ) When the shadow is as long as the object is 
Taujpeujpe ) high. 

Taka te ra ) When the shadow is longer than the object 
Tahataha te ra ] is high. 
ape €^e I j^y^^j^ ^|jg g^jj approaches the horizon. 

Te mairi raa % te iria tai — ^When the sun's upper limb is 

level with the horizon. 
Ahiahi — Evening. 
Arehureku raa — Retiring twilight. 
Poiri — ^Darkness. 

£i°' 1 Night. 



^fZV } ^'^^^^^^ 



Vehe raa ru% — The division of the night at midnight. 
Pananu raa tai — ^The flowing of the tide, or the time before 

midnight or noon. 
Pahe raa tai — ^The ebbing of the tide, or the time after 

noon or after midnight. (In these seas it is always 

high water at noon and at midnight, but Uie tide rises 

very little.) 

Jan. 11. There is little reason, as yet, in these islands, 
to complain of the law's delay. Justice is prompt, and pun- 
ishment certain, in the present inartificial state of society ; — 
a circumstance which, according to the English legislative 
authorities of the old world, is the best security for public 
peace and private welfare, by preventing many crimes which 
would be committed, at a venture, were the penalties a 
hundred fold more severe, and the chances of escape numer- 
ous in proportion. — ^A short time ago a woman had got her- 
self tatooed. It was discovered, in the course of a day or t^o, 
one afternoon; she was immediately brought to trial, con- 
victed, and next morning she was at work, carrying stones 
to the pier, which was constructing on the beach by the 



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SINGULAR MOTH. 213 

hands of public offenders like herself. — Four men were late- 
ly detected in a house, having a quantity of ava, from which 
they were about to prepare the favorite intoxicating liquor 
of these islands in their idolatrous state. The building was 
immediately condemned to be pulled down, while the fellows 
were in it ; and, a message was dispatched to the chief, 
whose vassals they were, informing him that there was a 
house, belonging to some of his people, which would be sent 
to him to do what he pleased with it. Accordingly the roof 
was presently removed, and carried away on men's shoul- * 
ders; the inhabitants being left to follow it, if they thought 
fit, or remam exposed to the inclemency of the weather. 
The night being very tempestuous, they went from house to 
house, imploring shelter, but were every where denied ; the 
good folks within declaring that they were tata ino, bad men, 
with whom they would have nothing to do. At last the 
outcasts <^ame to the missionaries, beseeching them tp have 
compassion on them. Their misery found pity there, and 
they were allowed to take up their quarters IR a neighbor- 
ing shed, as a refuge from the torrents of rain which were 
descending. 

Jan. 13. This day we saw one of those large moths which 
the natives call burehua. This beautiful insect is an inch 
long, with very full black eyes ; the body and - wings are 
brown, spotted with white. But the most remarkable feature 
, is the proboscis, which is from four to five times the length 
of the creature itself; and it is very amusing to see with what 
skill, delicacy, and quickness, it collects its food from the 
nectaries of flowers of all sizes and shapes, by means of this 
exquisitely sensitive and pliable instrument, wit^ which it 
ransacks their sweets, while it flutters on the wing three 
inches above their untouched petals. And then it flits from 
blossom to blossom, darting out or withdrawing this penetrat- 
ing sucker, which finds its way without difficulty into the 
deepest tubes wherein nature hides the honey, elaborated for 
its use, but not to be come at without diligent search. 

Talking about the weather, our friends informed us that 
these islanders formerly believed that the winds were confin- 
ed in two caves, the one where the sun rises, and the other 
where he sets; and that, according to the seasons of the 

irear, those from the east, or those from the west, were let 
oose to blow over land and ocean. This poetical theory 
bad evident reference to the trade-winds. But they were 



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214 TERMS FOR THE WINDS. 

very nice observers of the winds in their effects, and their 
language was as copious in terms to characterize theise as we 
have found it rich in those that distinguished the natural 
portions of the day. The east wind they called magai; the 
east-north-east, maoai-taraua ; the north-east, pafaapiti; 
Tmrih, pafaiti ; the winds from north to west, toerau; west 
and by south, areifenua; west-south-west, aruimaoro; and 
those from east by south to south-west, maraamu, &c. A 
strong south wind was called maraamu moano ; a gentle one 
from south-east, moraamu hoe; a gusty wind, with heavy 
blasts, and rain, from whatever quarter, haapiti; a hurri- 
cane, tearing up trees, overturning houses, &c., huri; a 
squall with showers, papape ; a high tempest at sea, ahoahoa 
hurifenuay &c. 

Jan. 13. Being Lord's day, in addition to the usual ser- 
vices, the sacrament was administered. There were thirty 
native communicants present ; others were gone with Mahine 
to Tahiti. Among the church members are Mahine and 
Mahine Vahine, king and queen ; Hautia and his wife HaiK 
tia Vahine, who, in frict, administer the government in Hua- 
hine, under queen Pomare Vahine ; with nearly all the other* 
residept members of the royal family, who have not been 
admitted to religious privfleges because they are great and 
powerful, but because they appear to be consistently and 
eminently pious. Our brethren here, on the establishment 
of their Christian church, manifested a spirit of wisdom and 
sound judgment, on a very delicate point, which reflected the 
highest credit upon their independence of character. When 
deacons were to be appointed, though Mahine, Hautia, and 
other principal persons, were really the best qualified for the 
responsible trust, both by their talents and devotedness to 
the service of God, yet — from an apprehension that it might 
form a dangerous precedent, and be pleaded thereafter as 
authority why their successors in the kingly dignity should 
also be chosen to this office in the church ; and, likewise, 
lest temporal chiefs should imagine that their rank gave 
them right to lord it over God's heritage—^the missionaries 
conscientiously opposed the election of deacons from that 
class. To the honor of those who were thus passed by, they 
all had the good sense to acknowledge the validity of such 
an objection, .and the good feeling not be offended, but meek- 
ly to submit to the decision of those in whom they confided, 
not only as their spiritual fathers, but as their best CQimsd* 



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CHA|IACTEB OF TIRAMANO. 215 

^ ors in matters concerning which they deemed it right to 
interpose with their advice ; and the interference of the mis- 
sionaries in peculiar cases, like the present, being never 
cither officious or impertinent, has always carried weight 
and influence in proportion. Under the idolatrous system, 
the kings had uniformly been chief-priests ; and it required 
no little firmness to prevent a similar association of secular* 
and ecclesiastical pre-eminence being introduced into Chris- 
tian institutions. In the places of common worship, there- 
fore, kings, chiefs, raatiras and people, meet as equals ; but 
elsewhere, we may affirm from what we have seen, in no 
country is greater respect and obedience paid to civil author- 
ities. 

Jan. 14. Mr. Ellis and Mr. Tyerman (Mr. Bennet being 
too unwell to accompany them) were sent for, late in the 
evening, to visit the distinguished female chief, Tiramano, 
who was considered to be dangerously ill, in consequence of 
having ruptured a blood-vessel a few days ago ; but who had 
also been made worse by taking some violent medicine, 
administered by a native practitioner, which had produced a 

•much greater hemorrhage. She was lying on a mat, on the 
ground, under an open shed, covered with a piece of native 
cloth, and surrounded by her friends and dependants, who 
were sitting cross-legged, in great numbers, on every side, 
and directing all their eyes towards her with intense solici- 
tude, to see the issue. Distress was visible in every counte- 
nance, and the tears were rolling down the cheeks of several, 
amongst whom were the principal personages of the island ; 
she herself is the third in rank. It may be remembered 
(see January 7) that this heroic female, at the head of her 
people, herself shouldering a musket, marched with Hautia 
and his Christian warriors against the rebels who had risen 
in defence of their maraes and idols ; and that the latter were 
vanquished without a battle by words of peace, instead of 
threatenings and slaughter breathed out against them. To 
look at Tiramano one would not imagine her — a feeble, 
quiet, retiring, woman — capable of such courage and decis- 
ion as she then manifested ; but when her spirit was moved 
in a righteous cause, she became a Deborah in the field, 
though u Mary in the house sitting at Jesus' feet ; and so 
devoted were hex followers to their magnanimous mistress^ 
that it was believed, had an engagement taken place, they 
would have fallen, man by man, at her side, rather than she 



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216 NATURALIZED, TREE8 AND PLANTS. 

should have been slain or captured. Her visitors found her 
a Jittle recovered from a fainting fit, and in a devout and 
patient frame of mind. Her piety and good conduct reflect 
honor upon the sex to which she belongs, and which hereto- 
fore was deemed unworthy even to eat at the table, or taste 
the same food with man — the barbarian — himself but a step 
above the hog on which he fattened. 

We find that the following valuable exotics have been 
introduced into this island : — 

The pine-apple and the papau ; both brought hither by the 
unfortunate captain Bligh. 

The superior kinds of cotton, brought by the missionaries. 
There is a small indigenous cotton-tree, of little value. 

The coflee-plant, lately introduced, of which some very 
promising specimens are growing in Mr. Ellis's garden. 

Oranges, lemons and limeb; also tamarinds, planted by 
captain Cook, but principally cultivated with success by the 
first missionaries, and now every where flourishing and bear- 
ing abundantly. 

The custard-apple, brought by Mr. Ellis from Rio Janeiro ; 
of which he has three plants, now producing fruit for the 
first time. 

The Indian shot thrives prodigiously, though not long ago 
received from the captain of some vessel which touched here. 
The berries are round, black, exceedingly hard, and bear a 
fine polish. They are strung together for beads. 

Cabbages and onions succeed tolerably well for one season, 
but the seed will not come to maturity. 

Maize, or Indian corn, has found a genial soil here, and 
must h^reafler be a great acquisition, by supplying a variety 
of substantial food, which the increasing population, and im- 
proved state of society, in these islands, will need, both for 
health and sustenance. It is not to be imagined that a civil- 
ized people, whose habits, through cultivation of mind, and 
consequent personal delicacy, shall be proportionately raised 
above mere animal pature, could, under any circumstances, 
remain satisfied to subsist on bread-fruit and plantains, with 
occasional relishes of hogs' flesh. 

Potatoes will bring a crop, for one season, from foreign 
seed ; but aflerwards they fail entirely. 

French beans are prolific, and seed well. 

Radishes, tumeps, and pease, have not yet been reared to 
any advantage, and most probaMy cannot be naturalized. 



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FUTURE COMUERCIAL ;U>rANTAGES. 217 

Vines, so far as they have been tried, apparently would 
thrive well. There are but two or three of these left, and 
unfortunately the swine have nearly destroyed them. 

Guavas, Cape mulberries, and figs, produce fruit of fine 
flavor, and might, if duly trained, be brought to high perfec- 
tion. 

Tobacco might be raised and cured to any extent which 
mercantile speculation could require. 

The castor-nut (by whom introduced we know not) has 
evidently found soil which it loves and luxuriates in, growing 
wild, and in astonishing profusion. The oil, of which some 
small quantity has been made by the missionaries (who, 
nevertheless, want the necessary apparatus for properly 
preparing it), might become an important article of com- 
merce. 

The spices (at least many of them) which belong to tropi- 
cal climates, might be cultivated here; but they have not 
been at all introduced. The present generation of inhabit^ 
ants will not see the commercial advantages which might be 
reaped by their birth-places; but, though these are but 
specks on the face of the ocean, it cannot be doubted that 
they are destined to share in' the prosperity of other parts of 
the recently colonized world adjacent. They will, imper- 
ceptibly perhaps, grow into importance with New Holland, 
which is geographically so situated as to hold the keys of 
east and west ; whereby it will necessarily become the medi- 
um of communication between the Indian Archipelago and 
the Pacific Islands, as well as a central emporium for the 
sale and interchange of the commodities of each. 

Jan. 15. Besides the bread-fruit, the cocoa-nut, and the 
plaintain, formerly described, we have obtained a knowledge 
of the.followiilg usefiil trees, which are indigenous in both 
groups of islands, the windward and the leeward : — 

The purau we have frequently had occasion to mention, 
as employed for various purposes. The slender shoots are 
converted into light rafters and paling for fences. The inner 
bark of the trunk is twisted and drawn into strong cordage. 
The elegant purau-tibutas and mats are made of the same 
bark, stripped firom the young branches. The leaves are 
spread for table-cloths at entertainments. The timber is 
used in many ways : — when well dried, for procuring fire by 
friction; for walling houses with the planks, and wattling 

VOL. I. 19 



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218 INDIGENOUS TREES AND PLANTS. 

I 

them with the twigs; for manufacturing paddles and con- 
structing canoes ; now also for oars and boat-building, which 
are gradually superseding the former. 

The ati furnishes a suitable material for ttmities, or dishes ; 
likewise stools, the keels of canoes, and other massy wood- 
work. The gum of this tree is administered medicinally. 

Of the bark of the aoa, peeled from the branches and 
. small roots, beautiflil brown cloth is made, which is highly 
valued here. 

The mope is a species of chestnut, which attains a great 
size, and bears abundant fruit. The nut is inclosed in a 
thick husk, ovalnshaped, flattened, and about three inches 
long. The natives esteem the kernel pleasant food when 
roasted. The timber makes tough handles for axes, and 
other heavy edge-tools. The nuxti is a kind of mountain-sloe. 
With the juice of its berries the Tahitian red cloth is dyed ; 
from the bark fine cordage is prepared, when the shrub itself 
is not more than two years old. 

Of the ito weapons of war were fashioned of old ; but the 
spear and the club are no longer wrought out of this once 
sacred, or rather once cursed, wood, which was the raw ma- 
terial whereof the gods were made. It is now applied to the 
■much more humble and homely, yet far better, purposes of 
supplying middle posts to support the frame-roofs of dwellings, 
and occasionally for rafters. The mallets, also, with which 
bark is beaten into the cloth called Je, are often carved out 
of the ito. 

MirOy or amcie, is a superior timber for carpentry and 
cabinet-work. It was formerly much employed about the 
maraes, for implements and ornamental furniture. The 
altars were frequently decorated with its graceful foliage. 
The grain is as close as that of mahogany. 

Mara is a very hard and enduring timber. The altars 
were constructed of it ; also the larger paddles, the keels of 
canoes, said posts on which to hang the most valuable uten- 
sils or articles of dress in dwelling-houses. 

The bua furnishes a very white and lasting wood, but it is 
short-grained ; yet found suitable for many ordinary purposes. 
With the flowers the people, especially the women, were fond 
of adorning their hair. 

We may enumerate, without discriminating notice, the 
fatOj iou, tiere,fara,paiori, atae, ante, &c., which are used 



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WARNING DISCOURSE AGAINST APOSTASY. 219 

for domestic furniture, house and boat-building, manufactur- 
ing dresses, or, borrowing their rich blossoms on festival 
occasions, as head-garlands — according to their various qual- 
ities. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

A Feeding — ^Warning Discourse against Apostasy — A native Hog a me 
Animal now — A singular Fish — Handicrafts — ^Tahitian Language, 
and Figures of Speech — Sugar-cane Crop — Dauntless, Ship of War — 
Uncommon Spider — ^Questions proposed for Consideration — Co-opera- 
tion in House -building — Presents to Deputation — ^Tradition respecting 
the first Man and Woman — Noa — Mr. Tyerman and Mr. Ellis sail for 
Borabora — A Shark captured — Placid Beauty of the Sea — Arrival at 
Borabora — Missionary Station — Influence of Conjurers — Visit to two 
English Vessels — Opening of a new Chapel. 

Jan. 16. In the forenoon a messenger announced that 
Hautia and the raatiras had sent us a feeding — a present of 
eatables; and, before it was delivered, a similar token of 
good will was brought to us from the members of the church. 
When the whole was set out for our acceptance, in the 
chapel-yard, there appeared provision enough to feast all the 
island. There were seven hogs, and heaps upon heaps of 
cocoa-nuts, maias, bananas, and mountain-plantains; with 
taro, pin&-apples, pumpkins, sugar-canes, &c., &c. 

In the evening, Mr. Ellis chose for the text of his lecttire, 
" Israel slideth back, like a backsliding heifer ; — ^now the • 
Lord will feed them as a lamb in a large place." — Hosea iv. 
16. At the close of the discourse, we perceived that there 
was much earnest talking at the lower end of the chapel ; 
when, on inquiring the cause, we were pleased to find that 
the text, and the application of it by the preacher, had come 
with such force to the hearts gf the people that they were 
constrained to express their godly fears, lest the^ also, like 
Israel of old, might be tempted to slide back to their idola- 
tries, and depart from the Lord their shepherd, who now fed 
them '' as a lamb in a large place." Such discourses often 
produce exceedingly wholesome impressions upon the minds 
of these unsophisticated converts to the truth, to whom 
nothing appears so revolting as the idea of apostasy from that 
faith which they have found to be an inestimable blessing to 
themselves, their families, and their country. 



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230 SINGULAR nSH-— HANDICRAFTS. 

Jan. 17. We have just seen what is now a rare animal — 
a hog of the native breed, such as were found on these islands 
by the first navigators, but which have been nearly killed off; 
or, being crossed with swine of European origin, have been 
superseded by a mixed race, much superior in size and value. 
This was an unsightly creature ; very small, short and hump- 
backed, with a disproportionately long head, and dwarf ears 
turned backward. But the main singularity was its tail, 
placed as if it grew upon the back; 'this was not more than 
two inches long, but bushy with thick hair, that covered the 
adjacencies. The color of the bristles and hide was reddish- 
brown. 

A singular fish, which had been struck with a spear and 
caught in the bay, was brought to us. It is called Aavere.^ 
It resembles an eel, and is a yard long, with a. remarkably 
projecting snout one fourth of its whole length, at the ex- 
tremity of which is the mouth. The upper part of this pro- 
boscis consists of several bones so exquisitely articulated, 
side by side, as to be capable of enormous expansion, while 
below, where these bones seem to unite closely, by an equally 
curious contrivance, there is a connecting membrane which 
falls inward and admits of corresponding distension with the 
cavity above ; so that this small snout (in shape like a gun- 
barrel) might be enlarged enough to receive a substance 
equal m bulk to the whole body of the animal itself It has 
pectoral, dorsal, and ventral fins, of very delicate structure. 
The tail-fins are finely arched backwards, and, from between 
them, as firom the centre of a crescent, shoots out a tapering 
tail four inches long, and ending in a point. The color is 
blue on the back and gray below ; the eyes are large, and the 
pupil is surrounded by a glaring yellow iris. It is said that 
this arrow-like animal can dart itself out of the water with 
such violence as to pierce with its snout the body of a man. 
This fish is esteemed delicious food. 

We were amused to see some of the natives here working 
at a smithy belonging to the missionaries ; and, considering 
their indifferent tools and the few instructions which they had 
received, it must be confessed, that they did very well. They 
were forging, and hammering into form, hinges and fish- 
spears ; but, understanding the nature and use of the latter 
much better than the former, they made them more neatly. 
Many of these people may be called tolerable carpenters, but 
they have little notion of fiishioning good joints, or geometri- 



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INVUSTRY OF THE ISLANDERS. 221 

cally proportioning their work, except when they do it their 
own way. Thus, in constructing their canoes and building 
their houses in the style to which they have been accustomed, 
though they use neither plumb-line, compass nor square, yet 
they finish every part with great accuracy and symmetry. 
Their deficiencies in the mechanical arts are not those of 
capacity, but the mere habits of untaught practice, or rather, 
practice according to different and le;ss perfect rules and 
models. The women, in devising ai^d executing patterns 
upon their many-colored and diversely ornamented cloths, 
fi'equently discover fine fancy ai^d delicate taste, while the 
men, in the few handicrafts exercised by them in these 
islands, prove that they are not in anywise inferior to Europe- 
ans, according to their means, in ingenuity or invention. 
Having little choice of tools, and those often much the worse 
for wear, whatever they do costs th^m immense application, 
yet, by sheer patience and perseverance the most commenda^ 
ble, they surmount every ordinary difficulty, an^d, in fact, are 
daily improving in such kinds of new-learnt modes of man- 
ual labor as have been hitherto introduced among them. 
Whatever they were formerly, when profligacy and idolatry 
prevailed, the present generation are by no means the lazy 
and inactive race which the earlier visitants ha^^ represented 
their fathers to ha,ve been. Being under no*oJt)ligation to toil 
like slaves for a scanty maintenance, and, moreover, being 
very lively and inquisitive— when a ship arrives, the people, 
of course, will crowd about it in their canoes, tp see what is 
to be seen, as well as to barter provisions for hardware, &c. 
Day after day new companies, firom different parts of the 
coast, may do the same, and while they skim upon the sea, 
like water-spiders, in iheir light vessels, with their busy pad- 
dles, or dive and sw|m ajbiput in it as if they were amphibious, 
they may, indeed, appear to strangers to. have nothing else to 
do, or too fond of ease and enjoyment to do any thing else ; 
but those who should thus judge would be greatly mistaken. 
The fact is every where manifest that industry, civilization, 
and good morals, are entirely transforming the character, the 
habits, the pleasures, and the occupations of this people. 
Like the eagle renewing his youth, and iK>aring, from pure 
buoyancy of spirit, to the height of the firmament — or .the 
serpent casting bis slough, and gliding out of darkness and 
torpor, in the dunghill where he slept away the winter, into 
the freedom of fresh air and the warmth of spring-sunshine 
19 * 



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222 TAHITIAN LANGUAGE. 

— ^here is a natkui " born in a day," and emerging, as it were 
by miracle, from the blindness, captiTity, and Slthiness of ig- 
norance, superstition, and vice, into the light of knowledge 
and the beauty of holiness; the former exalting them as 
children of men — ^the latter adorning them as children of God. 
It is not that all are thus illuminated and sanctified — ^perhaps 
but few can be said to be pre-eminently so ; but, directly or 
indirectly, actively or passively, there are few who are not 
enjoying and exemplifying the benefits of that Gospel, which, 
like Wisdom of old, may be said to cry " in the top of high 
places and by the way of the paths," in these mountainous 
regions of the west, " Receive my instruction, and not silver; 
and knowledge rather than choice gold : — ^I dwell with pru- 
dence, tind Jind out hnotoUdge of witty inventions : — Riches 
and honor are with me ; yea, durable riches and righteous- 
ness : — I cause those that love me to inherit substance ; and I 
will fill their treasures." Prov. viii. 1, 2, &c. And literally 
has the personification of Wisdom, in the same inspired 
book (Prov. iii. 13 — 18.), been verified, by the gospel, in 
Tahiti, Huahine, Raiatea, Eimeo, Borabora, and other bar- 
barous regions, whose very existence was unknown to the 
Christian world for more than seventeen centuries. Looking 
back but an hundredth part of that term — looking back only 
seventeen years — what were these islands, and what their in- 
habitants then ? What are they now 7 Surely, where war, 
infanticide, and debauchery cut short life not only at its 
threshold, but way-laid it on all its stages, making it at the 
same time so miserable that death was hardly an evil to be 
deprecated — the Gospel, which brings life and immortality 
to light whithersoever it goes — the Gospel has come hither, 
with " Ungth of days in her right hand, and in her left hand 
riches and honor. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and 
all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to them that 
lay hold upon her ; and happy is every one that retaineth 
her." 

Jan. 18. We have been diligently endeavoring, since our 
arrival at Tahiti, to acquire some knowledge of the Polyne- 
sian language, which, with few and easy varieties of dialect, 
is spoken throughout all the peopled islands of the Pacific. 
When we first heard the natives conversing together, we 
could scarcely conceive that the sounds were those of speech ; 
BO smooth and well-voweled and liquid were all these, that 
they seemed only indistinct murmurings in the air round our 



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FIGURES OF SPEECH. 223 

ears. The hum of bees under a lime-tree m blossom might, 
to our apprehension, have been as easily resolved into words 
as the audible breath that came from lips on which our eyes 
were fixed, but which were dumb to our understandings. 
And yet it was evident, by the animation of look and grace 
of action which accompanied this delicate confusion of 
tongues,, that every tone and inflection was full of intelligence. 
This must be, more or less, the strange feeling which the 
hearing of an unknown language excites in every one's 
mind, but which gradually wears away as frequent recurrence 
enables him to detect articulation in the undulating syllables, 
which were before but as the lapse of free waters, and to 
disentangle the maze of running accents, which, at first, 
were to him no accents at all. By little and little, in like 
manner, and by the exercise of minute attention, we learned 
to unravel the implicated cadences of low, sofl voices, which, 
f^om unintelligible monotony, grew into emphatic expression, 
and at length rose into the harmonious utterance' of ever- 
varying thought, in diction correspondingly copious and clear. 
Nay, so voluble, sweet, and agreeable to the ear, is the 
speech, but especially the song, of the lonely inhabitants of 
these uttermost isles, that we cannot more aptly illustrate its 
peculiarity than by calling it the Italian of Barbarians. In 
common conversation, much of figure, though very brief and 
unostentatious, is employed. In speeches and in prayer, 
likewise, the allusions and similitudes of the natives are 
often exceedingly beautiful and appropriate ; never redundant, 
nor verbose, but for the most part so condensed and perspic- 
uous as to prove that they think with accuracy, and can 
place their conceptions, "by means of simple yet forcible 
phraseology, in the happiest points of view for being under- 
stood and approved by others. 

As examples of the kind of figures which they employ we 
have preserved the following ; and they may be said to be 
indigenous, — Those persons who attend public worship, but . 
turn a deaf ear to the truths which are continually preached 
to them, are like the sea-eggs (echini), which, though they 
live upon the coral-reefs, where the sea is breaking day and 
night above them, yet never hear the sound of the waves. 
Those who have the means of grace, but make no improve^- 
ment in divine knowledge, are like the tehu (a kind of fish) 
which takes a prodigious quantity of food into its mouth, but 
discharges the greater part through its gills, without swallow- 



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224 SUGAR-CANE CROP. 

ing or digesting ; and, therefore, with all it» voracity, it re- 
mains lean. — ^In his duties, especially in religion, a man's 
spirit should be like water flowing down the shallow channel 
of a brook ; which, though it meets with stones, and sticks, 
and innumerable obstructions, in its course, continues to 
ripple and wind, and insinuate itself, perseveringly, through 
every opening, till it has left them all behind ; when, deep and 
broad, at length, it runs into the sea. — Those who refuse to 
hearken to the voice which warns them to flee from the wrath 
to come, but who will hold on in their headlong career of 
folly that leads to destruction, are aau tuehau — ^men who will 
not heed their chief, when he calls them up in the night, and 
says, '' It is war ; the enemy is at hand to attack you in 
your houses ; and before morning you and your family will 
be murdered, if you do not immediately get up and stand 
upon your defence." But the sluggard, from within, impa- 
tiently replies, " Go your way ; you talk random words; you 
know nothing about it ; and I won't believe you." He then 
lies down again to sleep, and is awoke when it is too late by 
the war-cries of the assailants, who have surrounded his 
house, and are taking it by storm, while he in vain would 
attempt to escape, or yet more hopelessly implores mercy of 
the destroyers. 

Mr. Ellis and Mr. BblkV having inclosed and planted two 
acres of land with sugar-cane, some time ago, and part of 
the crop being ripe, this morning men were employed in 
crushing the stems in a mill, to express the juice, for the 
purpose of manufacturing sugar for domestic use. The 
canes were of fine quality, and very rich in juice, which, 
when boiled, is expected to produce one eighth of its own 
quantity, in sugar and molasses. 

Jan. 20. (Lord's day.) Mr. Ellis preached in the fore- 
noon from the text, *' The Lord reigneth ; let the earth 
rejoice, let the multitudes of the isles be glad thereof" 
Psalm xcyii. 1. These words, uttered almost three thousand 
years ago, by one who probably knew not the length and 
breadth of one fourth of the globe, were this day fulfilled 
before our eyes, in the remotest regions of that undiscovered 
world, which, in the mind of Him *' who calleth the things 
that are not as though they were," — had been predestined to 
receive the blessipg, of the gospel so many centuries after- 
wards ; and whose present inh^itants, in. the language of 
prophecy, were personally addressed as already existent, 



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CANNIBALISM AT THE MARQUESAS. 225 

when as yet there were none of tliem ; nay, even when it 
cannot be ascertained whether this portion of ** the multitude 
of the isles " was then peopled, or yet lay, like spots of sun- 
shine, on the dark bosom of the unnavigated deep. 

Jan. 21. Early this morning a large vessel hove in sight, 
and lay off the mouth of the harbor. It proved to be His 
Britannic Majesty's ship of war, the Dauntless, captain Gam- 
bier, which was on the Indian station, but had been dis- 
patched to the Marquesas, to search out the fate of several 
Englishmen, who, it was reported, having landed there some 
months ago from two whale-boats, were captured, killed, 
and devoured by the caiinibal inhabitants. We have been 
informed that the circumstance, which had been much mis- 
represented, was this. — A whale-ship coming to anchor off 
one of the islands of that group, the captain bargained with 
ihe natives for the purchase of some hogs, but when the sell- 
ers were about to deliver them, the property which ought .to 
have been given in exchange was withheld. The captain after- 
wards sent two boats ashore, manned with ten hands. These 
the savages overpowered, upon their landing, seized the boats, 
and dragged the sailors among the bushes, where they 
slaughtered eight, and devoured their bodies. The other 
two were spared, but only on condition that they should be 
tatooed all over, and thus become naturalized ; and to this 
—whether honor or degradation — ^the poor fellows submitted, 
to save' their lives. Captain Gambier, on his arrival, de- 
manded restitution of the boats ; and, being refused, an al- 
tercation ensued, during which the Dauntless fired upon the 
savages, of whom, it is said, several were killed. Some of 
the natives, happening to be on board at the time, witnessed 
the affray with cool indifference as to its worst consequences, 
and were childishly amused with the explosion of the guns, 
and seeing their wooden houses knocked down by the invisi- 
ble stroke of the shot But, though the people of that bay 
were thus ferocious and unappeasable, the captain visit- 
ed another harbor, at the distance of a few miles, where the 
residents were peaceable and well behaved. These islands 
are represented to vs as being very populous, and the na- 
tives, especially the men, a remarkably fine race, far supe- 
rior in muscular strength to the Tahitians, and much fairer 
in complexion. 

Captain Gambier, with several of hb officers, came on 
shore here, this morning, and dined and spent the day 



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226 VISIT TO THE SHIP DAUNTLESS. 

with US very pleasantly, at the houses of our missionary 
friends. 

Jan. 22. Attended by the queen and her daughter, with 
others of the royal family, we went on board the Dauntless, 
to return the visit of yesterday. The queen, as well as 
Messrs. Ellis and Barff, took with them presents of hogs, ar- 
row-root, cocoa-nuts, maia, native cloth, &c., for the captain ; 
by whom we were very kindly received and hospitably e'h- 
tertained. This being the first ship of war which had ever 
visited these shores, the natives viewed every part of it with 
minute and intelligent curiosity, inquiring the use of all that 
was new to them. The superb dresses — as they appeared 
to their unpractised eyes — of the captain and officers, es- 
pecially excited their admiration. They called the epau- 
lettes muni (money), because of their resemblance to gold. 

We returned on shore, at noon, and in the evening had a 
long conversation with the missionaries respecting the no- 
tions which their converts entertain of God, time, and eter- 
nity. Their views of God, our friends think, are truly scrip- 
tural. Of time, as time, their ideas are necessarily imper- 
fect, there being no original word in their language to signi- 
fy length of duration — that, apparently, having never entered 
the mind of their ancestors, or themselves, even in reference 
to present existence. Day and night were the only distinct- 
ly acknowledged divisions of time among those whO' lived 
but from day to day; few having observation enough to 
compute a year of moons as a regularly recurring period, 
muc)i less a year by the sun's journey along the ecliptic ; 
their two annual sections, according to the relative position 
of the Pleiades, have been already described ; but practical 
chronology may be said to have been undiscovered by a 
people who had no annals and but few traditions. Of futu- 
rity, it may therefore be taken for granted that they had no 
definite anticipation, nor^can any thing like consistent belief 
in a state afler death be gathered from the crude and con- 
tradictory fables which we have heard repeated on that sub- 
ject. 

Jan. 23. Two young men were arraigned before the na- 
tive magistrates, to-day, for having practised what in Eng- 
land would have been called a hoax, and by some deemed a 
very good joke ; but which, in this land of simple morals, - 
was charged as a mischievous deception. The offenders 
had been out on a fishing excursion, but, catching nothing, 



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SUBJECTS PROPOSED FOR CONSIDERATION. 227 

they tied their lines to a kind of bowl, with which water is 
baled out of canoes. This they threw out and drew back 
again frequently, as though they were taking fish as fast as 
thdy could off their hooks. Tempted by the bait, thus pre- 
sented to them, some persons on shore paddled out to sea, 
with their tackle, to Ash in the same lucky spot ; but soon 
finding out their mistake, they resented the jest put upon 
their credulity, and summoned the actors before the usual 
tribunal. The case was proved, and the accused were sen- 
tenced to do some labor at the pier, for their trick. A mis- 
sionary, however, interposed in their behalf, and obtained a 
pardon, after their being suitably admonished, and promising 
to behave- more discreedy in future. 

A large female spider, of a dark-brown color, was exam- 
ined by us, this evening. She had under her abdomen a 
distended bag, containing not merely a family, but a tribe 
of young ones. This precious deposit she held close to her 
body by means of two large fangs, resembling legs, which 
grew out of the thorax. It was with great reluctance that 
she parted with her treasure, which, she seemed to cling to 
more than to life itself; for when it had been forcibly wrest- 
ed from her, though immediatel}^ set at liberty, she would 
scarcely move from the spot. The bag was an inch and an 
eighth in diameter, and nearly circular. As soon as it was 
rent from the mother, the young brood swarmed forth, like 
the inmates of an ant-hill broken open. They were very 
small, and (as we guessed) from three to four hundred in 
number. On their irruption, the whole multitude hung from 
their maternal receptacle by separate minute threads, form- 
ing a string three feet in length. 

Jan. 24. At a meeting of the people belonging to the 
missionary settlement here, held in the chapel this afternoon, 
Anna, one of the deacons, proposed two subjects for consid- 
eration. The first was — that all the women should set them- 
selves to work to make cloth for those who were poor or afflict- 
ed, and untxble to procure decent apparel. The cloth thus 
contributed was to be laid up in store and dealt out to the 
necessitous, by trust-worthy persons, as occasion required. 
This proposal was Immediately agreed to. Twenty years 
ago, and, probably, through twenty hundred years antecedent, 
such an idea would not have come into the mind of a native 
of these islands; and, had such a scheme of deliberate char- 
ity been suggested, it would have been treated with neglect, 



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228 Cb-OPERATION IN HOUSE-BUILDING. 

as something not to be understood, or, perhaps; heard with 
scorn, as too monstrous to be thought of. Auna's second 
subject for consideration was — by what means their houses 
might he more expeditiously completed? Many dwellings 
have been begun here, of which the walls are wood, to be 
covered with plaster. All the people have determined to 
construct theirs on this improved plan ; but, as every "man 
must be his own architect and builder, from the foundation 
to the roof, the labor is long and excessive, and necessarily, 
in many instances, very indifferently performed. Much dis- 
cussion arose upon this subject,. every individual present be- 
ing more or less interested in it. The business was con- 
ducted in the most regular manner. Several persons made 
speeches — some, indeed, of consideral)Je length— on the 
question. Each, in turn, was patiently heard, and there 
never appeared the smallest disposition to interrupt any one. 
All agreed in the necessity of adopting not only a more ex- 
peditious, but a better system than was heretofore practised ; 
which, however well it might suit their ancestors in running 
up simple sheds — slight roofs on upright poles, without walls, 
or at most inclosed with a little wicker-work— was no longer 
adapted to the erection of more substantial tenements, with 
such interior accommodations as were deemed requisite in 
the new era of society which had commenced from the in- 
troduction of the gospel. Without going into details of the 
various suggestions that were successively canvassed and 
disipissed, we need only mention the result, in proof of the 
good sense of the people. It was resolved to divide them- 
selves into two companies, the one consisting of those who 
resided on the right side of the bay, and the other of those 
who resided on the left. The company belonging to each • 
section were to assist the members in turn in building their 
houses. The owner, in every case, was to set the .side pil- 
lars and to thatch the roof. His neighbors were to do the 
rest for him, all working together ; by which means, instead 
of many imperfect skeletons, scattered along the shore (some 
falling to ruins before they were finished), in a short time a 
neat and comfortable village of white^lastered dwellings 
would be seen among the trees, at the foot of the mountains, 
and looking towards the sea. This plan delighted the peo- 
ple, who are exceedingly fond of doing or enjoying whatever 
they can in company, whether it be hard labor, innocent 
recreation, or religious exercises. 



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MAN AND WOMAN CHEATED. 229 

Jan. 25. While we were at Mr. BarfF's, this evening, 
the queen, followed by the deacons of the church, and their ^ 
wives, arrived with presents for each of the deputation, in 
token of their esteem and affection. They entered one by 
one, seating themselves quietly upon the parlor floor, without 
speaking a word. Presently a beautiful purau mat, and one 
of more ordinary texture and larger size, were spread upon 
the floor. Each individual, in order, then brought out what 
he or she had prepared. The sundry articles, as they were 
set down, were equally divided, a portion being laid upon 
either mat. These were principally mats of many kinds, 
some exquisitely wrought and ornamented; and a considera- 
ble number of small baskets.. One of the deacons then, in 
a brief and modest address, requested our acceptance of 
their gifts, which were presented personally to the deputa- 
tion, those on the one mat to Mr. Tyerman, and those on the 
other to Mr. Bennet, who each expressed their grateful sense 
of the kindness of their Huahine friends. 

Having remarked that the word tani was applied not only 
to the tutelary idol of this island, but also to a husband, we 
asked Anna the reason. This led to a long conversation on 
the exploded mythology. Among other curious particulars, 
Anna informed us that Taroa was the name of the Supreme 
Divinity, the creator of all things. Among the rest he made 
the first man, and called hinrTani. That word, therefore, 
does not primarily signify a husband, but is the generic 
term for the whole human race. Taroa found it a very 
troublesome job to form this new kind of being, of so many 
parts, as it took him a whole morning to put them together, 
and finish the model. The material, they understood, was 
sand ; and some who had reasoned more deeply concerning 
the matter, thought that sand of three colors — white, black, 
and red — must have been employed in the manufacture of 
pepple of those different complexions. Taroa, having com- 
pleted the. man, thought he would be very miserable if he 
were left alone in the world, and therefore determined to 
give him a companion. To accomplish this he made a hole 
in his side, and took out something, of which he made a 
woman, and brought her to Tani, who was wonderfully 
pleased with Taroa for having been so kind to him. Woman 
being made of one of man's ribs — for they say expressly, on 
being questioned as to the point, that it was a rib which Ta- 
roa took out of Tani's side — accounts for the female loving 

VOL. I. 20 



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230 NOA, THE GOD OF REFUGE, 

and cleaving to her husband with such fervent and selMe* 
hying affection as she oflen manifests. This story is most 
probably of very late origin, taken from what their fathers, 
of the last generation, have been told by British sailors, who 
deserted, or were left by accident on their coasts by the early 
circumnavigators, or in soine such way ; for it is scarcely 
credible that so extraordinary a coincidence of a heathen 
tradition with a scriptural record could have been found in 
their rude mythology. 

From the same conversation, we learned that there was 
another great deity, called Noa, who was said to be a terri- 
ble giant, clothed in a mourning robe^ with an instrument 
of destruction in his right hand, with which he slew whom- 
soever he met, in his fury. Yet he was compassionate to 
the vanquished in war, and was, in fact, the god of refuge 
to all who fled for safety from their enemies to the moun- 
tains. On asking some of the intelligent natives if they did 
not perceive a resemblance between this strange personage 
and Noah, who prepared an ark of refuge for the few, of his 
own family, who were sheltered in it from the deluge that 
swept away th^ rest of the human race,— rthey said that they 
did perceive that resemblance, and they thought that their 
fathers must have made the scripture account crooked^ 
though they knew not when or haw it was done. . 

Jan. 27. (Lord's day.) At the early prayer-meeting 
here, as in other places, the chapel was crowded. Tamatoa, 
the king of Raiatea, his queen, and most of the chiefs, were 
present They afterwards flocked around us, to bid the 
deputation welcome, with their joyful and cordial iaoraanas. 

Jan. 28. Accompanied by the king, and his nephew, a 
youth twelve years of age, who has been married no small 
part of his short life to a girl of the same age, Mr. Tyerman 
and Mr. Ellis (Mr. Bennet being detained by indisposition) 
set sail for Borabora. As we pushed from the pier, a salute 
was fired fi^om a small cannon and a few muskets, which 
was continued with repeated volleys for some tim'e. Other 
guns were discharged from various points as we proceeded 
along the shore, and amongst the rest, from negligence, a 
full-loaded piece, of which the ball whizzed over our heads 
as we sat in the boat — a boat filled with people, each of 
whom had cause to thank (xod for having escaped the shot, 
which might have fatally struck any one of us, had it passed 
a few inches lower. There being no wind, we had to de- 



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VOYAGE TO BORABORA. 231 

pend on the use of the oar, throughout the whole day, which 
occasioned great exertion, on the part of our men, under a 
vertical sun. But «o European crew, however well trained,^ 
could have held more steadily to their work, or performed it 
with more alacrity, than our native rowers. As we were 
thus laboriously proceeding, a large shark had the audacity 
to spring at one of the oars, and fasten upon it with his 
teeth. On being disappointed of his prey, by mistaking so 
indigestible a substance for palatable food, he approached 
quite near the boat, as though he meditated an attack for 
the purpose of carrying off a living victim ; but he was an- 
ticipated by our brave fellows, one of whom laid hold of a 
fin, and kept his gripe, regardless of the danger. The ter- 
rible animal instantly raised his tail out of the water over 
the gunnel of the boat, which, notwithstanding his desperate 
floundering, several of our stout hands seized, and detained 
him by it till the rest had made a rope fast round his belly, 
when, by their uiiited force, and afler many efforts, they ac- 
tually succeeded in hauling him out of his element, and lay- 
ing him a prisoner at the bottom of the boat. There, with 
mallets and staves which they had on board, they soon dis- 
patched him. This was more than either fighting or amuse- 
ment to the conquerors,- for they took their slain enemy on 
shore, in the evening, and baked and made their suppers of 
him. Such assaults upon canoes are not uncommon by 
these voracious and persevering fishes, who will follow in 
their wake, frequently biting the oars, and watching un- 
weariedly to snatch one of the' crew overboard, for a day to- 
gether. , Many of the natives are fearless of the most savage 
shark, when they are properly equipped with weapons to re- 
pel or attack, and ropes to secure the formidable but precious 
carcass, dead or alive. 

Our voyage, though slow, was exceedingly pleasant. We 
were sailing on " a sea of glass, mingled with fire," from the 
splendor of the sunshine upon it ; while on every hand, like 
halcyons' nests, above the tranquil surge, that only broke in 
wreaths of snow-white spray upon the circumambient reefs, 
appeared the little peopled spots of mountain, wood, and 
level beach, that form these western Cyclades. We might 
have imagined ourselves transported beyond the regions of 
storms, and floating upon that true Pacific flood, " where the 
green islands of the happy shine," while, as in the vision of 
Ezekiel, " the firmament that was above their head*^ appeared 



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232 ARBITAL AT BORABORA. 

" as it were a sapphire stone ; " or — such was the ethereal 
purity of the sky — we might apply to it even the higher 
words of Moses, when he and Aaron, ^adab and Abihu, 
and seventy of the elders from afar, on the Mount of Sinai, 
" saw the God of Israel ; " and " there was under his feet 
as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone j and as it were the 
body of heaven in his clearness J* Oh, how often to the eyes • 
of those who live as seeing him who is invisible, may '' the 
heavens declarle the glory of God, and the firmament show 
his handiwork ! " And oh ! how often, when they behold 
'' the earth full of his goodness," do not their aching hearts 
exclaim, "And why is it not full of his praise?'' 

On approaching Borabora, with its stately and most mag- 
nificent peaks, which are three quarters of a mile in height, 
we founa that what appeared at a distance but one, was in 
reality a cluster of islands. In the centre of these stands 
Borabora, with its belt of motus, like a prince among his 
courtiers. The coral reefs, on which the latter are founded, 
branch out to great lengths in the deep sea ; and, on the side 
of Tahaa, whither we were steering, completely fortify the 
shores with ramparts, through which there are no openings. 
. We were, therefore, obliged to diverge to the north-west, at 
which there is a good entrance to a commodious harbor. 
As we struck into the lagoon, and rowed towards the beach, 
the descending sun had turned the waters to flame, and the 
towering rocks beyond into palaces and pinnacles, more 
superb in architecture, and richer in materials, than the 
visions of romance ever exhibited in fairy-land. We disem- 
barked at^ the pier, which has been carried out in a tri- 
angular form, having a middle path, with two sheets of water 
between the exterior walls, a quarter of a mile in length, 
towards the reef This must have been reared at an im- 
mense expense of native labor, to heave the coral blocks 
out of their sub-marine quarries, and fix them in compact 
bulwarks within the domain of the deep. Mr. Orsmond, 
the missionary, v/ith a great concourse of people, was wait- 
ing to welcome us on the pier. Hither, be it recorded, by 
the mercy of God, we had been brought seventy miles in an 
open boat, without injury or mischance, . though the death- 
shot had passed over our heads at our outset, and the. shark 
had rushed from his ambush upon us by the way. 

Jan. 29. Mr. Tyerman, with his companion Mr. Ellis, 
under the guidance of Mr. Orsmond, walked through the 



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CONSULTINC THE GODS. 233 

missionary settlement, which extends two miles and a half 
along the shore, having a wide foot-path through the whole, 
fi)rmed by laying the trunks of cocoa-nut trees on either side, 
and filling up the space between with earth. The dwellings of 
the natives are built on both sides of this road, at convenient 
distances, all the way. Many of these are in the new stylo^ 
wattled and plastered. The place of worship does great 
credit to the industry of the builders. It is seventy-five feet 
long, by, forty-five broad, and is most commodiously furnished 
with benches ; the floor is lowest along the middle line, from 
each sido^ of which it slopes very gradually towards the 
walls, and the forms are so placed, that all may, without in- 
terruption, see the preacher. The pulpit is a ^ecimen of 
remarkably neat workmanship. At one end of this chapel 
is a large room, used as a court-house, and suitably fitted up 
for the transaction of public business. At the front of Mr. 
Orsmond's house there is a large plot of open ground 
towards the beach. Here a feast is intended to be held, on 
Friday next, by the two kings and their chiefs, with the 
raatiras, in token of their cordial union and common friend- 
ship. Mr. Orsmond having promised the children of the 
school a half-holyday if they would prepare this place for the 
occasion, the little creatures were as busy as bees, running 
and returning in all directions, to collect and bring arms'- 
fuU of grass, to strew over the ground, for the company to 
sit down upon when they should assemble. And well and 
expeditiously they performed their pleasant task, on which 
it was quite exhilarating to see them employed. 

Jan. 30. Mr. Orsmond states thsrt, formerly, in Borabora, 
and probably in the othet islands, when peoj^e went to the 
maraes to ask leave of the gods to do any thing on which 
they had set their minds, their addresses were rather like 
legal notices than humble petitions; for example — ''Tani 

i supposing it were at his altar), I am going to leave you ; if 
wish to eat a pig's head, I shall eat it ; if I want to take a 
journey, I shall take one; if I choose to marry, I shall get a 
wife ; but don't look afler me — look towards the Po," — the 
place of the dead. 

There were among them, in their heathen state, con- 
jurers, who pretended that they could not only tell their 
dupes where they might find lost goods, but could bring back 
their runaway, wives. In the latter case, the bereaved hus- 
20* 



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234 FORMER INFLUENCE OF CONJURERS. 

band, who sought the advice and help of such a wise man 
brought a good fat hog, as a present, with him, together with 
something which had belonged to his faithless spotise — ^as a 
tearCy or flower, which she had worn in her ear. But if, in 
going to the consultation, he crossed a brook, and carried the 
flower in his hand, all spells and cantrips would be fruitless; 
he, therefore, would throw the precious relic to the opposite 
bank, and wade after it ; when, having put it into the hands 
of the conjurer, he was prepared to expect that, by virtue of 
this man's charms (which were pretended prayers to some idol), 
the false one would, of her own accord, return to her husband, 
follow him every where, and love him with entire aflection. 

The credulity of the people ascribed marvellous powers 
to these impostors in many other cases. If they could only 
get hold of something, however filthy or worthless, which 
could be traced to the object of their vengeance, they were 
believed to have his life at their mercy — and mercy they had 
none. They muttered certain cant words to household idols 
of their own, the names of which they kept secret — be- 
cause the knowledge of them would enable others to set up 
for conjurers as well as themselves — and within five or six 
hours their victims would die by the most dreadful torments, 
which would distort their limbs, and horribly convulse their 
bodies. What other aids beside iknprecations, to accomplish 
their diabolical ends, these wretches might employ, were of 
course kept as secret as the names of their familiar spirits, 
though much more easy to be guessed. An old sorcerer^ 
of this class, lately died here, who was reported to have 
slain his hundreds. ''Bloody and deceitfiil men," indeed, 
they were, whose " words were drawn swords ; " and who 
bent their lips ''as bows to shoot their arrows, even bitter 
Words ; " which they did, that they might " shoot in secret," 
and " suddenly." * A late king of one of these islands is 
said to have been a^ adept in this mystery of iniquity. One 
of his subjects having refiised to obtain for his sovereign 
something which he had been required to fiirnish, on being 
informed of his disobedience, the king instantly hung down 
his head and remained silent several minutes, repeating, 
as it was supposed, within himself, the words of doom, 
from which there was no escape. Soon afterwards the man 
fell down, as in an epilepsy, and expired, without any sus- 
picion that other violence had been exercised upon him than, 



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TRICKS OF THE CONJURERS. 335 

probably (though the conjurers generally concealed their 
designs from their victims lest they should employ other conju- 
rers to counteract their spells), the terror of knowing tkat 
he was laid under the magic curse. It is very remarkable 
that among all barbarian tribes, in their lowest state, similar 
arts of sorcery are practised, and the same preternatural 
effects ascribed to them. Here, however, there was a class 
of persons, who were invulnerable by the missiles of these 
children of the devil, full of all subtlety and mischief as 
they were ; and these could not only defy their spells, but 
insult them to their faces with impunity, and rescue others 
firom their clutches. These were not offensive conjurers, 
though they might be called defensive ones, being employed 
by people who suspected themselves bewitched by the 
former, to repel the evil which they apprehended, by incan- 
tations — or prayers, of a similar kind, to some unknown 
fiend — which should cause the plague, meditated against 
them, to recoil upon the original conjurers, who would then 
fall down and die instead of their intended victims. 

A frequent trick of the malicious conjurers was to obtain 
(as usuaJ, and indispensable) something which had come 
from the person whom they meant to destroy, or which had 
belonged to. him. This they inclosed in a cocoa-nut shell, 
and watched an opportunity to bury it, unobserved, in the 
earth, under the oven of stones in which he was accustomed 
to bake his provisions. When, therefore, the destined vic- 
tim .attempted to put bread-fruit or hog's-flesh into this oven, 
to be dressed, the mortal agony seized him, and he died on 
the spot. All the deaths, in these cases,, were of this 
hideous kind, and by their symptoms they may be supposed 
to have been accomplished by poison; but, however this 
might be, ** the poison of asps was under the tongues'' of 
these men who assassinated with their breath. Yet the 
worst of them (we state the facts as they have been con- 
firmed to us by the best testimony that could be procured) — 
the worst of them never had any power over those who had 
embraced Christianity. Of these there is reason to believe 
that they were actually afraid, having a secret misgiving that 
they bore " charmed lives," which no power of theirs could 
touch. When, therefore, they would harm them, it was a1^ 
tempted by open violence or ordinary stratagem, seeing their 
false gods were impotent against the servants of the true 
God. In like manner they acknowledged that all Europeans 



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236 HONORS TO THE DEAD, 

were be/ond their reach. Some time ago an English sailor 
had been left on shore by a ship touching at Matavai bay. 
There he lived a considerable time. The conjurers, having 
conceived, some spite against this stranger, tried all their 
jugglery to kill him, but he remained unhurt. One night a 
number of the murderous fraternity stole into the hut, 
where he was in bed, and put a piece of fish into his basket. 
The sailor, however, happened to be awake, though he 
thought it prudent to pretend sleep. When his visitor was 
gone, he quietly got up and rempved the fish out of his 
basket into that of a native, a fellow-lodger. In the morn- 
ing the latter cooked and ate the fish, which caused him to 
be seized with the customary convulsions, and to die in the 
course of a few hours. 

When the natives buried their relatives they were accus- 
tomed to put the blossoms of bread-fruit, with leaves of the 
edible fern, under their arms, saying, " You go to the Po, 
plant bread-fruit there, and bie food for the gods ; but do not 
come and strangle us, and we will feed your swine and cul- 
tivate your lands." ^ But oflen, as we have already men- 
tioned, they did not bury at all the corpses of their favorite 
relatives or friends; keeping them above ground till the 
bones were left bare from the decay of the flesh. They 
would then take the skulls, place them in conspicuous situar 
tions, near their abode, and deck them with flowers, stuck 
in the cavities or wreathed about the temples, and these 
they renewed daily. However revolting their endurance of 
the previous process of corruption, within the cognizance 
of their senses, may be to our feelings of reverence towards 
the dead, there is something indicative of tenderness and 
delicacy in this custom of adorning the saddest memorials 
of mortality, above ground, with the loveliest emblems of 
life, poured in perpetual succession, from the bosom of the 
earth. 

Jan. 31. Two English brigs coming into the harbor, the 
captains landed to purchase provisions and take in water ; 
whereupon a brisk pig-market was held, on the beach, under a 
large tree. The sales were by barter ; from four to five yards 
of ordinary printed cotton being exchanged for hogs, accord- 
ing to their size and fatness. No women went on board 
of the vessels, and very few men ; formerly the decks of such 
ships were crowded with natives, of both sexes, to their shame 
and injury. 



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OPENING OP A NEW CHAPEL, 237 

Feb. 1. The wind blew hard all last night. The gvsts 
were at times so violent as to threaten the overthrow of all 
before them; they came like mighty waves of the sea, 
breaking in succession over the mountains, and roaring 
through the valleys, as though the tides had found free pas- 
sage over the beach, and were inundating the country. The 
thatch of our residence was raised from the roof,* and the 
walls were bent inward, but yet the wooden frame- work 
stood its ground till the fury of the storm was spent. Many 
limbs of large trees were scattered along the ground, and 
the tops of some of the finest cocoa-nut stems were prostt-ated. 
On the little motu opposite this settlement, they stood thus 
headless, presenting a singularly forlorn rank and file of 
stumps, like ship-masts without rigging. 

This day the new chapel was opened with suitable ser- 
vices. It was usual, in times past, for the king, at the con- 
secration of maraes, to enter and walk over them before the 
feet of either chiefs or people were allowed to tread the idol's 
courts. In a few instances, afler the gospel had been intro- 
duced, where Christian places of worship .were opened, the 
native kings were permitted by the missionaries {then una- 
ware of the pagan practice) to appear at the head of their 
subjects, and take their pkces. within before the multitude 
were admitted. This was conceded in consideration of their 
rank, to which the natives, on all occasions, paid the highest 
deference, and whi6h. their Christian teachers never discoun- 
tenanced when duly exercised. But, as soon as the mission- 
aries found that the precedence thus claimed was a relic of 
idolatry, they set their faceis resolutely against it, and it was 
no longer allowed. On this occasion neither of the sove- 
reigns of Borabora desired such u questionable distinction. 
Upwards of a thousand persons, old and young, crowded the 
chapel at the opening, and probably the whole population of 
the island, except the few detained by sickness or infirmity, 
visited it in the course of the day. All were attired in their 
best, and principally native, apparel, few opportunities occur- 
ring here to traffic for European articles of dress. This gave 
a peculiarly characteristic appearance to the scene — it was a 
perfect South-sea-island assembly, and as such beautifiilly 
picturesque. The public feast in the open air, for which 
preparations had been made, was abandoned on account of 
the inclemency of the weather ; but the congregation, divid- 
ing into several companies, adjourned to so many private 



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238 BORABORA CARPENTRY. 

dwellings, and celebrated the great event in social enjoyment 
after the solemnities of the sanctuary were over. 

This is the largest chapel which we have yet s«en. It has 
been built under the superintendence of Mr. Orsmond ; and 
all the people of the eight districts into which the island is 
divided contributed their share of materials and manual labor 
towards the erection. This occupied the builders twelve 
months ; and workmen in Europe, furnished with requisite 
tools, as well as brought up to the trade, can form no idea of 
the amount of toil and pains expended by these unpractised 
hahds, with no implements which they could use, except the 
rude ones of their forefathers, and a few of a better fashion, 
but so worn as to be nearly useless to men unskilled, at best, 
in the use of them. The bread<^€ruitptree timber wks, for the 
most part, cut down in the mountains, and dragged, by main 
force, to the place, where large boles weresplit in two pieces, 
each making a separate plank and no more. The rafters 
and flooring were formed in like manner. But, though often 
weary and sometimes discouraged by the length and difficul- 
ty of the task, the zealous converts from idolatry felt the 
inspiring principles of the new religion which they l|ad 
chosen sufficient to renew their strength, from time to time, 
and enable them to persevere till the last beam was laid, and 
a temple to God raised, by the first hands which had ever 
been lifted up to him in prayer within the borders of the 
island. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Areoifl, or Vagabonds — Custom of Dispatching Infirm Persons — ^Method 
of Negotiatixiff respecting Peace or War — ^Fantastic Superstitions — 
Marriages of Chiefs in former Times— Conversation-meeting — Messrs. 
Ellis and Tyerman return to Huahine— Candidates for Baptism — Na- 
tive Numeration — Baptism administered — Indigenous Disease^ — 
Animals, aboriginal and naturalized. 

Feb. 2. We shall here put down a few circumstances 
which we have lately learned concerning the Areois, the 
legion-fiends of these voluptuous haunts of Belial. They 
were one confi'atemity throughout both the windward and 
the leeward group, though each island had its native band ; 
but, being a vagabond race, they roved fi-om one to another, 
at home every where, and every where welcomed on account ^ 



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AREOld, OR VAGABONDS. 

of the merriment which they carried with them, or obsequi- 
ously reverenced for the terror which they inspired when 
they bad occasion to extort property from those who durst 
not withhold it, whether they sued, or whether they threats 
ened. They consisted generally of the cleverest and hand- 
somest of the people of both sexes, though the proportion of 
men to women was as five to one. On their lewdness we 
shall not dwell ; their habits of this kind have been made 
notorious (even beyond the truth) by former writers. When 
a company of these " chartered libertines " landed, after one 
of their brief voyages, upon a shore where they meant to 
make some stay, their first business was to take a small suck*- 
ing-pig and present it at the marae, as a thank-offering to 
the god fbr having brought them in safety to that place. 
This, we understand, was the only sacrifice ever offered in 
token of gratitude to their imaginary divinities by any of the 
South-sea islanders ; all other gift;s which they brought to 
the altars were to turn away wrath, or bribe their malignant 
deities to be propitious to them in. war, or on other important 
enterprises — not acknowledgments of mercies or favors be- 
stowed. But the sacrifice of the sucking-pig by the Areois 
had a further meanii% than to express gratitude, which they 
probably never felt ; it signified to the people among whom 
they had come that they wanted food. This rite, therefore, 
was followed by a feeding (as it was called), when fifty or 
sixty hogs, perhaps, and fruit in proportion, were presented 
to thein, together with rolls of cloth, and every necessary for 
their personal accommodation. This '' feeding " was not all 
consumed at once, nor upon the spot, but portions of it were 
set apart, and sent to their brethren in other islands by early 
canoes. Thus when they alighted, like a swarm of locusts, 
in a rich district, they were not, like locusts, contented with 
wh\t they could devour themselves, but swept away from the 
miserable inhabitants whatever they could obtain, for the 
support of those of their order who were wallowing at their 
ease on dunghills of sloth, while these were laboring abroad 
in their vocation. That vocation was principally the exhibi- 
tion of licentious dances, and occasionally dramatic scenes, 
rudely constructed, or the recital of romantic and diverting 
tales concerning their ancestors and the go(is. Itf any of 
these were very long, and regularly composed, so as to be 
repeated verbatim, or with such illustrations only as the wit 
or fancy of the narrator might have the skill to introduce. 



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240 CUSTOM OP DISPATCHING INFIRM PERSONS. 

Their' captain, on public occasions, was placed cross-legged 
on a stool seven feet high, with a fan m his hand, in the 
midst of the circle of laughing or admiring auditors, whom 
he delighted with his drollery, or transported with his gri- 
maces, being, in fact, the merry-andrew of the corps, who, Uke 
a wise fool, well knew how to turn his folly to the best 
account. 

The Areois were countenanced, not by the vulgar only, but 
by the kings and chiefs, who indulged them in al^l their licen- 
tious practices, and probably found them very convenient 
tools for the furtherance of their own purposes of frkud and 
oppression. Avaihng themselves of ihe influence which they 
thus possessed, these reprobates were guilty of the most cruel 
exactions wherever they went. One of them, for example, 
would enter the house of a poor man, and by certain cere- 
monies pretend to make his little- boy, playing on the floor, 
a king; then, with mock homage, he would say, ''I am 
come to the king's house ; I want food, give me that pig; I 
want apparel, give me that piece of cloth." And the father 
of the new-made king seldom had the hardihood to refuse 
the boon so flatteringly demanded. If he did refuse, his- 
visitor would threaten him with banismnent or death ; and 
such threats were not to be despised. 

One of the monstrous practices of these islanders, before 
they embraced the gospel, was to bury their friends alive, 
when, from their infirmities, they became burthensome to the 
young and the vigorous. They would dig a hole in the sand 
on the sea-beach, then, under pretence of taking their aged or 
sick relative to bathe, they would bear him on a litter to the 
spot, and tumble him into the grave which had been prepar- 
ed, instantly heaping stones and earth upon him, and tram- 
pling the whole down with their feet, till whether they lefl 
him dead or alive was of little moment, ais it was impo^ible 
for him to rise again. In other cases the unnatural kindred 
would rush into the invalid's house at once, from opposite 
ends, and make their spears meet in his body. • Then they 
would coolly share the spoil of his little property, and depart 
without any other reflection except that they had rid them- 
selves of a nuisance, and, perhaps, gained a paltry article of 
dress oj furniture as the price of blood. 

The following method was sometimes adopted in negoti- 
ating peace between two belligerent parties. The prin<^ipal 
warriors of each met by appointment at a particular place, 



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MEtHOO OF NEiGOTIATiNO PEACE* 241 

fetanding aloof at a short distance from one another. An 
orator then sfepped forth firom the ranks on one side, and 
addressed the adverse chiefs, proposing terms of reconcilia- 
tion. When he had done, he threw a piece of coral among 
them. IC the terms were approved, assent was declared ; if 
not, the coral was flung back. In that case a second, and 
sometimes a third or fourth, of the party disposed for concili- 
ation, came forward, offering better and better conditions, 
till they were either wholly accepted or rejected. In the 
latter event, of course, hostilities were immediately renewed ; 
bat in the former, those who had just before been mortal ene- 
mies fiew-into each other's arms, and celebrated the end of 
strife by a feast of friendship. Peace was occasionally sought 
in another manner. The deputies empowered to make pro- 
posals embarked in the handsomest canoe belonging to their 
friends, taking with them the stem of a mountain-plantain, 
and a piece of very fine cloth, about eighteen inches square, 
on which was laid a wreath of sweet-scented fern, garnished 
with a few red feathers. With these pacific emblems, and a 
priest at their head, they paddled towards the shore of the 
enemy's district. When they had arrived at a convenient^ 
station, the priest rose up in the canoe, and addressed the 
representatives of the other party, who were standing on the 
beach, telling them who he himself was, who was his god, 
who they were from whom he came, and what kind of offers 
he had to make to them. If these were not favorably receiv- 
ed, the priest and his friends were answered by a volley of 
stones from the shore, and compelled to sheer off as hastily 
as might be. Otherwise they were invited to land, when the 
terms were immediately ratified. A large hog was then 
brought, and made to stand upright, while some men of both 
parties, with two strong sticks, one placed upon the neck and 
the other against the throat, strangled the poor animal by 
main force in pressing them together. They then stabbed 
it, caught the blood in a vessel, and sprinkled the carcass 
with it all over, from head to tail ; afler which it was carried 
to the marae and offered to Oro, or Tani, or whatever idol 
might be worshipped there. The negotiators on each side 
afterwards took the cloth, in turn, and said to the others, 
" If you tear this cloth (that is, if you violate this treaty) youi 
shall bear the blame, and we will tear you to pieces." Words 
to the same purport were uttered alternately by " the high 
contracting parties " over the garland, the feathers' and the 
VOL. I. 21 • , 



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242 THE DESTINY OF* KINGS AFTEB DEATH. 

plantain-Stem, signifying that those who were cttilty of bad 
faith should be scattered like the former, And broken like the 
latter, by those whom they now deceived and hereafter 
assailed. 

We have already mentioned a few of the many incoherent 
.notions which these people entertained regarding a future 
state. With respect to this, whatever hopes of a sensual 
paradise the Areois might cherish, the views of the multitude 
were gloomy and terrifying. They called the hades to which 
the departed went by the same name as night, Po. They 
knew not where or what it was, but imagined that the gods 
resided there, and preyed upon the dead, who, after being 
made their food, by a singular metamorphosis, became spirit- 
ual and immortal, in some sense which our informant could 
not comprehend, and therefore could not explain to us. The 
destiny of their kings in the world to come was little flatter- 
ing to their pride and supremacy on earth. They believed 
that each of these illustrious personages was converted, after 
death, into a very useful piece of furniture common in native 
houses here, and consequently not less necessary in the pal- 
aces of the gods, called yo^oma; which something resembles 
the pedestal and pegs, in English passages and entrance- 
halls, on which hats and great-coats are hung. Here it is 
the branch of a tree, with the lateral forks cut short, on 
which baskets, bonnets, and other utensils or portions of 
dress are hung, fixed upright in the middle of dwellings, for 
the convenience of all the occupants. To escape this degra- 
dation, and to be numbered among the gods, those sovereigns 
who were rich enough made. friends of the priests by the 
most costiy presents. When in danger of death, a king who 
had been great and powerful in this life, and wished to be so 
in the next, sent four or five of the largest and fattest hogs, 
and as many of the best canoes, that he could procure, with 
any rare and valuable European article which he might hap- 
pen to possess, to the priests. These loyal and grateful 
subjects, in return, put up daily prayer in his behalf, at the 
maraes, till his decease ; after which his body was brought 
to one of these sacred places, and kept in an upright attitude 
for several days and nights, during which yet larger gifts 
were sent by his relatives, and the most expensive sacrifices 
offered to the idols, of which the priests, as their proxies, 
were the principal recipients. The putrid carcass was then 
taken away, and placed in a canoe, which was rowed out on 



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NATURE OP SACRIFICES. ^ 243 

the lagoon, as far as an opening in the reef, and thence 
brought back again ; the farce of fanatical prayers and lugu- 
brious ceremonies being performed by the priests, over the 
corpse, on the water as well as on land. The royal remains 
were at length laid out to rot in state upon one of the plat- 
forms already described as the usual depositories of " the 
mighty dead." 

Many of the sacrifices which were formerly offered by these 
Gren tiles were, in their design at least, expiatory. When a 
subject had offended the king, and dreaded his vengeance, 
he fled into the mountains, or crossed to another shore, and 
did not dare to approach the sovereign till his wrath had 
been allayed by a peace-offering. This was generally done by 
some prudent relative, who watched the opportunity to take 
a good fat hog to his majesty, and say, — '' Let this pig recon- 
cile you to such an one." According as that present was 
accepted or refused the culprit judged of his safety or peril 
if he appeared again in the presence of the king. When 
swine, fowls, fruits, and human victims were taken to the 
altars of their mercenary and vindictive divinities, it was 
frequently in atonement for some crime committed, or in an- 
ticipation of one meditated by the devout worshippers. A 
woman, intending to effect abortion during pregnancy (which 
'was atrociously common), or to murder her offspring as soon 
as it should be bom, presented herself, if possible, a day 
before the time, at the marae, with a rou maire — a sprig of 
sweet-scented fern — in her hand, which she threw down 
upon the sacred stones, saying, " I intend to give you a man 
to-morrow; do not be angry with me." 

!y[arriages among the higher orders were oflen contracted 
in the following manner. A person who had a beautiful 
daughter brought her, while yet a child, to a chief, saying, 
with the utmost frankness, " Here is a wife for you !" If the 
great man liked the girl's appearance, he took her off her 
father's hands, and placed her with some trusty dependant, to 
be trained and fattened, like a calf for the slaughter, till she 
had attained a suitable age. When her master chose to 
take her for his wife, the betrothed and their friends met at 
the marae. The girl appeared there with a cord about her 
neck, supported by one of her nearest kin, and accompanied 
by a man holding some leaves of sweet-smelling fern in each 
of his hands, which he pressed on either side of his head, 
above the ears. When the procession reached the altar, these 



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244 OFFICES OF THE PRIESTS IN WAR. 

leaves were cast upon the ground. The priest, having mut- 
tered his prayers, took up one of the sprigs of fern, and, while 
each of the dead ancestors of the bride (so far back as they 
were remembered) was named, he doubled down or tore off 
one of the side leaflets. Then, while the names of her living 
relatives were mentioned in due order, one of the remaining 
leaflets was successively pointed out as the number of each. 
When that which represented the nearest in blood of those 
who were at hand occurred, that kinsman stepped forth, 
loosed the rope from the bride's neck, and delivered her to 
her husband. The friends on both sides then presented the 
couple with hogs, bundles of cloth, wooden dishes, canoes, 
&c., &c., according to their rank and ability. In less time 
than the honeymoon requires to fill and empty her horn, the 
chief probably grew weary of his spouse, and said to her, 
Atira (it is enough), haere e jo (go away). The woman 
was then abandoned, and what often became of her may 
be easily guessed. In this manner the great people took and 
put away as many wives as they pleased, or could get. 

The priests of these islands were not confined to the ex- 
ercise of their devotional functions ; they were also warriors 
and statesmen, who acccompanied their kings both at the 
council-board and in the field — by sea as well as by land. 
On the water the priests carried their idol in a separate 
canoe; in which the image was sometimes placed on a high 
stool, sometimes laid down when immediate danger was 
apprehended, and sometimes held up in the hands of his 
bearer, during a battle. This sacred* canoe always led the 
van of the rest, and the priests were accustomed to fight to 
the most desperate extremity in defence of their paUadium, 
for while this was uncaptured the conflict might be maintained, 
but as soon as it was lost, the party to which it belonged 
would fight no more. The moment the god fell into the ad- 
versary's hands, his divinity forsook him, and so did his 
adherents. Panic-struck, they fled in all directions. 

The superstition of these islanders was indeed interwoven 
with every thing that was done by them, whether national 
and on a large scale, or personal and domestic ; fi'om affairs 
the most important, to those that were least significant 
Before -a Tahitian would put off in his canoe from the beach, 
to go a fishing, he made a point to pray to his god for suc- 
cess. Was this the case with an ignorant, degraded, idola- 
trous race of barbarians, whose religion was as base ^s their 



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A CONVERSATION-MEETING. 345 

deities were impotent? What excuse, then, will those offer, 
, for their uniform disregard of God in all their ways, who 
profess the only true religion in the world, and yet exclude 
that religion from every thmg they do ? 

Feb. 5. The last three days have been so tempestuous 
that we could do little more than hold our meetings, religious 
and social, within doors, and collect such points of informa- 
tion concerning the former practices of these people as we 
have recorded under the foregoing date. Yesterday evening 
about fifly natives came into Mr. Orsmond's house to hold 
a free conversation with us. Many exceedingly curious 
(and some very subtle) questions were asked, which showed 
comprehensive thought, acute reasoning, and fine moral 
feeling, to be no uncommon qualities of mind here, little as 
the higher intellectual powers have iiitherto been brought 
into exercise. As to original capacity, we cannot doubt that 
the reclaimed savages, who are receiving instruction of every 
kind as little children, need not be ashamed to measure their 
standard with that of the bulk of mankind in civilized 
countries; We have often been astonished when we have 
visited their schools, and been assured — as in this isla^nd — 
that not more than three or four persons knew so much as 
the letters of the alphabet eleven months ago^we say we 
have been astonished to find scores, both among adults and 
children, who can now read the New Testament with fluency 
and correctness; while the progress of intelligence 4teeps 
pace with the acquisitions of memory. At the conversation- 
meeting, yesterday evening, a man, who was sitting among 
the rest upon the floor, suddenly cried out, in great agitation 
of spirit, " What shall I do? I have continually before my 
eyes the likenesses of my children whom I killed in their in- 
fancy when I was a heathen. Wherever I go they meet me ; 
and I seem to see them as plainly as I did when I took them 
from my wife's arms, immediately after they were born^ and 
destroyed them. I know not what to do!" Suitable re- 
pentance, and fruits meet for repentance in his future con- 
duct, were, of course, earnestly -and* faithfully recommended 
to the self-accused and self^ndemn^d sinner. He had been 
the murderer of four of his offspring, but was happily himself 
rescued from the service of him '' who was a murdei^er from 
the beginning " in time to prevent him from laying violent 
bands on four more who have since been born to him, and 
31* 



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346 RECENT CHANGE IN THE^NATIVl LANGt A0l£. 

whom, we trust, he is now endeavoring to train np in th6 
gervice of HiqEi who came *' not to destroy men's lives, hat 
to save them." This afternoon, the weather being more 
&vorable, we (Mr. Tyerman and Mr. Elllis) returned to 
Raiatea. 

Feb. 6. The morning being fine, we embarked again in our 
bdat for Huahine, but were obliged to put back before noon. 
Our conveTsati(Hi, while at sea, turned upon the language of 
these islanders. On inquiring whether the change from 
paganism to Christianity had been favoraUe to its improve- 
ment or otherwise, we were informed that, hitherto, it had 
made little difference, except in the vocabulary, by rendering 
obsolete many obscene terms which formerly were much 
employed, and naturalizing some words, such as Himeni, a 
Hymn, Sabati, the SabbaS, and scriptural names, as Jeho- 
va, and Jesus Christ, d^c, necessdry for Christian wordiip. 
The language^ expurgated of the abominations above men- 
tioned (which were necessarily associated with the worst 
possible taste), is becoming more delicate and refined, both 
in pronunciation and rhythm, in proportion as purer, nobler^ 
and more graceful modes of thinking and speaking have 
naturally resulted 'from familiarity with worthier subjects for 
thought and speech, among the natives. The violent ha- 
rangues to which war and danger formerly gave birth, and 
the bitter invectives which were wont to be uttered in the 
quarrels, jeafousies, and recriminations of private life, are 
now — ^the former never, and the latter rarely, heard ; yet the 
Tahitian tongue lacks neither nerve nor copiousness ; nor 
are opportunities wanting to display all its excellencies on 
glorious themes and great occasions — as in courts of justice, 
national and religious assemblies, but especially on mission- 
ary anniversaries. And (which might hardly be expected) 
there is as much diversity of talent, among the untaught 
orators of these little islands of the west, as may be found 
among the leaders of the British sena^ie ; we make no invidi- 
ous or absurd comparisons as to quantity. Their i^)eeches, 
whether ai'gumentative or declamatory, are seldom long. 
They feel much annoyed by a tedious talker, and when such 
a one gets up, th^y will say to each other, " Now yre must 
look about for our patience." Though very careful not k> 
wound^ in public debate, the personal feelings of those to 
whom they are.(q>po8ed, they can be sufficienUy sarcastic in 



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RETITBN TO HI7AHINE. 347 

tonv^rsation. If asked, '' Did you not like such a speaker V 
" Oh, yes !" " And did you not like such a speech f*^ " Yes, 
to be sure ; and we like the bleating of a billy-goat." 

Feb. 7. It was not till evening that we were aWe to put to 
sea again, in the hope of reaching Huahine by rowing hard 
all night— that island lying thirty miles distant, and the 
surge being still greatly agitated by the recent long-prevailing 
high winds. We were on board sixteen persons, Europeans 
and natives, exposed in an open boat, with little provision 
in case of need, and the probability, were a bard gale to 
come on (which the lowering aspect of the heavens portend- 
ed), of being driven we knew not whither on the limitless 
ocean. But, after a sufficient trial of faith and patience to 
make us feel ourselves wholly at the mercy of Him ** who 
layeth the beams of his chambers in the waters, who maketh 
the clouds his chariot, and walketh upon the wings of the 
wind," the moon arose, and the remainder of the night was 
serene above, and not uncomfortably turbulent below. At 
five o'clock in the morning we landed at Huahine ; a num- 
ber of the kind hearted people were standing on the shore, 
who welcomed our return with their joyful iaoraanas ; these 
we heartily re-echoed, and added our hallelujahs to the Lord, 
who, amidst the perils of the deep, had delivered us from all 
our fears. 

Feb. 8. At the afternoon meeting, in the chapel here, 
about fifty candidates for baptism underwent a final examina- 
tion, previous to their reception by that rite into the church of 
believers. Thirteen of these were young men and women, 
who, being above the age of childhood when their parents 
hafl taken upon themselves Christian vows, refused to follow 
their example then, but who are now to be baptized on their 
own voluntary confession. The candidates this day examined 
have been nearly three years under preparatory instruction, 
as well as on their . good behavior in the sight of all their 
countrymen ; and, having given satisfactory evidence both 
of their knowledge of gospeK-i^inciples and their conformity 
to gospel-precepts, are to be admitted into full fellowship with 
the people of God in this place. 

Feb. 9. Am(»ig the peculiarities of the Tahitian language 
is one which (so far as we are aware) has no parallel in any 
other. The numerals have what may be called the distinc- 
tion of tense ; the prefix A being the sign of the past and 



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248 NATIVE NUMEBATION. 

present, and E the sign of the present and future. SeTeral ^ 
Qf them also have two names. Thus : — 

Past and Present. Present and Future. 

Atahi One .... Etahi, or Hoa. 

Apiti, or Arua . . Two .... Epiti, or Erua. 

Atoru Three . . . Etoru. 

Amaha Fbur . . . Emaha. 

Apai, or Arima . Five .... Epai, or Erima. 
Aono, or Afene . Six .... Eono, or Efene. 

Ahitu Seven . . . Ehitu. 

Avau, or Avaru . Eight . . . Evau, or Evaru. 
Aiva Nine .... Eiva. 

Ahuru Ten .... Ehuru. 

• 

If a person, therefore, were asKed how many articles of a 
particular kind he had yesterday, how many he has t(hday, 
or how many he shall have to-morrow (or at any past or fu- 
ture time), he would use different words in answering the 
question. Thus : *'A ae huaa nahahi ?" '* How many hogs 
had you yesterday?" If he had six, he would say "Aono'* 
— meaning " I had six." , " But how many have you to-day 1" 
If the number were the same as yesterday, he would say 
" Aono " — ^meaning " I have six." " But how many shall you 
have to-morrow ?" He would then change the prefix from A 
to E, and say " Eono'' — meaning " I shall have six." Or 
in the three cases he might use the second terms §0f six, 
and say afene, or efene. When the numbers run above ,ten 
they compute upon the usual principles; eleven being ten 
and one, twelve ten and two, &c. When they come to 
twenty, they say two tens ; thirty, three tens^ &c. A hun- 
dred has a distinct appellation, rau. They afterwards pro- 
ceed by hundreds as previously by tens— one hundred, two 
hundred, 6lc,, till they reach a thousand, which is called 
mono. Again connecting the units in succession with the 
, mano, when they arrive at ten thousand they call that sum 
manotini. Then numbering manotims as they had done 
manos up to ten times ten thousand, they call a hundred 
thousand rehu.; and, counting upward on this, in like man- 
ner, to a million, they call that ^ti; beyond which they have 
no specific name for any specific number, though, by the 
use of ahurus, rau$, manos, manotinis, and rehus, they can 
multiply the thus (millions) to any amount expressible by hu- 
man terms. 



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BAPTISM ADMINISTERED. 249 

Feb. 10. (Lord's day.) Mr. Ellis preached in the fore- 
noon from the words — " Jesus answered him, If I wash thee 
not, thou h€U3t no part with me." — John xiii. 8. After this 
service the public baptism commenced, when nearly a hun- 
dred men, women, and children, were thus admitted into 
Christ's visible church. A hollow square having been made 
with benches at the lower end of the chapel, where there 
are no pews, the candidates took their seats, with their faces 
towards a table placed in the middle for the accommodation 
of the officiating ministers. Mr. Ellis, afler a brief address, 
proceeded to administer this sacramental ordinance to the 
adults, seated as they were upon the forms before him ; re- 
peating over each the words of the Institution : — 

" Bapatizo — [This is an engrafted word, there being no 

corresponding term in the native tongiie] 

te ioa no te Medua, eno te Tamaidi, e no te Varua Mcdtcd" 

" I baptize thee, , in the name of the Father, 

and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.'' 

When the adults had all received baptism, an infant be- 
longing to Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, and another belonging to Mr. 
and Mrs. Barff, were dedicated to God by the same rite — 
the symbol of regeneration, which Mr. Tyerman, at the 
request of the parents, administered. The children of the 
adult natives (on whom the ceremony had just been per- 
formed) — some in the arms, and some four or five years 
old — were then baptized by Mr. Barff; Others and mothers, 
sons and daughters, being thus brought into the '* communion 
of saints" on earth in the same hour ; the former first giving 
themselves " unto the Lord," and then entering into cove- 
nant for those little ones which the Lord had given to them, 
to bring them up in his nurture and admonition. The 
scene was affecting and solemn beyond any thing that we 
had yet witnessed, and the season was truly refreshing from 
the presence of the Most High. Mr. Barff preached in the 
afternoon from Deuteronomy xxvi. 16—18 : " This day tie 
Lord thy God hath commanded thee to do these statutes and 
judgments, 4*c. Thou hast avouched the Lord this day to 
be thy God, ^c. And the Lord hath avouched thee this day 
to he his peculiar people" S^c, 

Feb. 11. At the conversation-meeting, which was nu- 
merously attended, many texts were quoted, both by men 
and women, from various parts of scripture, that they might 
be particularly expounded by the missionaries. It is sur- 



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250 INDIGENOUS DISEASES. 

prising with what eagerness these new converts to the gospel 
seize and treasure up the precious words of grace which 
they catch from the lips of their teachers, when quoted from 
still untranslated hooks of the hible ; as well as with what 
diligence they commit to memory numerous chapters and 
whole gospels which have been rendered into their mother ' 
tongue. Some who cannot read themselves can repeat 
almost every text which they ever heard, and even large 
portions of the New Testament, which they have learned by 
hearkening to others, while these read aloud to little au- 
diences which they sometimes collect ii^ the open air, under 
a tree, or in their family circles. There are few, indeed, 
of those who regularly attend public worship who do not 
know by heart all the hymns that are usually sung there. 

We have made minutes, from time to time, of the diseases 
which are most frequent in these islands. The following 
are the principal : — 

Hotiti, pulmonary consumption, which carries off, on an 
average, three of every hundred that die. 

I^efe, a species of elephantiasis, causing hideous enlarge- 
ments of the arms and legs. About four in a hundred are 
affected by it here ; though in Borabora, among a thousand 
inhabitants, there is only one invalid of this class. Un- 
wholesome food, or too much food, heat, damp, ill-construct- 
ed dwellings, want of cleanliness, and indolent habits, 
induce this deforming complaint, which will, probably, be 
much more rare in future, frpm the exceedingly improved 
state of society. 

Hydrocele, another gigantic tumefaction of morbid parts 
of the body, too frightful for description ; which, it is to be 
hoped, purer and more temperate modes of Iwing will like- 
wise subdue. One in a hundred is more or less afflicted in 
this way. 

Monumonu, or the throbbing — ^that is, the tooth-ache, is 
not common. The natives have the finest and most perfect 
teeth, perhaps, in the world. 

Tariaturi — a deaf ear ; and vavo^— dumbness. Both 
these terms are used to signify the condition of a person 
born deaf and dumb. There is but one case of it in Hua- 
hine, where there are two thousand inhabitants. 

Jfo^o^a*— Blindness. Of this, in the same population, 
there are three instances. 

Bupa, a shivering fit ; and aAu— a burning fitr-*arQ em^ 



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INDIOENOUS BZ&IEASEB, 251 

ployed to express the symptoms of intermittent fevers, which 
are frequent here, especially during the rainy season. They 
sometimes assume the form of ague. 

Matapoto, a spasmodic affection of the face. It discovers 
itself by a pain in the forehead, which, proceeding down- 
ward, successively affects the eye, the ear, and the neck ; 
this is followed by locked jaw, when the patient swoons 
outright, and, unless prompt relief be administered, speedily 
expires. The natives have a specific of some efficacy, which 
they immediately prepare, and force into the stomach by 
wrenching open the jaws. This malady, which is not un- 
common, is most rife after long dry weather. 

Tuabu — Hump-back. Two in a hundred have this un- 
sightly encumbrance. It is induced by a fever, which 
leaves a tumor on the vertebral column. Children from 
four .to five years of age are frequently thus afflicted. If 
the spine curves at a certain crisis of the complaint, the 
patient recovers ; if not, he dies. Men are generally more 
distorted in this manner than women. In many cases the 
hump on the back is remarkably angular, and the chest 
proportionately enlarged, while the thighs and legs are long 
and small ; yet the persons themselves are often very strong 
and active. 

Ofao, taviriy aati, and ohu — are names given to different 
symptoms of bowel-disorders, which, though often produced 
by the nature of their food, ar^ seldom fatal. 

JPerioi — signifies a cripple ; of these there are few. 

^t7aeAa^6-^means bandy-legged ; this deformity is also 
rare, though it is the universal practice to carry young 
children astride upon the hips. 

Tona, a relic of that loathsome disease which is the 
scourge of licentiousness, and which was very destructive in 
these islands after its introduction by European visitors. 
That plague is now extinct. The tona, which it left behind, 
afflicts the sufferer under its malignant effects with dreadful 
ulcers in different parts of the body. 

Tabu — Scrofula. The word tabu signifies a cut, or scar. 
Many deeply-indented and disfigured faces and necks bear 
testimony to the prevalence of this ravager of strength and 
poisoner of health. 

Oniho, a kind of small-pox, mild in its form, but leaving 
the skin pitted. It is infectious, attacks persons of all ages, 
and the same subject is liable to take it repeatedly. 



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ABORIGINAL ANIMALS. 

Aropoahu, a disease of the neck, resembling the goitres 
of Switzerland. We have seen a few prodigious instances 
of these glandular swellings. 

Feb. 13. Having some leisure, at present, we transcribe 
from our memoranda occasional information on general sub- 
jects. We shall here enumerate the few quadrupeds which 
are found on these islands. 

Buaa — ^the hog. We have formerly described the only 
native specimen which we have seen (ugly, stunted, and 
small), and mentioned also that the breed being now nearly 
extinct, the loss has been more than compensated to the 
people by the present race, which are a cross between the 
British and the former, with an intermixture of the Chinese, 
the first and the last having been introduced by captain 
Cook and other early circumnavigators who touched here. 
These gluttonous animals, having abundance of nutritious 
food, thrive amazingly, and soon become fat enough for the 
slaughter. We have seen some weighing twelve or thirteen 
score pounds. These swine are characterized by their deep 
flanks, flat bodies, and long tusks. Some of the boars, 
which run wild among the mountains, are very formidable 
if attacked and compelled to act on the defensive. When 
surrounded they will rush through the ring of their antago- 
nists, striking right and lefl, and with a single well-directed 
blow of their sharp tusks rip the flesh of a man's leg from 
the bottom to the top, or even gore him in the body till the 
bowels drop out through the wound. 

Uri — the dog. Commodore Wallis and captain Cook 
found dogs here. They had long bodies and short legs, like 
our terriers ; but that pure breed is no longer seen, a non- 
descript tribe having sprung up in their stead, from the in- 
troduction of *' mongrel, puppy, whelp, and hound, and curs 
of low degree," by foreign vessels. They are generally very 
ill-Iooking creatures, lean, feeble, and diseased, as might be 
expected from the wretched fare on which they feed — the 
refuse of their owners' tables. Yet hydrophobia is unknown. 
There is no remembrance of a mad dog having ever been 
seen here, notwithstanding the torrid climate. 

lore — ^the rat. The native rat is much smaller and of a 
lighter color than the English ; but the lore paaipa, the 
foreign rat, brought from ship-board, is large, and has aR the 
bad qualities of the worst European vermin. 

Moo — the lizard. Reptiles of this species are very nu- 



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ANIMALS NATURALIZED. 253 

'merous ; they are small, beautiful in coloring, and perfectly 
harmless. 

These four are the only quadrupeds that were aboriginal 
here. The following have been introduced. 

The horse, which the natives dklled horo Imaa fenua, — 
the hog* that runs over the ground, — ^when they first saw 
with what fleetness he could traverse the beach, on which 
he was landed, as a present to Pomare. There is but that 
one of the kind here, which *^ roams over the plain," at his 
ease, having never been used for riding ; yet he is perfectly 
gentle. 

The cow, buaatoro — ^This useful animal was brought hith- 
er by the missionaries, who have, here and at Eimeo, small 
but improving herds. They thrive well, breed early and 
fast, and give abundance of milk. The long grass, which 
they find every where, is excellent food for them, and they 
are subject to no particular diseases. Several have been 
killed, and the beef proved very good ; but they are yet too 
few and precious to be made every-day food. The natives 
are very much afraid of them. 

The sheep is called here buaa mamoe, — the inofiensive 
hog. There are half a dozen of these animals on the 
islands, brought hither by the missionaries, but they are 
lean, small, and ill-shapen. The climate is too hot, and 
they will probably never be kept to any advantage. The 
little tormenting burr, called piripiri, of which we have 
formerly spoken as .a vegetable pe^t here, sticks to the wool, 
and gradually forms a close mat about its body, which 
greatly annoys the poor sheep, and would hinder it from 
thriving freely were there no other obstruction. . 

The goat, — called here huaaniho, the hog with horns, — 
was introduced by some of the first ships, and lighted upon 
a soil and clime entirely suited to its wants and habits ; of 
course it breeds rapidly, and grows to a great size. As 
there is no occasion for woollen clothing here, and the flesh 
of the goat and her kid is as delicate and well-flavored as 
mutton and lamb in England, sheep may very well be dis- 
pensed with. The goats are exceedingly beautiful creatures, 
and on the lofty mountains they find green pastures, fi'esh 
air, and that freedom in which they delight. Their milk is 
richer than that of the cow. There are flocks, consisting 

* Buaa seems to be a generic name for a quadruped. 
VOL. I. ^ 



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254 A CHRISTIAN ENTERTAINMENT. 

of severa hundreds, on some of the islands. These are the 
property of the missionaries ; but the natives, who at first 
abhorred them on account of the new and offensive odor, 
to which their nostrils had not been accustomed, begin to 
manifest an inclination tb possess animals, in every other 
respect, so useful and desirable ; and the missionaries en- 
courage them in this, as in every other wish, that may lead 
them to improve their condition in life. Besides, to keep 
goats there is neither trouble nor expense required. They 
forage for themselves. 

The cat, — called here tore pii fare, the house-climbiiig 
rat ; because, when strange cats were brought from ships 
into the native dwellings, they naturally ran up the wooden 
walls, or bare poles, which support the roofs. Cats have 
now become domesticated. 

Feb. 14. We were, this day, invited to a public dinner, 
given by the principal chiefs of the island to the members 
of the Christian church here (as a token and pledge of 
union among all true believers), whatever were their rank 
or circumstances in civil society. It was truly a love-feast, 
to welcome the newly-baptized among the flock of Christ. 
The candidates for baptism also were invited to be par- 
takers of the general joy. It was held in' a spacious 
house, a hundred and sixty feet long by forty wide, belong- 
ing to a distinguished chief^ named Tiramano. This ban- 
queting-room was quite a native structure, in the old style — 
a long roof, resting upon two ranges of pillars, twenty-four on 
each side, and a row of nine loftier ones down the middle, to 
support the ridge-pole. At the upper end a table, covered 
/ with a white cloth, and furnished with knives and forks, also 
two convenient settees, with benches and stools, were placed 
for the accommodation of the royal family, the missionaries, 
and ourselves. The whole of the floor beside was occupied 
by the natives, sitting cross-legged, in companies, with the 
food before them, spread upon purau-leaves for platen. The 
inclosure in front of the house was occupied in a similar way, 
by a portion of the numerous guests. The sight was exceed- 
ingly impressive and delightful, for they were clean in their 
persons and apparel, pleasure beamed in every countenance, 
and all were of one heart and one mind, to be happy and to 
make happy, so far as they could. The entertainment, con- 
sisting of the usual provisions, was well laid out ; it was 
abundant, and all things were done decently and in order, 



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FORMER HEATHEN ENTERTAINMENTS. 255 

though more than a thousand persons shared in it. Many of 
the mothers had their young children with them ; yet not a 
cry was heard. Te man poti iti (the little inilk-drinkers, as 
infants are prettily called here,) behaved as well as their 
parents, and by their presence added interest and beauty to 
the scene. In addition to the native luxuries of baked hogs 
and fruits of every kind that were in season, boiled pork, 
boiled fowls, fruit pies, and puddings of various kinds, were 
served up, course, after course, at our table. There was 
such plenty for all the guests that, after heartily enjoying the 
good cheer, enough remained for the guests to take home 
with them, and renew the feast another day, in their family 
circles. The residue of our own messes (which were as 
large as Benjamin's when Joseph entertained his brethren) 
our servants took care of, as their customary perquisite. It 
is hardly necessary to say that, in such an assembly, when 
all the dishes had been placed, before any were touched, the 
blessing of God was asked upon the bounty of his Providence. 
After the meal, several of the chiefs, the missionaries, and 
ourselves, successively addressed the company on such topics 
as the occasion suggested. In conclusion, a hymn of praise 
was sung, and one of the chiefs returned thanks for this 
day's mercies, and offered up earnest supplication that good- 
ness and mercy might follow his country-people and their 
teachers, all the days of their lives. The people afterwards 
quietly dispersed, and in their peaceful dwellings presented 
their evening sacrifices at the family altar. 

Feasts were frequent in the times of ignorance, but they 
were only for the men; the women never being allowed, 
either publicly or privately, to sit down with their tyrants, or 
eat of the same food. Surfeiting, drunkenness, debauchery^ 
quarreling, and murder were the usual felicities and excesses 
on such occasions. Here there was no riot, no intoxication, 
no evil speaking, but in their place temperate refreshment, 
cheerful converse, and universal harmony. Yet it would be 
impossible to express the conflict of emotions, hardly recon- 
cilable, with which we looked round upon this great assem- 
bly, — remembering what they had been, and beholding what 
they were ; and reflecting that the mere wisdom of man, em- 
ployed to its utmost power, and with its utmost charity, 
through an equal number of years, by agents a hundred fold 
more gifted in worldly policy than the humble missionaries 
who h^d brought the gospel hither, could have done little 



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256 FORM OF ROYAL MESSAGES, 

towards transforming such a people from savage to civilized 
society, — ^nothing, in fact, compared with what has been 
done by " the foolishness of preaching." We could only re- 
solve the moral miracle before our eyes by the declaration of 
our Savior, "The things which are impossible with men 
are possible with God." We will not disturb the hallowed 
pleasure which we trust this brief account of a day in a 
thousand, in the Pacific isles, will communicate, however 
imperfectly, to those who may read it, by exhibiting in con- 
trast the characters of many that sat at meat with us there, 
in their heathen and in their Chrbtian states ; lest the hor- 
rOT which the former must awaken might convert the deep 
delight inspired by a contemplation of the latter, as exempli- 
fied at the late baptismal sacrament, and at the present inno- 
cent festival, into an undefinable feeling of doubt and fear, 
lest faith, and hq)e, and charity had mistaken the nature or 
the reality of the xhange—^the new birth, we must call it, 
and we will— of many of tbese children of the devil, now 
children of God. Those, however, who willingly doubt and 
fear in this manner, may question whether their faith, hope, 
and charity come up to the standard of scripture. Till it 
can be demonstrated, that " with God these things are im- 
possible," we must continue to believe, upon such evidence 
as hitherto has convinced us, that they are not possible only 
but realized among the Polynesian people. 

This feast was given by the voluntary contributions of 
many persons, and designed, as we were informed among 
other things, particularly to exprqss their happiness in having 
us (the deputation) among them. ' One of the ^akers 
said, in the fullness and simplicity of his heart, that he had 
been praying to the Lord not to let us go away, but keep us 
here as long as we lived. Feasts were formerly made in this 
manner by the taniau. The niau is a message of royal au- 
thority, issued sometimes to a single district, and sometimes 
throoghoot the whole island. The king's messenger, in 
such case, took one of the feaUter-like branches of the cocoa- 
nut tree upon his shoulder, or a bundle of the side leaves in 
his hand. Thus, charged with his dispatches, he went from 
chief to chief, putting into the hands of each a piece of cocoa- 
leaf, four or five inches in length, and delivering with it the 
royal commands. Each principal chief, in like manner, com- 
municated the message to those in rank below him, these to 
raatiras, they to their inferiors, and the latter to the people 



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TAROUARII. 257 

at large. By this simple process the whole island was put in 
motion in the course of a few hours, all classes promptly con- 
tributing their quota of provisions towards the great enter- 
tainment, or towards carrying into effect the sovereign's 
wishes, whatever they might be. Business done thus is 
called taviau, or by message. Whoever accepts the bit of 
cocoa-leaf offered by the messenger thereby signifies his com- 
pliance with the royal mandate. Whoever should refuse to 
accept it would run great risk of being banished to some re- 
mote island for his contumacy; disobedience, under such 
circumstances, being *' constructive treason.'' 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Two Vessels in the Offing — Tarouarii^Proiected Visit to the Marque- 
sas Islands — Anna, Mattatore, and their Wives, set apart as Nativf 
Missionaries tc the Marquesas — Birth of Tarouarii's Daughter — Two 
Brigs — Embarkation for the Marquesas — Amphibious Dexterity of 
the Islanders — Nocturnal Salubritv of the Sea^ Cockroaches — To- 
waihae Bay, Sandwich Islands — Motley Appearance of Natives. 

Feb. 16. Two vessels appeared in the offing, at day- 
break. They proved to be the Mermaid, sixty-one tons 
burthen, captain Kent, a small sloop, and the Prince Regent, 
captain Brown, n schooner. The latter, seventy tons bur- 
then, had been built at Port Jackson, was a neat copper- 
bottomed bark, carrying six guns, and was now on its way 
as a present from the king of England to the sovereign of 
the Sandwich Islands, under the convoy of captain Kent. 
In the course of the afternoon we went on board, and were 
very politely received by the captains of both vessels. 

Feb. 17. We accompanied Mr. Ellis on a visit to Ta- 
rouarii, king Mahine's daughter-in-law, who expects soon to 
be the mother of a posthumous child, which, if spared to 
live, will be the future sovereign of Huahine ; its deceased 
father having beon heir-presumptive to the reigning queen. 
We were surprised to find this great lady, on whom the 
hopes of the nation are placed, in a small shed, about seven 
feet square, separated from a larger dwelling, for her special 
convenience on the august occasion of giving birth to a 
prince. She was reposing upon grass spread over the floor, 
and there was no other furniture in the apartment but a lamp 
22* 



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358 / PROJECTED VISIT TO THE MARQUESAS. 

made of a cocoa-nut shell, glimmering with its faint beams 
upon the ground, and on the posts and rafters which formed 
the walls and roof, presenting to the eye their deep intersect- 
ing shadows^ strongly contrasted wiUi the flickering lines 
and spots of feeble light between. The queen of the island, 
Hautia, and Hautia Vahine, her father and mother, with 
another female, were her attendants. The shed stood within 
a few paces of the sea, and had been purposely chosen, ac- 
cording to the approved custom, for the benefit of free air, 
and to afford her an opportunity, as soon as she should be 
delivered, to plunge into the sea, and there sit in the water 
for half an hour. This strange, and we might deem perilous 
practice, to a woman in such delicate circumstances, is com- 
mon here ; and we are assured that, in most instances, it is 
the means of restoring strength and animation to the ex- 
hausted mother, who frequently goes about her ordinary 
household business an hour or two after she has come out of 
f he purifying flood. 

Feb. 21. During the last few days we have made an en- 
gagement with captain Kent to carry Mr. Ellis, ourselves, 
and some native teachers (whom it has been determined by 
the church here to send thitherj to the Marquesan Islands, 
about a thousand miles distant from these groups. The cap- 
tain promises to land our little missionary band of volunteers 
there, on his way to the Sandwich Islands, or, if he cannot 
beat so far to the windward now, to carry us with him to the 
latter, and leave those appointed to the former 6n his return 
to New South Wales. — This day was fixed for holding a 
full religious assembly, to set apart two natives willing and 
qualified to carry Christianity and civilization to the barba- 
rous Marquesans, who are represented as the most ferocious 
savages in these seas. About twelve hundred persons assem- 
bled in the great chapel. After a suitable hymn and prayer, 
Hautia, the regent, was called to the chair. Several short 
addresses were then delivered to the people, by the missiona- 
ries and the deputation, on the nature, importance, and diffi- 
culties, of the proposed engagement ; the labors, privations, 
and perils, to which those who undertook it would be exposed ; 
and the only reward to which they must look for such sacri- 
fices — ^the blessing of God upon themselves, and the work of 
their hands, in their benevolent endeavors to communicate 
the benefits of the gospel of peace to aliens and enemies per- 
ishing for lack of instruction. 



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AUNA AND AUNA VAHINE. 259 

Our late travelling companion, Auna, a principal chief, 
formerly a leader among the Areois, and a priest of Hiro, the 

fod of thieves, then stood up in the midst of the meeting. 
[is lofly stature and commanding presence, the sanctity of 
his regenerated character, and above all (so far as the eye 
was concerned), his countenance, beaming with benignity 
and intelligence, filled every bosom with emotions^ of awe, 
delight, and expectation. He looked round with an air of 
unaccustomed anxiety and embarrassment, and at first — ^per- 
haps for the first time in his life — hesitated in the utterance - 
of his sentiments on a public occasion. At length, with a 
noble modesty, he began, " Mea maitai teie — It is a good 
thing that some of us should go from Huahlne to carry the 
blessings of Christianity to those people who are yet lying in 
the same ignorance^ wickedness, and misery, as we ourselves 
were but a few years ago. It is our duty, then, to take to 
the Marquesas that (parau maitai note atua) good word of 
God which has be6n sent to us firom (Beretane) Britain by 
the hands of missionaries, and which has been made so great 
a blessing to us. I have, therefore (parau iti), a little 
speech to make to the meeting, which is this, — ^if I and ' 
my wife might be so favored as to be sent on this errand to 
the heathen at the Marquesas — ^but, perhaps, we are not 
worthy ; yet, if we could be thought suitable for this great 
and good work, both my wife and I would be very happy to 
be the bearers of the gospel to those wicked islanders.'' 

When he had thus spoken, he sat down, with the roost 
affecting humility waiting for the decision of the assembly. 
Hautia, the president, immediately rose, and said, ** Auna 
is the man to go !" Others exclaimed, " Auna is the man !" 
A chief then stood up, and observed, that he also had a little 
(^peech on the subject, which was, that Auna was not only 
the man to go, because he could himsdf both teach many 
things, and set the example of all he taught, but because 
Auna was ** a two-handed man ;" he had a good wife, Auna 
Vahine, who would help her husband in every pious work, 
and would also teach the women to read and to pray, to 
clothe themselves decently, to make their own dresses, plat 
straw bonnets, manage their families, and bring up their 
children in the right way. This being universally assented 
to, Auna and his wife were appointed — as it were by accla- 
mation, so greatly was the meeting moved — ^the first messen- 
gers from this church to their heathen neighbors ; neighbors, 



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260 HAUTIA AND HAUTIA VAHINE. 

in fact, though they dwelt a thousand miles. off, and neigh- 
bors in the language of the gospel, because they loved them 
as themselves. 

Another chief was then named, Mattatare, a pious, intel- 
ligent, and remarkably ingenious man in every kind of work 
to which he turned his hand. Several of the congregation 
successively stood up, and in their " little speeches," rewMn- 
mended him and his partner (for he also was '^ a two-handed 
man'') as suitable fellow-laborers with Anna and his wife. 
Mattatore, disclaiming with unaffected diffidence any superi- 
or qualifications for the honorable work, added, that if his 
partner and himself were deemed worthy to be intrusted with 
it, by the deputation from Beretane, the missionaries and 
their Christian country-people, they should be happy to un- 
dertake it. The whole congregation then looked towards 
Hautia, who, to the surprise of every one, remained silent, 
and appeared sad ; his noble countenance expressed much 
agitation of spirit, and he hesitated for ft "while to unburthen 
his mind in words. At length he rose, and, with an air of 
meekness and humility which gave inexpressible grace to 
the dignity of the high-born island-chief, he said, " I have a 
little speech, because a thought has grown up in my heart, 
and it has grown lip also in the heart of Hautia Vahine (his 
wifeV But, perhaps, it is not a good thought ; yet I must 
speak it ; and this is our thought. — If the missionaries, and 
the deputation, and the church of Huahine, think that I and 
my wife would be fit companions for Anna and his wife, to 
teach the good work of God to those idolatrous people who 
are as we were, and cause them to become as we are here, and 
in Tahiti, and Eimeo, and Raiatea, and Borabora, we should 
be rejoiced to go; but, perhaps, we are not worthy, and 
others may be much better suited for the blessed work ; yet 
we should love to go." 

This declaration from one who, as regent, was virtually 
king of the island, who held valuable hereditary possessions 
upon it, as well as received large contributions, to support 
his royal state, both from chiefs and people — who, besides 
his political and civil functions, filled a wide sphere of use- 
fulness in the church, as superintendent of schools, as patron 
and promoter of infant arts and thriving industry among his 
subjects, and who was himself an example of all that he 
recommended to others or required of them — this declara- 
tion produced a most extraordinary sensation throughout 



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SURPRISE AT HAUTIA's OFFER. 261 

the Whole assembly, but especially in our breasts — emotions 
never to be forgotten, nor ever to be recollected without 
, a renewal of the strange and overwhelming delight which 
we experienced on witnessing such a proof of the power of 
divine grace, in making the blind idolater, the stern warrior, 
the proud chief of a barbarous people, under the influence 
of a new and regenerating principle, willing to forsake all, 
deny himself, and take up his cross, that he might follow the 
Redeemer to regions of despair, where Christ was not named, 
and where. his disciples might expect both *' to know the 
fellowship of his sufferings and to be conformed unto his 
death." But, having already experienced " the power of his 
resurrection," ** none of these things moved" the voluntary 
candidates for a perilous service, ''neither counted they 
their lives dear unto them, so that they might finish their 
course with Joy, and the ministry which- they had received 
of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of GodJ* 
Of Hautia and his wife we could not but thus judge. As 
soon as we had a little recovered from our surprise, we rose, 
and thus addressed the royal pair : *' 6autia ! we have here- 
tofore been pleased, beyond our hopes, with every t]iing 
which we have seen of the happy effects of the gospel, in 
this island and others, since we arrived froiti England to visit 
you. Truly the Lord has caused his good word to grow up 
among you, and bearf ruit abundantly. But nothing which we 
have heard, or seen, or felt, has delighted us more than what 
you have done, and said, and made us to enjoy in our own 
souls, this day. It was a good thought that grew up in your 
own heart — ^it was a good thought that grew up in the heart 
of your wife, Hautia Vahine ; and we believe that it was, 
God himself who caused that thought to grow in each of 
you. But we also believe that it is his will that we should 
now say to you, as the prophet, in the name of the Lcn-d, 
said unto David (whose history and character you know) 
when he desired ' to build an house for the name (^ the 
Lord God of Israel ;' ' Th4m didst well that it was in thine 
heart ; neverthele^ thou shalt not build the house, but thy 
son shall build it.' We say, therefore, it is well that it was 
in your hearts to go to the Marquesan islands on this errand 
of mercy ; yet you must not go yourselves ; others must dp 
that good work. Hautia, God hath placed you here as 
king, in a station of the highest honor and most extensive 
usefulness. Here you have great influence, and that influ- 



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262 BIRTH OF TAROUARII'S DAUGHTER. 

ence you employ largely for his glory and for the benefit of 
your people. Here you are a nursing father, and Hautia 
Vahine is a nursing mother, to the church. Here you are 
a terror to evil doers and a praise to them that do well. In 
no other place could you do so much good, by authority, by 
precept, by persuasion, and by example, as you are necessarily 
doing here, in the exercise of that power and those talents with 
which you have been invested. We again say that we are 
glad that the thought did grow up in your heart; but we be- 
lieve that the Lord says to you, by us, — ^you must not go on 
this mission, for He hath need of you here. Other chiefe (as 
deputies from you and your subjects) may be as useful among 
the ferocious Marquesans as you could be — whereas, in Hua- 
hine,none can equal you in usefulness." Hautia, deeply affect- 
ed, replied : " Since you say so, perhaps it is the Lord's will 
that we should not go to the Marquesas, but stay in Huahine : 
perhaps we may serve him better her^. Be it so ; and yet I 
wish that it had fallen to me and my wife to go." 

Anna and Mattatore and their wives were then set apart to 
this new ministry in special prayer, by Mr. Ellis ; after which, 
while they yet remained kneeling at the table in the front 
of the pulpit, Mr. BarfT delivered to them a solemn charge, 
respecting their future duties among the heathen to whom 
they were thus ordained to preach the unsearchable riches 
of Christ. The whole service was concluded with singing 
and prayer ; and the people departed with hearts that burned 
within them, both with affection towards the friends with 
whom they were thus parting, and with humble thankfulness 
to God that they were permitted to give up those who were 
most deservedly dear to them tp his service, and to the 
heathen, to bring them to the knowledge of the truth. 

Feb. 23. This day Tarouarii, Mahine's widowed daugh- 
ter-in-law, became the mother of a posthumous child. To 
the disappointment of the families to which she was allied, 
the infant was a girl ; but, though a boy had been anxiously 
desired, both by chiefs and people, recognizing, as they now 
do, a divine superintending Providence, they soon soothed 
their minds into acquiescence, and are contented to believe 
that this will be for the best. Volleys of musketry were 
fired repeatedly in the course of the day, in honor of the 
birth of the princess, and in hope that she — their only hope 
in the direct line — may live to be the future queen of Hua- 
hine. The wife of one of the missionaries was sent for im- 



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EMBARKATION FOR THE MARQUESAS. 263 

mediately, to dress the babe in the English fashion, as it has 
been determined, on every occasion, to conform as nearly as 
possible to the manners and customs of the nation which has 
sent them spiritual fathers and instructors in righteousness. 

Captain Walker, of the Dragon brig, and captain Hunter, 
of the Macquarrie, both came into the harbor this morning. 
Here, then, for the first time since a European ship was 
seen in these waters, there are four vessels at anchor at the 
same time. Four hundred in a British port would not excite 
greater curiosity and admiration. We have just been told 
that captain Walker, with some of his crew, having landed 
on one of the multitude of little islands with which these 
latitudes are spotted, and having taken on shore with them 
a goat, the people, at once imagining it must be a god, fk)ck- 
ed round it to gratify their curiosity and show their venera- 
tion, no such animal having been ever seen there before. 
The goat, feeling itself incommoded by their handling and 
crowding, began to manifest its displeasure — butting at one 
child, knocking down another, and pursuing a third, so that 
the group were soon put to flight. Alarmed and enraged 
at this hostile conduct of the new god, the people appeared 
about to take vengeance on the strangers ; but, before they 
had wrought up their minds to make an attack, the captain 
and .some of his party, by a singular stratagem, contrived 
to amuse the enemy till they could safely venture to turn their 
backs upon them. Having some razors in their possession 
for traffic, they made signs that they would shave any of 
the people that wished to be so accommodated. This was 
eagerly accepted, and one man afler another offered his 
chin, which was quickly cleared of the stubble, the sailors 
gradually r^pkating, till, having reached the shore, they leap- 
ed into their boat, and rowed away. 

Feb. 25. *The last three days having been employed in 
making preparations for our voyage, and taking leave of our 
friends, English and native, here, we embarked with cap- 
tain Kent about noon. A breeze from the east quickly 
carried our little sloop, and its associate the schooner, out of 
Fare harbor. Before nightfall the heights of Huahine had 
vanished, and we were once more upon the broad ocean, com- 
mitting ourselves, in fervent and believing prayer, to His 
guidance " whom winds and seas obey." Our ship is little 
more than sixty tops burthen. Our company consists, of 
twelve persons, namely — the deputation (Messrs. Tyerman 



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204 AMPHIBIOUS DBXTERIT7 OF THE ISLANDERS. 

fttid Bennet), Mr. Ellis, Auna and Mattatore, and their 
wives, and our Tahitian attendants. Our provisions, both 
live stock and vegetables, occupy considerable room; so 
that, with the captain and crew, both deck and cabins arc 
well peopled and filled. 

Feb. 28. The wind having been very light, and some- 
what variable, our progress has not been rapid, but quite 
pleasant to the feelings of those pf us who have been accus- 
tomed to the motion of a ship. This day one of our finest 
store hogs fell overboard, not having yet got his " sea legs," 
We presume — a happy phrase to express the oscillating gait 
of persons accustomed to walk on deck with a motion cor- 
responding to the swing of the vessel. While the sailors 
were lowering a boat to recover the unfortunate animal, two 
of our Tahitian attendants leaped after it, and brought it close 
under the ship's side, where they fastened a rope round its 
body, by which it was presently hauled upon deck. The 
dexterity of these people in the water is surprising. Men, 
women, and children, can all swim and dive; indeed, in- 
fants are so early taught these necessary accomplishments of 
a half-amphibious life that they sometimes excel in thexo 
before they can walk. On a certain occasion, as our mis- 
sionary friends at Huahine, with their children, were crossing 
the upper part of the bay at Fare, their canoe was suddenly 
upset, when they and several helpl^s infants were plunged 
at once into deep water. The queen, a woman of vast bulk, 
being near at hand, and perceiving their danger, immediate- 
ly threw herself into the lagoon, swam to their assistance, 
and with her own hands saved the life of one of the party 
fh>m destruction. A female servant followed the children, 
caught them in her arms, and swam to shof^^with her res- 
cued treasures, which she delivered safely intone hands of 
their overjoyed parents, themselves just snatched from death 
by their wonted intrepidity, habituaJ presence of mind, and 
fearlessness of peril, in situations where the fear itself proba- 
bly constitutes the chief part of the danger. 

Nothing can exceed the salubrity of the atmosphere in 
these regions during the night-time. So soon as the sun 
goes dbwn, the temperature becomes agreeable and refiresh- 
ing. Elsewhere, between the tropics, heavy dews are wont 
to follow the oppressive heat of day, and render any expo- 
sure of the person to the night-breeze dangerous. Here 
there is no humidity that need be dreaded. We have been 



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A 'SHARK AND USM YOtJNG ONBS KILLED. 265 

W]peatedly, during pur insular circumnavigations, whole 
nights upon the water, in open boats, without experiencing 
either damp or chill, or observing any clamminess upon our 
clothing or the rigging of our scallop-shell vessels. Hence 
the islanders frequently sleep upon the ground, under ^he 
open sky, without fearing or feeling any inconvenience. 
On board of European ships, also, the sailors, in these seas, 
lie down to rest on the bai:e deck with the same impunity. * 
The most delicate constitution may luxuriate in breathing 
the pure, mild, midnight air of these voluptuous climes. 

March 7. (South lat. 7° 58'. West long. 153° 7".) 
We have been becalmed for the last two days. The dull- 
ness of the scene was interrupted, this morning, by the 
approach of a large shark to the vessel, sufficiently near, to 
its own cost, to be harpooned, and hauled on board. It 
measured eight feet four inches in length, and proved to be 
a female. When opened, eleven young ones, each two feet 
three inches long, were taken out of two wombs within her. 
She seemed to be near the time of regular parturition ; for, 
when separated from their dam, they floundered about the 
deck, with great strength and vivacity, for a considerable 
while. After the tnother-shark had been cut quite in sun- 
der, across the middle, and received several heavy blows 
from a large hatchet, wielded by a powerful man, she still 
writhed in her death-pangs, and opened and closed her jaws 
with spasmodic force — so frightfully tenacious . are these 
animals of life. The islanders say that immediately before 
the females bring forth their young, they are particularly 
skvage and voracious ; they are then, also, most daring in 
' their attacks, and most difficult to subdue, or to kill when 
resistance qn their part is vain. It wad horrible to look 
upon the massacre, on our deck, of such a parent and her 
numerous progeny, infuriated with pain, and burning with 
life, till the final spark became extinct in the last drop of 
blood that coagulated. 

March 11. (S. lat. 8* 4^. W. long. 148° 41'. Therm. 
83°.) We have made little progress. Variable winds, anJ 
rains occasionally, have exercised our patience; but it is not 
for us to choose our course at sea any more than *' it is in 
man that walketh to direct his steps.'' We saw several 
kiUers or threshers^ as they lire called, indifferently. These 
are a species of large ferocious fishes, which oflen attack 
the whales in these seas, by bounding out of the water and 

VOL. I. 23 



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266 A BOY FALl«S QV£RBOARD< 

lighting, like arrows, upon them ; when it is said that thef 
sometimes so torment as to destroy their enormous but 
utterly impotent victims ; — ^in what manner we cannot clearly 
learn, and may be permitted to doubt the fact. If the 
whales die under such assailants, it must be as much of 
fright as of the wounds which the latter can inflict on their 
thick- blubbered carcasses. 

March 14. The wind has lately been north-east, and we 
are, therefore, sailing in the direction of the Sandwich 
Islands, it being now improbable that we should reach the 
Marquesas. The nights are brilliant, not with moon and^ 
stars alone, but frequent fiery meteors, suddenly kindled 
as out of nothing, and as suddenly resolving again into 
nothing. We now see the constellation of the Great Bear, 
but as yet have been looking in vain for the polar star. 

March 15. A native New Holland boy — an orphan, 
whose father was drowned, and whose mother died while 
he was young, whom our captain has kindly taken into his 
service — fell overboard, this morning, unp6rceived by any 
body, till his cries, as he followed the ship, swimming with 
desperate but unequally-matched exertion, to overtake her, 
summoned all hands that could be employed to his assis- 
tance. Again, as in the case of the hog, while the boat was 
launching, our two Tahitian servants flung themselves into 
the sea, with a rope,. When they met the poor lad among 
the waves— resolutely buffeting them, but almost exhausted 
— tlie one. received him upon his back, and the other swim- 
ming beside, they thus brought him tO'the boat, which took 
up dl three, and they were soon safe on board. This youth, 
like his countrymen, goes almost entirely naked, and cannot 
be persuaded to encumber himself with clothes. His hair 
is brown, and the color of his skin like that of the Tahitians, 
but darker, probably from continual exposure to the elements. 
His escape was very remarkable. On inquiring, we learned 
that he fell overboard from the lee bow. He had, therefore, 
gone clean under the vessel, and* been borne up at the 
weather quarter, when first discovered. Had he come up 
astern, it is probable that he must have perished before he 
was missed, no one being there to be alarmed by his shrieks. 
He was washing himself, as was his custom, by drawing up 
buckets of searwater, and throwing them over his body, 
when he lost his balance, and fell headlong into the 



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LtnillNOtJS TRACKS IN THE SEA. 267 

March 16. Yesterday the sun was vertical, to-day we 
have passed him, and, after long witnessing his daily course 
through the north, again behold him, as in our native 
country, to the south of us. We have not been more than 
ten months absent from England, yet this is the fourth time 
that we have come under his vertical rafs. The sun, how- 
ever, has not been permitted " to smite us by day, nor the 
moon by night ;" the stars have not " fought against us in 
their courses;" "the bands of Orion " have not been loosed 
to destroy us by storms, nor have " the sweet influences of 
Pleiades " been bound, to withhold blessings, by land and by 
sea, from us. (S. lat. 0° 55' 36'^ W. long. 149° 46'). 
This track of ocean is remarkably full of the nocturnal 
spangles which we have noticed elsewhere. Millions of 
these efflorescences of flame, as they seem to 'the eye, 
pass the sides of the vessel every moment, and form in her 
wake a. train of brilliancy such as no comet, iii its periheli- 
um, ever drew " o'er half the heavens." Beautiful illumina- 
tions of the same kind, whatever be their nature, are fre- 
quently seen at a great depth in the clear water, which, in 
the night-time, becomes jet black. Often, through this dark 
but limpid medium, have we amused ourselves by tracking 
the routes of large fishes, such as porpoises or sharks, gleam- 
ing along in lines of light beneath the abjrss, itself invisible 
with gloom. These^ like coruscations of a sub-marine 
aurora, might sometimes be discovered at far distances, 
shooting and disappearing, slowly or suddenly, according to 
the courses of the sea-monsters, each of which, like the 
leviathan of scripture, ^*maketk a path to shine after him; 
one would think the deep to be hoary J^ Job xli. 32. 

March 17. The minutest circumstances relative to animal 
life, even in its lowest classes, are worthy of record. Last 
night, about ten o'clock, hundreds of cockroaches issued, 
at the same instant, from all their hiding-places in the cabin, 
and began to fly about. In. the course of a few minutes 
they all retired again, without assigning any reason (which 
we could understand) for their spontaneous and simultaneous 
irruption or retreat. Some on board said it was a sign of 
rain, but none fell in the night, nor is there yet any less 
ambiguous sign of such downfall in the sky. We crossed 
the line about two o'clock this morning, and find ourselves 
again in our own hemisphere, which, like every thing in 
any way associated with the subject, reminds us of home. 



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268 FIRST APPEARANCE OF HAWAII. 

March 20. (N. lat &" 40'. W. long. 149*» 14'.) At 
noon we had a strong squall, accompanied by heavy rain 
from the east. Since the evening when the cockroaches 
swarmed out of their holes in the cabin, to take ah airing by 
candle-light, and retired as unaccountably as they came, the 
weather has certainly changed from almost unbroken calm 
and drought to fits of wind and showers, with sluggish in- 
tervals, when air and ocean seem alike inert and impotent 
to speed our way. 

March 26. After a continuance of the same weather 
during the last five days (though with more freqitent gusts 
and showers), as we had previously experienced, last night 
the gale blew very hard, with almost constant rain, but our 
small bark suffered no damage. N. lat. 15° 43'. W. long. 
152^35'. 

March 28. At three o'clock, p. m., land appeared ri^ht 
ahead, that is, wearing west, distance about twenty leagues ; 
and, though clouds covered the highest mountains, the 
lower ranges, to a great extent, were distinctly visible. We 
could not doubt, from our observations, that this was one of 
the Sandwich Islatids, our north latitude being 19° 23', and 
west longitude 154° 5'. This was a joyful sight to ^1 on 
board. Towards evening we lost it again, the fog being 
considerable ; but the loom of land was, nevertheless, cognih 
zable by the thick dark clouds overhanging itv 

March 29. Having lain-to in the night, at break of day 
the land was clearly seen about fifleen miles off, though the y 
eminences were still shrouded in thick vapor. As we ap*^ 
proached, the coast seemed to be rock-bound, the. waves* 
dashing at the bottom of the cliffs. These might be a hun-' 
dred feet iir average height; while beyond them the land 
sloped gradually up to ten times that elevation, green, and 
occasionally studded with clumps of trees. This declivity 
was rent into ravines, opening towards the sea, and mani- 
festly furrowed by fierce cataracts in rainy seasons. When 
we had proceeded about ten miles along the coast, its char** 
acter changed into sterner magnificence, the cliffs rising 
to five hundred feet, and being more deeply indented with 
vast chasms, of which the black and almost perpendicular 
fi-onts were brilliantly enlivened with numerous cascades, 
rolling, as their course lay, over rocky beds, oblique or 
abrupt, in all the forms that water can assume rushing 
through steep or straitened channels. These falls are 



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JOHN ADAMS, OF HAWAII. 269 

called Papehii, and from their multitude it is said that the 
island itself takes its name, Owhyhee {Hawaii, according to 
the improved orthography) meaning the same thing. One 
of our Tahitian women being asked, while we were thus 
coasting, whether she could swim on shore, replied, " O 
yes ; why not? — ^very easily !" — ^though we were at least five 
miles from the land. . 

By the time that we had reached Towaihae bay, the wind 
fell, and we were perfectly becalmed. This bay forms the 
segment of a large circle, receding about a mile inward, but 
of much more considerable width, having three stately 
mountains at its head, whose bases come down to the sea. 
Along the ridge of one of these were several streaks of snow, 
though the height was not so great as to warrant the expec- 
tation of so rare a spectacle in these tropical regions. The 
soil upon their slopes, and round the bay, had a bare and 
sterile aspect, in comparison with the exuberant fertility of 
' the islands which we had lately lefl. On the southern side 
rose a dreary conical hill, utterly destitute of vegetation, 
pretty evidently the crater of an extinct or a reposing 
volcano. 

In the dusk of the evening, a personage of some impor- 
tance came off to us from the shore, in a boat of four oars, 
who called himself John Adams. He is a native of Hawaii, 
and said that he was governor of the island in the absence 
of the king. He was a very stout man, much resembling 
the superior chiefs of Tahiti (who are distinguished far 
above the commonalty by their ** limbs of giaijt mould"), 
but of a much swarthier complexion than they. Our visitor 
was dressed in European costume, with jacket and trowsers. 
He informed us that Rihoriho, the reigning king, resides at 
present on another island of the cluster, called Oahu (Woa- 
hoo, as formerly written), that he has five wives, and drinks 
an immoderate quantity of ardent spirits.* Various scraps^ 
of local intelligence this John Adams very freely communi- 
cated ; and as he speaks English (which he learnt from the 
American visitors and residents, though he can neither 
read nor write) sufficiently well for the purpose of gossiping 
conversation, we found no difficulty in talking with him. 
As he wished to go with us to Kearakekua bay, the captain 

* The reader must bear in mind, that this visit was made as long 
ago as the year 1822. Am. Editor. 
33» 



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870 VISITS FROM THB NATIVES. 

permitted him to remain o& board, and he sent back bis 
attendants with the boat. 

March 30. The wind having gone down, we were de- 
tained in the bay. Several canoes came from the shore, 
crowded with persons of both sexes, who manifested consid- 
erable curiosity at the sight of our two little vessels — though 
European and American ships of far greater burthen are no 
rarities here — but they brought us nothing either ibr presents 
or for sale. They are evidently in personal appearance of 
an inferior race to our Tahitians ; though probably hardier 
in their habits, and certainly more savage in their disposi- 
tions, not having yet experienced the transforming and soft- 
ening influence of that Christianity which has improved the 
inhabitants of the Society Isles almost as much to the eye as 
in the spirit of their mind. Most- of these visitors wore their 
fine curled hair long on the top of their heads, which had a 
graceful appearance. We scarcely observed one of them 
who had not lost three or. four front teeth, either in the 
upper or lower jaw, which much disfigured their mouths. 
John Adams says that, when a particular friend or near 
relative dies, they usually knock out a few of these, in token 
of their affection. He himself had lost two, which he had 
sacrificed to the memory of the late king Tameluimeha. 
Many came on board, very scantiiy attired, and very sloven- 
ly in their manners, but we perceived no disposition to steal, 
or commit any other kind of mischief. They came, and 
walked about, and went away again, as familiarly as if they 
belonged to the ship's crew. 

March 81. Being still becalmed here, John Adams's 
, boat brought us a fresh supply of cocoa-nuts, sugar-canes, 
and a calabash of water, from the shore. This present was 
very acceptable, and soon fiirnished employment for all on 
board. It was amusing to s^e with what reli^ our Tahiti- 
4ms, afber a month's abstinence (or rather penance on sea 
stores), enjoyed a meal of their own sweet food, though both 
the canes and t^e cocoas were inferior to those of theur 
native soil. The hogs^ the goats, the fowls, and the very 
dcig8> which had fiir^ indifferently enough on board, all 
came in for their share of the delicious repast. So many 
mouths, and so many kinds of appetite, were brought to 
bear upon the crude provisions, that while one ite one part, 
and another another, scarcely a fragment was left ; leaves 
and stalks, shells and husks, being greedily devoured by 



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FIRST LANDING ON HEATHEN GBOUBID. 271 

this or that class of guests/ at an entertainment where each 
might have said (in their own particular dialect) to any other 
of the ccnnpany, " Hail, fellow ! well met !" 

Being yet unable to proceed to our proposed harbor, we 
went on shore, and for the first time set foot on a heathen 
soil. The very thought went to our hearts and through 
them, exciting emotions which we shall not pretend to par- 
ticularize. Here, where the gospel as yet has done but lit- 
tle in its [^iritual effects, we were taught to estimate, more 
truly than we could even upon the spot, how much it has 
done in the Society I^nds. The contrast was powerAil, 
and it was saddening ; yet not without hope. We cannot 
better express the peculiai feelings which the state of the 
people whom we were now beholding awakened within us — 
in reference to what they had been heretofore, what they are 
now, and what we must believe they soon wiU be — than m 
the language of prophecy : — " It shall come to pass, in that 
day, that the light shall lH>t be clear nor dark : but it shatt 
be one day which shall be known to the Lord ; not day nor 
night ; but it shall come to pass, that at evening time it shall 
be light." — Zech. xiv. 6, 7. Thus in this region of the 
shadow of death, which the day-i^ring from on high is but 
beginning to visit, light verily seems to be struggling . 
with darkness, as it doe» in the figurative prediction just 
quoted, '* and the darkness comprehendeth it not;" but God 
hath commanded it to shine, and who shall forbid it, or ar- 
rest its progress ? Not all the powers of darkness. It may 
be long before it beam forth, but ** at evening time it ^all 
be light."* 

The natives flocked to the water-side when we landed ; 
c^iocillng, exulting, and rumriflg towards us firom all ipiartars. 
Ob the beach we were met by an old man baring in his 
h«iid a small white stick, newly peeled of the bark, with a 
green leaf stuck transversely at the top. This we ttx>k to b6 
eithar a wand of office or im emblem of peace. It was, 
probably, both, for the patriarch conducted 't» vcr^ cour- 
teously^ to the residence of the principal chief of the district 
This perfioBrage and his wife were sitting oa one side of the 
entraivos, and reieeived us in the most meudly mamier, bat 
without risinjg. The house consistefd of one very large aptrt- 

* These hopes have, happilj been since realized, to a considerable 



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272 MOTLEY APPEARANCE OF THE NATIVES. 

ment, having wide folding-doors at each end, but without 
windows. The floor was handsomely carpeted with mats. 
On these we seated ourselves ccoss-legged, according to the 
style of the country. Both the folding-doors were then 
thrown open, and the natives, young and old, unceremoni- 
ously rushed in, to gaze at the strangers. Every thing ap- 
peared disadvantageously different from what we had been 
accustomed to see in the Christianized islands. The women 
wore no covering except a slight cloth about their loins; 
while a peculiar kind of head-dress gave them a very odd 
appearance. The hair in front was left about two inches 
long, and made to stand upright by being daubed with a 
composition like mortar. One giri, in addition to this gro- 
tesque tou]2^e, had bound her long natural tresses into a pig- 
tail. The hair of our host was tied in a knot upon the 
crown of his head, and a corresponding knot was made of 
his beard under the chin. His consort's locks were not de- 
filed with dirty powder, like those of the other females ; but 
her legs, and various parts of her person, were superbly 
tatooed. The only ornament in the.house was a print, taken 
from Cook's voyages, of a man and woman of this island. 
A slight repast being set before us, which consisted of cocoa- 
nuts, a liquor prepared from ,the sugar-cane, tasting like ci- 
der, a pudding of some kind of farinaceous paste, and pieces 
of an insipid root, several feet long, and as thick as a man's 
leg, unknown to us, we took a litUe of each, and then walked 
out, accompanied by the chief himself, to the neighboring 
village. 

The inhal^itants presented a motley appearance, from the 
disgusting scantiness of their dress in most of them, and the 
preposterous fashion of it in others. One man, who had an 
English shirt on, gave us. to understand that he was a priest, 
and pointed to the adjacent marae, at which he offickted. 
This idolatrous temple was built upon a projection^ of lava; 
and large masses of the same substance lay scattered about 
the houses and the sea-ehore. On either side of the village, 
two vast rivers of lava, a quarter of a mile wide, reaching 
from the mountain heights to the water, and of prodigious 
thickness, showed the tracks of devastation which they had 
respectively followed, when, molten and burning, they had 
been cast forth from the adjacent crater, which reared its 
head amidst the bright and genial heaven, far above the 
green and fruitful earth, on which it had stamped the curse 



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KEARAKEKUA BAT. 273 

of everlasting sterility, ever since the igneous torrent had, 
from its mouth, rolled over the land. 

The houses were all built according to one uncouth mod- 
el, bearing very little resemblance to the Tahitian dwellings. 
They have no side walls, but are, in fact, mere thatched 
roofs, resting on the ground, and shaped like the top of a 
haystack in England. On the beach we found a company 
of nearly thirty persons sitting in a circle, with their faces 
inward, all apparently paying the most humble deference to 
a female who occupied the chief place, and who was not un- 
gracefully attired in a scarlet woollen under-dress, of Euro- 
pean manufacture, and an upper robe of fine native cloth. 
She wore, also, a curious necklace, composed of a great 
number of flat circular black beads, fastened upon a thick 
cord, which was tied behind ; a crooked ornament, made of 
the tooth of some enormous fish, being suspended in front. 
Over her bosom, also, was slung a smdl looking-glass, by a 
slip of brown list. Her demeanor was remarkably modest. 
We learned that she was the woman of highest rank in the 
village. 

March 31. We are just arrived in Kearakekua Bay, 
where captain Cook lost his life. It was like entering a 
British harbor; here being no less than eleven American 
whalers, from 300 to 350 tons burthen each. Numerous ca- 
noes immediately flocked round our anchorage, which is 
within a quarter of a mile of the beach. These came, not 
from idle curiosity, but to offer their merchandise and pro- 
visions, of various kinds, for sale. All the American cap- 
tains visited us, in the course of the day, with the most hos- 
pitable offers of any thing which we might want and their 
ships could supply. Many native women and girls having 
come on board, to see our Tahitian female friends, the latter, 
perceiving how much the Hawaiians were gratified with their 
personal attire, took the opportunity frankly to reprove them 
for appearing abroad with so little clothing on; assuring 
them that, in the southern islands, no modest woman durst 
go out of doors so unbexx)mingly exposed. They added, 
moreover, ^* and we will not acknowledge you to be women 
if you do not dress more decently." The dialects of both 
nations are so nearly akin that the natives can converse very 
well with one another." 



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